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					Images from Purves et al., Life: The
Science of Biology, 4th Edition
1) jellyfish breathe through their skin, why can’t we??

                                                          Oahu, Hawai’i
                                                          photo by J
2) oxygen passes from the digestive to the circulatory system
at the alveoli (sacs at the ends of bronchiole passages in the lungs).
Why, for example, does oxygen not just pass into the circulatory
system in the mouth or the throat? Those cells have blood supplies
nearby too!

                                                    from: K. Schmidt-Nielsen
                                                    Animal Physiology (1997)
3) long distance runners often train at high altitudes.
This gives them greater capacity to gain oxygen during
exercise. How?

                 Catherine Ndereba
         women’s Boston Marathon champion
                 2000, 2001, 2004

4) “blood doping” is an illegal method that some long distance runners
have used to increase their oxygen carrying capacity. How does it work?
(hint #1: it’s similar to high altitude training but without all the hard work)
(hint #2: it’s undetectable)

5) breathing is a muscular process involving the diaphragm. When
the diaphragm contracts, air is forced into the lungs. How?

                                              from Purves et al., Life: The Science of
                                              Biology, 4th Edition
Acetanisole          Acetic Acid           Acetone (Nail Polish   Acetophenone           6-                     2-Acetyl-3-            2-Acetyl-5-            Acetylpyrazine    2-Acetylpyridine
                     (Vinegar)             Remover)                                      Acetoxydihydrothea     Ethylpyrazine          Methylfuran

3-Acetylpyridine     2-Acetylthiazole      Aconitic Acid          dl-Alanine             Alfalfa Extract        Aluminum (Metal)       Allspice Extract       Oleoresin         And Oil

Allyl Hexanoate      Allyl Ionone          Almond Bitter Oil      Ambergris Tincture     Ammonia                Ammonium               Ammonium               Ammonium          Ammonium Sulfide
                                                                                         (Floor/Toilet          Bicarbonate            Hydroxide              Phosphate
                                                                                         Cleaner)                                                             Dibasic

Amyl Alcohol         Amyl Butyrate         Amyl Formate           Amyl Octanoate         alpha-                 Amyris Oil             trans-Anethole         Angelica Root     Anise
                                                                                         Amylcinnamaldehyd                                                    Extract Oil and
                                                                                         e                                                                    Seed Oil

Anise Star Extract   Anisyl Acetate        Anisyl Alcohol         Anisyl Formate         Anisyl Phenylacetate   Apple Juice            Apricot Extract and    1-Arginine        Arsenic (Rat
and Oils                                                                                                        Concentrate Extract    Juice Concentrate                        Poison)
                                                                                                                and Skins

Asafetida Fluid      Ascorbic Acid         1-Asparagine           1-Aspartic Acid        Balsam Peru and Oil    Basil Oil              Bay Leaf Oil and       Beeswax White     Beet Juice
Extract And Oil                            Monohydrate                                                                                 Sweet Oil                                Concentrate

Benzaldehyde         Benzaldehyde          Benzoic Acid           Benzoin Resin          Benzophenone           Benzyl Alcohol         Benzyl Benzoate        Benzyl Butyrate   Benzyl Cinnamate
                     Glyceryl Acetal       Benzoin

Benzyl Propionate    Benzyl Salicylate     Bergamot Oil           Beryllium (Metal)      Bisabolene             Black Currant Buds     Borneol                Bornyl Acetate    Buchu Leaf Oil

13-Butanediol        23-Butanedione        1-Butanol              2-Butanone             Butane (Lighter        4(2-Butenylidene)-     Butter Butter Esters   Butyl Acetate     Butyl Butyrate
                                                                                         Fluid)                 355-Trimethyl-2-       and Butter Oil

Butyl Butyryl        Butyl Isovalerate     Butyl Phenylacetate    Butyl Undecylenate     3-                     Butyric Acid           Cadinene               Cadmium           Caffeine
Lactate                                                                                  Butylidenephthalide                                                  (NiCad

