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SE ASIA Angelfire

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									                     CHAPTER TWO

At a Glance
n   Meaning of Civilisation
n   Factors leading to the rise of civilisation
n   Features of life in ancient India, China and Southeast 
    Asia
    n   City culture, government, social structure, writing, religion, 
        pottery, use of metal, trade
What is a Civilisation?
n   Latin word “civitas” – “city”
n   Civilisation : Requires a group of residents living
    together in cities
n   It means “having to do with people who live in a
    city”
n   History : An advanced stage of human
    development where cities exist
What is a Civilisation?
 n   Early days – people roamed around to search
     for food and water
 n   Some realised they could actually grow their
     own food and settle in one place – origins of
     farming
 n   Soon these small groups grew into larger
     groups called villages
What is a Civilisation?
 n   When there was enough to eat and life became
     comfortable, people spent time on other
     activities like trading and painting
 n   Some system is needed to manage these big
     villages
 n   So we say that they are on their way to
     becoming CITIES
What is a Civilisation?
n   First cities : 5,000 years ago
n   Along Tigris and Euphrates Rivers of ancient
    Sumer (Iraq)
n   500 years later, other ancient civilisations also
    grew along the banks of rivers
Indus Valley PAKISTAN
n   A civilisation developed along the Indus River
    around 2500 B.C.
n   Two major cities : Mohenjo-daro & Harappa
n   Settled by Dravidians
n   Today Indus Valley in Pakistan
Indus Valley PAKISTAN




    Map software courtesy Environmental Systems Research Institute
                           Map by R. Lewis
Huanghe Valley CHINA
n   Cradle of Chinese Civilisation
n   Shang Dynasty – one of the
    earliest dynasties that historians
    have information about

                                         Shang Ritual Vessel
Southeast Asia
n   People settled along rivers during prehistoric
    times
n   Scattered all over SEA
n   One of the first kingdoms : Funan which had
    become an important port by A.D. 1
n   Srivijaya in Sumatra: A.D. 7
Factors Affecting the Rise of Civilisation

n   Suitable Climate
n   Fertile Soil
n   Food
n   Water
n   Transport
n   Security
n   Building Materials
Features of A Civilisation

n   City Culture
n   Government
n   Social Structure
n   Writing
n   Religion
n   Use of metals
n   Pottery
n   Trade
City Culture   FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION
City Culture   FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




                                            Fields along the Indus
                                            River in Pakistan.
                                            (Photo courtesy Adventure
                                            Travel)
City Culture   FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




                                       The Indus River
City Culture   FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION
City Culture   FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION
City Culture   FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION



                                            Most of the artwork from this 
                                            civilization was small and used as 
                                            personal possessions. The first 
                                            objects unearthed from Harappa 
                                            and Mohenjo-Daro were small 
                                            stone seals.  These seals were 
                                            inscribed with elegant portrayals 
                                            of real and imagined animals and 
                                            were marked with the Indus 
                                            script writing.  The seals suggest 
                                            a symbolic or religious intent. 
                                            Stone sculptures carved in 
                                            steatite, limestone, or alabaster 
                                            depict a male figure who may 
                                            have represented a god. Pottery 
                                            figures were shaped into humans 
                                            and animals. Very few bronze 
                                            figures have been recovered.
City Culture   FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION
City Culture   FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION
City Culture   FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION
City Culture   FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




         The central area of Mound A/AB was continuously rebuilt in
         ancient times. Behind the curved wall is a well and below it
         what may have been a public bathing area.
City Culture   FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




          The so-called "Great Granary" in Mound F. Its earliest levels date to
          2450 B.C. Influenced by European precedents, early archaeologists
          quickly identified the buildings as granaries. At Harappa, two sets of
          6 rooms are aligned on either side of a central passageway.
City Culture   FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION
City Culture   FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




                                            City View
City Culture       FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




  The Great Bath
City Culture    FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




    Street with covered drain
City Culture   FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION
City Culture   FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




                                            Source : 
                                            http://www.wsu.edu:8000/wci
                                            v/b/ba/bab/bab09.jpg
City Culture   FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




                                   Source : 
                                      http://www.wsu.edu:8000/wciv/b/ba/bab
                                      /bab08.jpg
Government               FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




n   India
n   Priests controlled society
n   Took charge of both religion & govt
    n   Religious rituals
    n   Great bath
    n   Collected fees from farmers for storing
        grain in granaries
Government             FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




n   China
n   King ruled during the Shang Dynasty
n   People obeyed the king
n   Peasants served the king in whichever
    way he wanted
Government              FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




n   Southeast Asia
n   People lived in small settlements
n   These were later developed into small
    kingdoms
n   Kingdoms ruled by leaders
n   Assisted by religious leaders and loyal
    supporters
Social Structure               FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




n   INDIA
n   Priests and nobles at the top
n   Common people :
     n   Farmers
     n   Craftsmen
     n   Weavers
     n   Jewellers
     n   Potters
     n   Masons
Social Structure              FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




n   CHINA
n   Upper class : King &
    noblemen
n   Lower class : Ordinary people
    n   Mostly peasants or farmers
Social Structure          FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




n   SE Asia
n   Upper class : Rulers, religious
    leaders and nobles
n   Lower class : Ordinary people
    n   Mostly peasants
Writing       FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




n   India
n   Not much writing left behind
n   Only discoveries of writing are on clay
    seals
n   2.5cm2 ; pictures of animals engraved on
    them
n   No one able to read the writing
n   Probably used by farmers to mark bags of
    grain
Writing       FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




n   China
n   First form of writing : Shang Dynasty
n   Pictograms : simple drawings of objects
    represented by pictures
n   Appeared on ORACLE BONES
n   ie animal shoulder blades & turtle shells
n   Recorded all types of activities : war,
    hunting, farming, life in the imperial
    household and ONE MORE THING?
Writing   FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




Q: Can you see the
 pictographs? Can you
 guess what oracle bones
 might be used for?

