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Ethics in Marketing Research


									Comparative Scaling
             Some Key Concepts
• Measurement
  – Assigning numbers or other symbols to characteristics
    of objects being measured, according to
    predetermined rules.
• Concept (or Construct)
  – A generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes,
    occurrences, or processes.
     • Relatively concrete constructs
        – Age, gender, number of children, education, income
     • Relatively abstract constructs
        – Brand loyalty, personality, channel power, satisfaction
            Some Key Concepts
• Scaling
  – The generation of a continuum upon which measured
    objects are located.
• Scale
  – A quantifying measure – a combination of items that
    is progressively arranged according to value or
  – Purpose is to quantitatively represent an item’s,
    person’s, or event’s place in the scaling continuum.
Primary Scales of Measurement


 Scale                                   Ratio

           Scale              Interval
 Primary Scales of Measurement
• Nominal
  – A scale in which the numbers or letters
    assigned to objects serve as labels for
    identification or classification.
• Ordinal
  – A scale that arranges objects or
    alternatives according to their magnitude
    in an ordered relationship.
  Primary Scales of Measurement
• Interval
  – A scale that both arranges objects
    according to their magnitudes and
  – Distinguishes the ordered arrangement in
    units of equal intervals
  – I.e., indicate order and measure order (or
    distance) in units of equal intervals
 Primary Scales of Measurement
• Ratio
  –A scale that has absolute rather than
   relative quantities and an absolute
   zero where a given attribute is absent.
  –Money & weight are good examples
   of attributes that possess absolute
   zeros and interval properties.
    Primary Scales of Measurement

Nominal    Numbers
           Assigned             1      31       88
           to Drivers/Cars

Ordinal    Rank Order          Third   Second   First
           of race finishers   Place   Place    Place

Interval   Championship
           Points earned        170    175       185

Ratio      Time to Finish,
           behind winner         5.1    2.3       0.0
  Classifying Scaling Techniques
• Comparative Scales
 –Involve the direct comparison of
  two or more objects
• Noncomparative Scales
 –Objects or stimuli are scaled
  independently of each other.
   Classifying Scaling Techniques

        Comparative                      Noncomparative
          Scales                             Scales

                                  Continuous           Itemized
  Paired              Constant    Rating Scales      Rating Scales
Comparison              Sum
     Paired Comparison Scaling
• Respondent is presented with two objects at a
• Then asked to select one object in the pair
  according to some criterion
• Data obtained are ordinal in nature
  – Arranged or ranked in order of magnitude
• Easy to do if only a few items are compared.
• If number of comparisons is too large,
  respondents may become fatigued and no longer
  carefully discriminate among them.
 Paired Comparison Scaling: Example
For each pair of professors, please indicate the professor from whom
you prefer to take classes with a 1.

              Cunningham         Day         Parker        Thomas

Cunningham                        0             0             0

Day                 1                           1             0

Parker              1             0                           0

Thomas              1             1             1             0

# of times
                   3              1             2             0
         Rank Order Scaling
• Respondents are presented with several
  objects simultaneously
• Then asked to order or rank them
  according to some criterion.
• Data obtained are ordinal in nature
  – Arranged or ranked in order of magnitude
• Commonly used to measure preferences
  among brands and brand attributes
                 Rank Order Scaling
Please rank the instructors listed below in order of preference. For the
instructor you prefer the most, assign a “1”, assign a “2” to the instructor
you prefer the 2nd most, assign a “3” to the instructor that you prefer 3rd
most, and assign a “4” to the instructor that you prefer the least.

     Instructor                                  Ranking

     Cunningham                                       1

     Day                                              3

     Parker                                           2

     Thomas                                           4
        Constant Sum Scaling
• Respondents are asked to allocate a constant
  sum of units among a set of stimulus objects
  with respect to some criterion
• Units allocated represent the importance
  attached to the objects.
• Data obtained are interval in nature
• Allows for fine discrimination among
                 Constant Sum Scaling
Listed below are 4 marketing professors, as well as 3 aspects that students
typically find important. For each aspect, please assign a number that reflects
how well you believe each instructor performs on the aspect. Higher numbers
represent higher scores. The total of all the instructors’ scores on an aspect should
equal 100.