Calcium Carbonate    Camphene              Cananga Oil            Capsicum Oleoresin     Caramel Color          Caraway Oil            Carbon Dioxide         Carbon            Cardamom
                                                                                                                                                              Monoxide (Car     Oleoresin Extract
                                                                                                                                                              Exhaust Fumes)    Seed Oil and

Carob Bean and       beta-Carotene         Carrot Oil             Carvacrol              4-Carvomenthenol       1-Carvone              beta-Caryophyllene     beta-             Cascarilla Oil and
Extract                                                                                                                                                       Caryophyllene     Bark Extract

Cassia Bark Oil      Cassie Absolute and   Castoreum Extract      Cedar Leaf Oil         Cedarwood Oil          Cedrol                 Celery Seed Extract    Cellulose Fiber   Chamomile Flower
                     Oil                   Tincture and                                  Terpenes and                                  Solid Oil And                            Oil And Extract
                                           Absolute                                      Virginiana                                    Oleoresin

Chicory Extract      Chocolate             Cinnamaldehyde         Cinnamic Acid          Cinnamon Leaf Oil      Cinnamyl Acetate       Cinnamyl Alcohol       Cinnamyl          Cinnamyl
                                                                                         Bark Oil and Extract                                                 Cinnamate         Isovalerate

Cinnamyl             Citral                Citric Acid            Citronella Oil         dl-Citronellol         Citronellyl Butyrate   Citronellyl            Civet Absolute    Clary Oil
Propionate                                                                                                                             Isobutyrate

Cloroform            Clover Tops Red       Cocoa                  Cocoa Shells Extract   Coconut Oil            Coffee                 Cognac White and       Copaiba Oil       Copper (Metal)
(Anasthetic)         Solid Extract                                Distillate And                                                       Green Oil

Coriander Extract    Corn Oil              Corn Silk              Costus Root Oil        Cubeb Oil              Cuminaldehyde          Cyanide (Posion)       para-Cymene       1-Cysteine
and Oil

Dandelion Root       Davana Oil            DDT/Dieldrin           2-trans 4-trans-       delta-Decalactone      gamma-Decalactone      Decanal                Decanoic Acid     1-Decanol
Solid Extract                              (Insecticide)          Decadienal

2-Decenal            Dehydromenthofuro     Diethyl Malonate       Diethyl Sebacate       23-Diethylpyrazine     Dihydro Anethole       57-Dihydro-2-          Dill Seed Oil     meta-
                     lactone                                                                                                           Methylthieno(34-D)     and Extract       Dimethoxybenzene
para-                26-                  Dimethyl Succinate   34-Dimethyl-12-       35- Dimethyl-12-        37-Dimethyl-136-      45-Dimethyl-3-         610-Dimethyl-59    37-Dimethyl-6-
Dimethoxybenzen      Dimethoxyphenol                           Cyclopentanedione     Cyclopentanedione       Octatriene            Hydroxy-25-            -Undecadien-2-     Octenoic Acid
e                                                                                                                                  Dihydrofuran-2-One     One

24-                  alphapara-           alphaalpha-          alphaalpha            23-                     25-                   26-                    Dimethyltetrahy    delta-Dodecalactone
Dimethylacetophe     Dimethylbenzyl       Dimethylphenethyl    Dimethylphenethyl     Dimethylpyrazine        Dimethylpyrazine      Dimethylpyrazine       drobenzofurano
none                 Alcohol              Acetate              Butyrate                                                                                   ne

gamma-               para-                Ethyl 10-            Ethyl 2-              Ethyl Acetate           Ethyl Acetoacetate    Ethyl Alcohol          Ethyl Benzoate     Ethyl Butyrate
Dodecalactone        Ethoxybenzaldehyd    Undecenoate          Methylbutyrate

Ethyl Cinnamate      Ethyl Decanoate      Ethyl Fenchol        Ethyl Furoate         Ethyl Heptanoate        Ethyl Hexanoate       Ethyl Isovalerate      Ethyl Lactate      Ethyl Laurate