 They were used to
 communicate with their
 ancestors.
Writing      FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION



 n   The Shang kings would ask a
     question
 n   The priest would then carve the
     king’s question on the back of the
     bone. Then he would heat a bronze
     pin and hold the hot pin to the bone.
 n   This would create a pattern of cracks
     over the bone
 n   Priest studies the cracks to find the
     answer to the question.
Writing     FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




 n   The Shang kings ask questions like
     “If we sacrifice 10 men or 5 oxen,
     will it rain tomorrow?”
 n   Sacrifice : The offering of something
     to a god
 n   The Shang kings sacrificed a great
     deal of people to talk to their
     ancestors
                                             Ans: Captured enemies,
 n   Can you guess who they would            slaves, sick or deformed
     sacrifice?                              people, those who had upset
                                             the nobles or the king
Writing     FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




 n   SE ASIA
 n   Written history only in late 2nd A.D.
 n   Adopted a script called Pallava
 n   Done on sugar palm tree leaves,
     metal or on stone as inscriptions
 n   Found in Borneo, Java and South
     Vietnam
 n   These were usually edicts (or
     orders) by kings to their subjects
Religion      FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




 n   INDIA
 n   Indus Valley : Mother Goddess
 n   Hoped she would grant a plentiful
     harvest
 n   Also worshipped animals that they
     associated with power
 n   Bulls, tigers and elephants
 n   Unicorn
 n   Tree spirits
Religion      FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




 n   CHINA
 n   Shang people worshipped gods of
     the sun, moon, stars, mountains,
     rivers and forests
 n   Supreme god was Shangdi
 n   In later dynasties, known as Tian or
     Heaven
 n   Also worshipped the spirits of the
     dead for protection (ancestor
     worship)
Religion      FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




 n   SE ASIA
 n   Animists : Worshipped spirits that
     were found in nature – stones, hills,
     trees
 n   Believed that spirits could both help
     and harm them
 n   Practised ancestor worship
 n   Hope that souls of the dead would
     protect them
Use of Metals          FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




 n   INDIA
 n   Necklaces, bracelets, bangles,
     earrings, rings have been found
 n   Suggests that women wore
     jewellery as decorative items
 n   Some toys and statues found –
     show use of bronze
 n   Blacksmiths made axes, knives and
     razors using copper and bronze
Use of Metals           FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




 n   CHINA
 n   Shangs known for intricately
     designed bronzes
 n   Use moulds to cast bronze
 n   This method of piece-mould
     casting was very
     sophisticated
Use of Metals             FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




 n   CHINA
 n   Bronzes mainly farm and
     handicraft tools
 n   Also vessels used for
     religious ceremonies
     n   Some were animal shaped
         and had inscriptions on them




                             This is a cauldron (deep basin) for offering incense
Use of Metals           FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




 n   CHINA
 n   Fine jewellery fashioned from
     bronze & combined with
     shells, bones and ivory
 n   Bronze also used for making
     weapons
 n   Some weapons had
     inscriptions
Use of Metals            FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




 n   SE ASIA
 n   Used bronze to make
     bracelets, tools and drums
 n   Drums spread over a large
     area of SE Asia, down the
     Malay Peninsular through
     Sumatra and Java to
     Sulawasi and Moluccas
 n   Drums probably used by
     leaders as symbols of power
     and high position – to control
     their subjects
Use of Metals           FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




 n   SE ASIA
 n   People of Funan made
     images of bronze
 n   Evidence from writing of a
     Chinese visitor to Funan

 “[The Funanese] make
 bronze images. Those that
 have two faces and four arms,
 and those that have four faces
 with eight arms.”
Pottery     FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




 n   INDIA
 n   People of India shaped their
     pots using a potter’s wheel &
     baked them in kilns
 n   Mohenjo-daro : Storage pots,
     cooking bowls, drinking cups
 n   Clay figures were found :
     Toys?
Pottery     FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




 n   CHINA
 n   Shang potters also made use
     of potter’s wheel
 n   Added a coat of glaze to give
     it a shine
 n   “China” or porcelain became
     even more famous in the
     dynasties after the Shang
 n   Chinese pottery :
     International fame today
Pottery     FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




 n   SE ASIA
 n   People made pots with
     patterns on them
 n   Pottery and designing pots is
     one of the oldest arts in SE
     Asia
Trade     FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




 n   INDIA
 n   Trade helped ancient Indian
     civilisation to flourish
 n   People in Indus Valley traded
     within India and with
     Mesopotamia and Egypt
 n   Used caravans and travelled
     long distances
 n   Goods traded were
     impressive
 n   Copper tools, timber, cloth,
     pearls and monkeys
 n   From Mesopotamia : tin,
     woollen cloth, oil and food
Trade     FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




 n   SE ASIA
 n   Trade important in the growth
     of ancient maritime kingdoms
 n   Over time, more trade links
     devloped between India,
     China and SE Asia
 n   Traders used land and sea
     routes
 n   More details in Chap 6
Trade       FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION




 n   Eastern part of the ancient world accessible to travelers in the first century A.D.
 n   Source : http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/trade/hg_d_trade_d1map.htm
Did you know?             FEATURES OF A CIVILISATION



 n   Last Shang king was very cruel and
     oppressive
 n   The king of Zhou (neighbouring state)
     overthrew the king of Shang
 n   The unhappy slaves who were forced
     to fight for the Shang king led his
     enemy troops into the capital
 n   The Shang king burned himself in the
     palace
a
christ
church secondary
history production
2002

								
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