  Instructor             Availability          Fairness           Easy Tests

  Cunningham                  30                   35                   25

  Day                         30                   25                   25

  Parker                      25                   25                   25

  Thomas                      15                   15                   25

  Sum Total                   100                 100                  100
Non-Comparative Scaling
Classifying Noncomparative Scaling Techniques

                      Rating Scales

    Continuous                              Itemized
   Rating Scales                          Rating Scales

                                 Stapel             Likert
         Continuous Rating Scale

Very                                                   Very
Poor                                                   Good
    0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   100
     Method of Summated Ratings:
          The Likert Scale
• Extremely popular means for measuring
• Respondents indicate their own attitudes by
  checking how strongly they agree/disagree
  with statements.
• Response alternatives:
  – “strongly agree”, “agree”, “uncertain”,
    “disagree”, and “strongly disagree”.
• Generally use either a 5- or 7-point scale
      Semantic Differential Scales
• A series of numbered (usually seven-point)
  bipolar rating scales.
• Bipolar adjectives (for example, “good”
  and “bad”), anchor both ends (or poles) of
  the scale.
• A weight is assigned to each position on the
  rating scale.
  – Traditionally, scores are 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, or
    +3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3.
  Semantic Differential Scales for
 Measuring Attitudes Toward Tennis

Exciting   ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Calm

Interesting ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Dull

Simple___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ Complex

Passive ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ Active
                Stapel Scales
• Modern versions of the Stapel scale place a
  single adjective as a substitute for the
  semantic differential when it is difficult to
  create pairs of bipolar adjectives.
• The advantage and disadvantages of a Stapel
  scale, as well as the results, are very similar
  to those for a semantic differential.
• However, the Stapel scale tends to be easier
  to conduct and administer.
          A Stapel Scale
   for Measuring a Store’s Image
                 Store Name
Wide Selection
         Graphic Rating Scales

n   A graphic rating scale presents respondents
    with a graphic continuum.
 Graphic Rating Scale Stressing
Pictorial Visual Communications

      3        2        1
     Very              Very
     Good              Poor
Balanced and Unbalanced Scales

   Balanced Scale           Unbalanced Scale
 Surfing the Internet is   Surfing the Internet is
____ Extremely Good        ____ Extremely Good
____ Very Good             ____ Very Good
____ Good                  ____ Good
____ Bad                   ____ Somewhat Good
____ Very Bad              ____ Bad
____ Extremely Bad         ____ Very Bad
   Scale Evaluation

                    Internal                 Criterion
      Forms                                               Construct
                                         Validity   Nomological
• Extent to which a scale produces consistent
• Test-retest Reliability
  – Respondents are administered scales at 2 different
    times under nearly equivalent conditions
• Alternative-form Reliability
  – 2 equivalent forms of a scale are constructed, then
    tested with the same respondents at 2 different times
• Internal Consistency Reliability
  – The consistency with which each item represents the
    construct of interest
  – Used to assess the reliability of a summated scale
  – Split-half Reliability
     • Items constituting the scale divided into 2 halves, and
       resulting half scores are correlated
  – Coefficient alpha (most common test of reliability)
     • Average of all possible split-half coefficients resulting
       from different splittings of the scale items
• Extent to which true differences among the objects are
  reflected on the characteristic being measured
• Content Validity
   – A.k.a., face validity
   – Subjective, but systematic evaluation of the representativeness
     of the content of a scale for the measuring task at hand
• Criterion Validity
   – Examines whether measurement scale performs as expected in
     relation to other variables selected as meaningful criteria
   – I.e., predicted and actual behavior should be similar
                Construct Validity
• Addresses the question of what construct or
  characteristic the scale is actually measuring
• Convergent Validity
   – Extent to which scale correlates positively with other
     measures of the same construct
• Discriminant Validity
   – Extent to which a measure does not correlate with other
     constructs from which it is supposed to differ
• Nomological Validity
   – Extent to which scale correlates in theoretically predicted
     ways with measures of different but related constructs
Relationship Between Reliability and
• A scale can be reliable, but not
• In order for a scale to valid, it must
  also be reliable.
• In other words,
  –Reliability is a necessary but
   insufficient condition for Validity.
 Reliability and Validity on Target

  Old Rifle         New Rifle        New Rifle Sunglare
Low Reliability   High Reliability    Reliable but Not
  (Target A)        (Target B)           (Target C)

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