Ethyl Levulinate     Ethyl Maltol         Ethyl Methyl         Ethyl Myristate       Ethyl Nonanoate         Ethyl Octadecanoate   Ethyl Octanoate        Ethyl Oleate       Ethyl Palmitate

Ethyl                Ethyl Propionate     Ethyl Salicylate     Ethyl trans-2-        Ethyl Valerate          Ethyl Vanillin        2-Ethyl (or Methyl)-   2-Ethyl-1-         2-Ethyl-3 (5 or 6)-
Phenylacetate                                                  Butenoate                                                           (35 and 6)-            Hexanol 3-Ethyl    Dimethylpyrazine
                                                                                                                                   Methoxypyrazine        -2 -Hydroxy-2-

5-Ethyl-3-Hydroxy    2-Ethyl-3-           4-                   4-Ethylguaiacol       para-Ethylphenol        3-Ethylpyridine       Eucalyptol             Farnesol           D-Fenchone
-4-Methyl-2(5H)-     Methylpyrazine       Ethylbenzaldehyde

Fennel Sweet Oil     Fenugreek Extract    Fig Juice            Food Starch           Formaldehyde            Furfuryl Mercaptan    4-(2-Furyl)-3-Buten-   Galbanum Oil       Genet Absolute
                     Resin and Absolute   Concentrate          Modified              (Preserver of bodies,                         2-One
                                                                                     tissue, and fabric)

Gentian Root         Geraniol             Geranium Rose Oil    Geranyl Acetate       Geranyl Butyrate        Geranyl Formate       Geranyl Isovalerate    Geranyl            Ginger Oil and
Extract                                                                                                                                                   Phenylacetate      Oleoresin

1-Glutamic Acid      1-Glutamine          Glycerol             Glycyrrhizin          Gold (Metal)            Grape Juice           Guaiac Wood Oil        Guaiacol           Guar Gum
                                                               Ammoniated                                    Concentrate

24-Heptadienal       gamma-               Heptanoic Acid       2-Heptanone           3-Hepten-2-One          2-Hepten-4-One        4-Heptenal             trans -2-          Heptyl Acetate
                     Heptalactone                                                                                                                         Heptenal

omega-6-             gamma-Hexalactone    Hexamine (Barbecue   Hexanal               Hexanoic Acid           2-Hexen-1-Ol          3-Hexen-1-Ol           cis-3-Hexen-1-Yl   2-Hexenal
Hexadecenlactone                          Lighter)                                                                                                        Acetate

3-Hexenoic Acid      trans-2-Hexenoic     cis-3-Hexenyl        Hexyl 2-              Hexyl Acetate           Hexyl Alcohol         Hexyl Phenylacetate    1-Histidine        Honey
                     Acid                 Formate              Methylbutyrate

Hops Oil             Hydrolyzed Milk      Hydrolyzed Plant     5-Hydroxy-24-         4-Hydroxy-25-           2-Hydroxy-355-        4-Hydroxy -3-          2-Hydroxy-4-       4-Hydroxybutanoic
                     Solids               Proteins             Decadienoic Acid      Dimethyl-3(2H)-         Trimethyl-2-          Pentenoic Acid         Methylbenzalde     Acid Lactone
                                                               delta- Lactone        Furanone                Cyclohexen-1-One      Lactone                hyde

Hydroxycitronellal   6-                   4-(para-             Hyssop Oil            Immortelle Absolute     alpha-Ionone          beta-Ionone            alpha-Irone        Isoamyl Acetate
                     Hydroxydihydrothe    Hydroxyphenyl)-2-                          and Extract
                     aspirane             Butanone

Isoamyl Benzoate     Isoamyl Butyrate     Isoamyl Cinnamate    Isoamyl Formate       Isoamyl Isovalerate     Isoamyl Octanoate     Isoamyl                Isobornyl          Isobutyl Acetate
                                                               Isoamyl Hexanoate                                                   Phenylacetate          Acetate

