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Project Management Slide Show 2

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					Chapter 2 of PMBOK®

Project Life Cycle
 Projects may be divided into phases  This is done so that the project may be better managed  Also, this allows us to better align our project activities with the daily operations  An example Project Life Cycle is the Software Development

Life Cycle

 Idea Prototype  Design  Coding  Testing  Rollout

 The Project Life Cycle links the beginning phases to the

end  Feasibility may or may not be a part of the Project Life Cycle
 This decision is a responsibility of the management

A Word About Feasibility or other preliminary efforts
 Where the outcome of such a preliminary effort is not

clearly identifiable, it is best to treat such efforts as a separate project [PMBOK pg 19]

Transitions between Project Life Cycle Phases
 Transitions involve some sort of technical transfer or

handoff
 These are termed as ‘Deliverables’

 Deliverables must be reviewed for:  Completeness  Accuracy  And they must be approved before moving to the next phase
 

One may start work on the next phase without prior approval This is a methodology employed to expedite work the term used for this is “fast tracking” (A schedule compression technique)

Characteristics of a Project Life Cycle
Concept Planning Execution Close-Out

V a l u e

Uncertainty (Risk)

Influence of stakeholders

Time

Project Life Cycle Defines [PMBOK pg 20]
 What technical work to do in each phase?  When the deliverables are to be generated  Who is involved in each phase  How to control and approve each phase

Stakeholders include [PMBOK pg 24]
 Project Manager  Team members  And their families  Project Team  Those directly involved in the project  Customer / User  Performing organization, management, owners  Sponsor – champion  Influencers (+iv or –iv)  PMO  Internal/external, owners/funders, suppliers/contractors,

lobbyists, citizens/society, government

Stakeholders
 Are involved directly or indirectly with the project and

influence the project either positively or negatively

Organizational Influences
 There are five organizational types that appear on the

exam:
 Functional  Project Expeditor  Project Coordinator  Matrix  Projectized

 Each type is described in terms of the level of authority

of the project manager

Type of Matrix Organization
 Strong Matrix  Weak Matrix  Balanced Matrix  Tight Matrix  This is not a type of an organization – it simply implies that the project team is located in the same room

Exam Tips
 Always assume Matrix  Compare against Functional

Functional Mgr vs Project Mgr
 Functional Manager  Is a specialist. He follows as analytical approach and synthesized things

 Project Manager  Is a generalist. He has a systems approach and analyzes things.

Organizational Structure Influences on Projects [PMBOK pg 28]

Advantages & Disadvantages of Different Organizational Structures: Functional
Advantages Easier management of specialists Disadvantages People place more emphasis on this functional specialty

People report to only one supervisor

No career path in project management

MATRIX
Advantages Highly visible project objectives Improved PM control over resources Disadvantages Not cost effective because of extra administrative personnel More than one boss for project teams

More support from FM Max utilization of scarce resources
Better coordination Better horizontal and vertical dissemination of information than functional People maintain a “home”

More complex to monitor and control Tougher resource allocation problems
Extensive policies and procedures needed FM may have different priorities than PM Higher potential for duplication of efforts and conflict

Projectized
Advantages Efficient project organization Loyalty to the project More effective communication than functional Disadvantages No “home” when project is completed Lack of professionalism in disciplines Duplication of facilities and job functions

Less efficient use of resources

Role of PMO in Organizational Structures
 PMOs can:  Exist in any organizational structure  Functional can range from advisory to recommendations of policy/procedures to grant of authority from executive management

Project Management Processes [PMBOK pg 39 & 40]
 The integrative nature of the process groups is more complex than the      

“Plan-Do-Check-Act”, PDCA cycle, developed by Shewhart and modified by Deming Planning process group corresponds to the “plan” Executing corresponds to the “do” Monitoring & control corresponds to the “check & act” Since management of a project is a “temporary endeavor”, the initiating process starts the phase cycles of a project and the closing process ends them The monitoring and control group monitors & controls the work being done in the other processes, as well as the work in the entire project effort In projects having several phases, the M&C group provides feedback between phases so that action can be taken to bring each phase into compliance with the PM plan

PDCA

PDCA mapped to Process Groups

Difference between Process Groups and Project Phases or Project Life Cycle
 PMs divide projects into phases for better control and with

appropriate links to the ongoing operations. Such phases might be, Feasibility, Development, Testing and Production  As the interface between phases these must be a handoff of deliverables. There is also an opportunity to learn from the last phase and replan the next.
 This is called “rolling wave planning”

 There should be phase review of deliverables at the end of

each phase to see if objectives were met.
 Phase reviews are sometimes called:  Stage Gates, Phase Gates, Phase Exits, or Kill Points

 Phases can overlap, or be done in parallel with each

other, before deliverables from the prior phases have been reviewed.
 This is a schedule compression technique called  Fast tracking or Concurrent Engineering

 Process groups are NOT Project Phases
 Process groups are Initiating, Planning, Executing,

M&C, Closing  Phases are idea, feasibility, prototype, design, develop, testing, launch

Reasons for Undertaking a project
 Market demand  Organizational need-product line extension  Customer request  Technological advance

 Legal Mandate

OPM3
 PMI’s organizational Maturity Model  This model is designed to help organizations

determine their level of maturity in project management.  This is all that you need to know about OPM3


				
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