Figurative Language Notes by hcj

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									Literary Terms
           Types of Literature:
prose:
   • the ordinary form of spoken or
     written language Example: Hum,
   • writing that is notour personal
                          poetry
                         narrative essay
poetry: rhythmic, compressed language
  written to appeal to emotion and
  imagination Example: J

drama: a story written to be acted for an
  audience Example:
plot: the series of related events that
        make up a story
plot line:




             Resolution
            Elements of the Plot:

exposition: the beginning of the story that
  tells who the characters are and what the
  conflict is
  Example: “Seventh Grade” : Victor receives the packet
  with information, with the elective French. His crush
  Teresa is in French class.
                        Continued
             Elements of the Plot (Continued)

rising action: the part of the story in
     which various problems arise as the
     characters try to resolve the conflict. The
     tension of the story builds. Our textbook
     calls rising action complications.
     Example: RTT meets Nag/Nagiana, they fight, Nag dies


climax: the critical point in a story when
    the outcome is decided one way or
    another Example: RTT follows Nagiana down the hole
                                Continued
             Elements of the Plot (Continued)
falling action: events that follow the
     climax that contain action or dialogue
     needed to lead to the resolution. The
     tension decreases. Example:
resolution: the characters’ problems are
   solved and the story ends. The conflict is
   resolved.
  Example:
setting: the time and place the events of
      a work of literature take place
                       Example: in
                       “Hum” it takes
                       place is Texas,
                       during the first
                       part of school –
                       Aug/Sept
character: a person or animal who takes
   part in the action of a story, play, or
   other literary work
                 Example: In “Hum”, Sami
                 Saalsa, Tum Tum, Hugh
                 Mason
                       A couple of ways
                  to think about characters:

   protagonist: the main character in a work
         of literature. The author focuses the
      most
         1. “7 Grade”, Victor is the protagonist’s problems.
Example: attention on the main character, he has the most conflicts (crush)
             th

“Hum” 2. Sami faces conflicts of friendship, fitting in etc…



   antagonist: a person or thing that fights
      against the main character; the–AND the     bad
                         Example: “Hum” other students
                         bully/antagonize Sami
      character or force terrorist are other antagonists
 More ways to think about characters:

dynamic character: a character who
   changes as a result of the story’s events
  Example: “Hum” – Sami changed after 9-11 b/c then he had
  to work hard to create friendships (Dialogue Club, Hugh)

static character: a character who does
   not change much in the story
Example: “Hum” - Hugh, Tum Tum never
change from the beginning to the end of the story
conflict: a struggle or clash between
   opposing characters or forces
Example: “7th Grade” – Victor
had a crush on Teresa and
she didn’t know it
                     Types of Conflicts:
external conflict: a struggle with some
    outside force Example: “Hum” – Sami was bullied by
                    other students




                                       Person vs. society
             Person vs. person
                                 Example: Nag vs. garden animals
       Example: RTT vs. Nag




            Person vs. nature      Person vs. the supernatural
                       Types of Conflicts:

internal conflict: a struggle within a
    character’s mind. The character has a
    problem deciding what to do or think.
Example: “Hum” – the parents struggle after 9-11 b/c life in America is turning out
to be difficult
theme: the truth about life revealed in a
           work of literature
Example: “Hum” – Friendship is born out of acceptance


  • The theme is not the same as the subject
    of a story.
  • A theme must be written as a sentence.
  • A story can have more than one theme,
   but one will often stand out over another.
symbol: a person, place, thing, or event
 that has its own meaning and stands
      for something beyond itself

 Example: RTT’s
 red eyes = anger
flashback: an interruption in the action
    of a story to tell what happened
            at an earlier time
 Example: In RTT, we learn that he was only fed dead
 snakes, never actually fought any
 foreshadowing: using clues to suggest
events that will happen later in the plot
Example: 3SK – when we
learn about the 3 convicts
that previously died on the
island
 suspense: the uncertainty or anxiety you
feel about what will happen next in a story
Example:
Narrator
    The person telling the story
Example:



Point of view
     Position from which the story is told
or vantage point
 Example:
There are different types of Point of View…..

First person point of view
       One of the characters tells the story. The pronoun “I”
is used. You really get to know that one character well, but
then again you only know their side.
  Example: Personal Narrative and 3SK

 Third person omniscient point of view
         The all-knowing narrator tells the story. The narrator
 is not actually in the story, but sees it all…like a god.
  Example: RTT
 Third person limited point of view
        Narrator focuses on the thoughts/feelings of one
 character. You see the action through the eyes/feelings of
 one character in the story.
   Example: Personal
   Narrative, 7th Grade
Characterization
       The process of revealing the character through
description…how they feel, act, think, look like etc..

  Indirect characterization
         We find out about characters indirectly through
  thoughts, comments, or actions of the characters.
 Example: RTT, was brave for chasing
 Nagiania
  Direct characterization
         The narrator or a character in the story tells us
  what we need to know about a character.
    Example: Personal
    Narrative and Hum = Hugh
    was blind
Mood:
Overall emotion created by the passage (sad, scary,
hopeful etc.)
Ex) RTT: anxiety, anger
     3SK : suspenseful, creepy


Imagery
Using words that appeal to the senses
Ex) 3SK: wailing rats, pouring of rats
            Figurative language
There are two basic purposes for studying Figurative
  Language:
1.To help you recognize the greatness of a
  writer’s talent as you read

2.To teach you how to use those same skills to
  improve your writing.

Figurative language creates IMAGERY in your
  mind as you read!
Simile
comparison in which one thing is compared to another
unlike thing by using specific words of comparison like
like, as
EX) 3SK: the rats were hanging like fruit from a tree



Metaphor
Comparing two unlike things. Sometimes a
metaphor is a whole poem or paragraph.
EX) the weather was a warm blanket
Hyperbole
great exaggeration used to emphasize a point, and is
used for expressive or comic effect
EX) there were a million cobra eggs

Personification
speaking of something that is not human as if it had
human abilities and human reactions
EX) the sun was smiling

Dialect
Way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular
region/group of people
Ex) southern twang
Alliteration
repetition of a single letter in the alphabet
EX) The Kindness Campaign kicked off on Monday.



Hyperbole
great exaggeration used to emphasize a point, and is
used for expressive or comic effect
EX) I have told you a million times!!!
Onomatopoeia
Single word that sounds like the thing it refers to
EX) The crackling crunch of the paper. The hiss
of the snake. Bang. Boom. Achoo.


Idiom
Groups of words whose meaning is different from
the ordinary meaning of the words.
EX) That sound drives me up a wall.
6. genre: a category of art with a
    distinctive style or form
irony: a contrast between
  expectation and reality
motivation: any force that drives or
  moves a character to behave a particular
  way. What does the character want or
  need?
 Physical needs: air, food, water, sleep, shelter

 Safety needs: personal safety, safety of significant others, living in a safe
    environment, ability to get need resources—could include employment

 Love/Belonging: friendship, family relationships, romantic relationship

 Esteem: self-respect, confidence, achievement, recognition, respect of
    others, respect for others

 Self-actualization: creativity, pursuit of one’s potential, self-acceptance

								
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