Isobutyl Alcohol     Isobutyl Cinnamate   Isobutyl             Isobutyl Salicylate   2-Isobutyl-3-           alpha-                Isobutyraldehyde       Isobutyric Acid    dl-Isoleucine
                                          Phenylacetate                              Methoxypyrazine         Isobutylphenethyl

alpha-               2-Isopropylphenol    Isovaleric Acid      Jasmine Absolute      Kola Nut Extract        Labdanum Absolute     Lactic Acid            Lauric Acid        Lauric Aldehyde
Isomethylionone                                                Concrete and Oil                              and Oleoresin
Lavandin Oil       Lavender Oil         Lead (Metal)        Lemon Oil and        Lemongrass Oil       1-Leucine            Levulinic Acid       Licorice Root     Lime Oil
                                                            Extract                                                                             Fluid Extract
                                                                                                                                                and Powder

Linalool           Linalool Oxide       Linalyl Acetate     Linden Flowers       Lovage Oil And       1-Lysine             Mace Powder          Magnesium         Magnesium
                                                                                 Extract                                   Extract and Oil      (Metal)           Carbonate

Malic Acid         Malt and Malt        Maltodextrin        Maltol               Maltyl Isobutyrate   Mandarin Oil         Maple Syrup and      Mate Leaf         para-Mentha-8-
                   Extract                                                                                                 Concentrate          Absolute and      Thiol-3-One

Menthol            Menthone             Menthyl Acetate     Mercury (Metal)      Methane (Swamp       Methanol (Rocket     dl-Methionine        Methoprene        2-Methoxy-4-
                                                                                 Gas)                 Fuel)                                                       Methylphenol

2-Methoxy-4-       para-                1-(para-            4-(para-             1-(para-             Methoxypyrazine      Methyl 2-Furoate     Methyl 2-         Methyl 2-Pyrrolyl
Vinylphenol        Methoxybenzaldeh     Methoxyphenyl)-1-   Methoxyphenyl)-2-    Methoxyphenyl)-2-                                              Octynoate         Ketone
                   yde                  Penten-3-One        Butanone             Propanone

Methyl Anisate     Methyl               Methyl Benzoate     Methyl Cinnamate     Methyl               Methyl Ester of      Methyl Isovalerate   Methyl            Methyl Linolenate
                   Anthranilate                                                  Dihydrojasmonate     Rosin Partially                           Linoleate (48%)   (52%) Mixture

Methyl Naphthyl    Methyl Nicotinate    Methyl              Methyl Salicylate    Methyl Sulfide       3-Methyl-1-          4-Methyl-1-Phenyl-   5-Methyl-2-       5-Methyl-2-
Ketone                                  Phenylacetate                                                 Cyclopentadecano     2-Pentanone          Phenyl-2-         Thiophenecarboxal
                                                                                                      ne                                        Hexenal           dehyde

6-Methyl-3-5-      2-Methyl-3-(para-    5-Methyl-3-Hexen-   1-Methyl-            4-Methyl-3-          2-Methyl-4-          6-Methyl-5-Hepten    4-Methyl-5-       4-Methyl-5-
Heptadien-2-One    Isopropylphenyl)     2-One               3Methoxy-4-          Pentene-2-One        Phenylbutyraldehy    -2-One               Thiazoleethano    Vinylthiazole
                   Propionaldehyde                          Isopropylbenzene                          de                                        l

Methyl-alpha-      Methyl-trans-2-      4-                  para-Methylanisole   alpha-               alpha-               2-                   3-                2-Methylbutyric
Ionone             Butenoic Acid        Methylacetopheno                         Methylbenzyl         Methylbenzyl         Methylbutyraldehy    Methylbutyral     Acid
                                        ne                                       Acetate              Alcohol              de                   dehyde

alpha-             Methylcyclopenten    2-Methylheptanoic   2-Methylhexanoic     3-Methylpentanoic    4-Methylpentanoic    2-Methylpyrazine     5-                2-
Methylcinnamald    olone                Acid                Acid                 Acid                 Acid                                      Methylquinoxa     Methyltetrahydrof
ehyde                                                                                                                                           line              uran-3-One

(Methylthio)Meth   3-                   Methyl 3-           2-Methylvaleric      Mimosa Absolute      Molasses Extract     Mountain Maple       Mullein           Myristaldehyde
ylpyrazine         Methylthiopropion    Methylthiopropion   Acid                 and Extract          and Tincture         Solid Extract        Flowers
(Mixture Of        aldehyde             ate

Myristic Acid      Myrrh Oil            Napthalene (Moth    beta-Napthyl Ethyl   Nerol                Neroli Bigarde Oil   Nerolidol            Nicotine          Nitrobenzene
                                        Balls)              Ether                                                                               (Insectiside,     (Gasoline
                                                                                                                                                Drug - more       Additive)
                                                                                                                                                addictive than

Nitrous Oxide      Nona-2-trans6-cis-   26-Nonadien-1-Ol    gamma-               Nonanal              Nonanoic Acid        Nonanone             trans-2-Nonen-    2-Nonenal
Phenols            Dienal                                   Nonalactone                                                                         1-Ol

Nonyl Acetate      Nutmeg Powder        Oak Chips Extract   Oak Moss Absolute    912-                 delta-Octalactone    gamma-               Octanal           Octanoic Acid
                   and Oil              and Oil                                  Octadecadienoic                           Octalactone
                                                                                 Acid (48%) And
                                                                                 Acid (52%)

1-Octanol          2-Octanone           3-Octen-2-One       1-Octen-3-Ol         1-Octen-3-Yl         2-Octenal            Octyl Isobutyrate    Oleic Acid        Olibanum Oil
Opoponax Oil And    Orange Blossoms         Orange Oil and        Origanum Oil          Orris Concrete Oil    Palmarosa Oil          Palmitic Acid          Parsley Seed Oil   Patchouli Oil
Gum                 Water Absolute and      Extract                                     and Root Extract
                    Leaf Absolute

omega-              23-Pentanedione         2-Pentanone           4-Pentenoic Acid      2-Pentylpyridine      Pepper Oil Black       Peppermint Oil         Peruvian (Bois     Petitgrain Absolute
Pentadecalactone                                                                                              And White                                     De Rose) Oil       Mandarin Oil and
                                                                                                                                                                               Terpeneless Oil

alpha-              2-Phenenthyl            Phenenthyl Alcohol    Phenethyl Butyrate    Phenethyl             Phenethyl              Phenethyl              Phenethyl          Phenethyl Salicylate
Phellandrene        Acetate                                                             Cinnamate             Isobutyrate            Isovalerate            Phenylacetate

1-Phenyl-1-         3-Phenyl-1-Propanol     2-Phenyl-2-Butenal    4-Phenyl-3-Buten-2-   4-Phenyl-3-Buten-2-   Phenylacetaldehyde     Phenylacetic Acid      1-Phenylalanine    3-
Propanol                                                          Ol                    One                                                                                    Phenylpropionaldeh

3-Phenylpropionic   3-Phenylpropyl          3-Phenylpropyl        2-(3-                 Phosphoric Acid       Pimenta Leaf Oil       Pine Needle Oil Pine   Pineapple Juice    alpha-Pinene beta-
Acid                Acetate                 Cinnamate             Phenylpropyl)Tetra                                                 Oil Scotch             Concentrate        Pinene

D-Piperitone        Piperonal               Pipsissewa Leaf       Plum Juice            Potassium Sorbate     1-Proline              Propenylguaethol       Propionic Acid     Propyl Acetate

Propyl para-        Propylene Glycol        3-                    Prune Juice and       Pyridine              Pyroligneous Acid      Pyrrole                Pyruvic Acid       Raisin Juice
Hydroxybenzoate                             Propylidenephthalid   Concentrate                                 And Extract                                                      Concentrate

Rhodinol            Rose Absolute and       Rosemary Oil          Rum                   Rum Ether             Rye Extract            Sage Sage Oil and      Salicylaldehyde    Sandalwood Oil
                    Oil                                                                                                              Sage Oleoresin                            Yellow

Sclareolide         Silicon (Metal)         Silver (Metal)        Skatole               Smoke Flavor          Snakeroot Oil          Sodium Acetate         Sodium             Sodium Bicarbonate

Sodium Carbonate    Sodium Chloride         Sodium Citrate        Sodium Hydroxide      Solanone              Spearmint Oil          Stearic Acid (Candle   Styrax Extract     Sucrose Octaacetate
                                                                                                                                     Wax)                   Gum and Oil

Sugar Alcohols      Sugars                  Tagetes Oil           Tannic Acid           Tartaric Acid         Tea Leaf and           alpha-Terpineol        Terpinolene        Terpinyl Acetate

5678-               1559-Tetramethyl-13     2345 and 3456-        2356-                 Thiamine              Thiazole               1-Threonine            Thyme Oil          Thymol
Tetrahydroquinox    -                       Tetramethylethyl-     Tetramethylpyrazin    Hydrochloride                                                       White and Red
aline               Oxatricyclo(   Cyclohexanone         e

Titanium (Metal)    Tobacco Extracts        Tochopherols          Tolu Balsam Gum       Tolualdehydes         Tolulene (Industrial   para-Tolyl 3-          para-Tolyl         para-Tolyl Acetate
                                            (mixed)               and Extract                                 Solvent)               Methylbutyrate         Acetaldehyde

para-Tolyl          para-Tolyl              Triacetin             2-Tridecanone         2-Tridecenal          Triethyl Citrate       355-Trimethyl -1-      paraalphaalpha-    4-(266-
Isobutyrate         Phenylacetate                                                                                                    Hexanol                Trimethylbenzyl    Trimethylcyclohex-1
                                                                                                                                                            Alcohol            -Enyl)But-2-En-4-

266-                266-                    4-(266-               226-                  235-                  1-Tyrosine             delta-                 gamma-             Undecanal
Trimethylcyclohex   Trimethylcyclohexa-     Trimethylcyclohexa-   Trimethylcyclohexa    Trimethylpyrazine                            Undercalactone         Undecalactone
-2-Ene-14-Dione     13-Dienyl Methan        13-Dienyl)But-2-En-   none

2-Undecanone 1      0-Undecenal             Urea                  Valencene             Valeraldehyde         Valerian Root          Valeric Acid           gamma-             Valine
                                                                                                              Extract Oil and                               Valerolactone

Vanilla Extract     Vanillin                Veratraldehyde        Vetiver Oil           Vinegar               Vinyl Chloride         Violet Leaf Absolute   Walnut Hull        Water
And Oleoresin                                                                                                 (Makes PVC)                                   Extract

Wheat Extract And   Wild Cherry Bark        Wine and Wine         Xanthan Gum           34-Xylenol            Yeast                  Zinc (Metal)
Flour               Extract                 Sherry

           1 out of 5 deaths in the US are related to smoking

           30% of all cancer deaths are attributable to smoking

           87% of lung cancer deaths are caused by smoking, and lung cancer
           is the leading cause of cancer deaths in men & women


           they’re preventable!!

 BUT....   nicotine is one of the most addictive substances known
           (equivalent to heroin and coke, according to the Royal
           College of Physicians, London

                                                            source: American Cancer Society
                                        types of movement

which types of                                   passive        yes!! (e.g. red blood cells)
movements are
used by humans
or their cells?                                 ameboid        yes!! (e.g. macrophages: a type of
                                                                       immune [white blood] cell)

                                              cilia/flagella        yes!! (e.g. sperm,
                                                                           air passages...)

                                        muscular contraction
                            (incl. jet propulsion, hydrostatic pressure, spring, yes!!
                                            hydraulic pressure...)

                                         chemical explosion!                 no
                                               buoyancy               no

  body size is important in determining which type a given organism

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