Material Pure Substance or Mixture Element Compound

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					MATTER: MIXTURES AND
       ELEMENTS AND
         COMPOUNDS
                    WHAT YOU’LL LEARN

 You will distinguish between physical and chemical properties
 You will classify matter by composition.
 You will explain the fundamental law of the conservation of mass
                 MIXTURES

 A mixture is a combination of two or more
 substances in which each pure substance
 retains its individual chemical properties
 This is a physical blending, not a chemical
 blending.
 Composition of the mixture can vary
 Can be physically separated
     HETEROGENEOUS VS. HOMOGENOUS

Heterogeneous Mixture- one that does not blend
 smoothly throughout and which the individual
 substances remain distinct
   §Examples: Sand and Water, Oil and Water,
    Cement
Homogeneous Mixture (Solutions)- has constant
 composition throughout; it always has a single
 phase
   §Examples: salt water, vinegar, alloys
   METHODS OF SEPARATING MIXTURES

Magnet
Filter
Decant
Evaporation
Centrifuge
Chromatography
Distillation
                           FILTRATION

 A technique that uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid
                          DISTILLATION

 A technique that is based on differences in the boiling points of
  substances
                       CRYSTALLIZATION

 A technique that results in the formation of pure solid particles of a
  substance from a solution containing the dissolved substance
                   CHROMATOGRAPHY

 A technique that separates the components of a mixture on the basis
  of the tendency of each to travel or be drawn across the surface of
  another material
          ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS

 Elements- are the simplest form of matter that can
 exist under NORMAL laboratory conditions
  § Cannot be separated into simpler substances by
   chemical means
  § Are the building blocks for all other --substances
 Compounds-are substances that can be separated into
 simpler substances by chemical means
        LAW OF DEFINITE PROPORTIONS

 Elements comprising compounds combine in definite
  proportions
 Regardless of the amount, a compound is always
  composed of the same elements in the same
  proportion by mass




              Water                    Methane
              PERCENT BY MASS

Percent by Mass- the ratio of the mass of each
 element to the total mass of the compound as a
 percentage
              PRACTICE PROBLEM

A 78.0g sample of an unknown compound
 contains 12.4 g of hydrogen. What is the percent
 by mass of hydrogen in the compound?




                      15.9% Hydrogen
                      MORE PRACTICE

           Material     Pure Substance or   Element, Compound,
                            Mixture            Homogeneous,
                                               Heterogeneous
Limestone (CaCO3)
Air
Bronze
Copper
Sugar + water
Concrete
Pure Water
Caffeine
                    MORE PRACTICE!
Material            Pure Substance or   Element, Compound,
                    Mixture             Homogeneous,
                                        Heterogeneous
Limestone (CaCO3)   PURE SUBSTANCE      COMPOUND

Air                 MIXTURE             HOMOGENEOUS

Bronze              MIXTURE             HOMOGENEOUS

Copper              PURE SUBSTANCE      ELEMENT

Sugar + water       MIXTURE             HOMOGENEOUS

Concrete            MIXTURE             HETEROGENEOUS

Pure Water          PURE SUBSTANCE      COMPOUND

Caffeine            PURE SUBSTANCE      COMPOUND
                                                   SUMMARY

                                                                    MATTER


                                                               Matter
                                                               Matter




                                                             Physically
                        Substance                            separable                              Mixture of
                                                                                                     Mixture of
                         Substance
                    Definite composition
                     Definite composition                                                          Substances
                                                                                                    Substances
                      (homogeneous)                                                            Variable composition
                       (homogeneous)                                                            Variable composition




                            Chemically
                            separable                                    Homogeneous mixture               Heterogeneous mixture
      Element                               Compound                      Homogeneous mixture               Heterogeneous mixture
       Element                               Compound                           Uniform throughout,                  Nonuniform
(Examples: iron, sulfur,                   (Examples: water.                     Uniform throughout,                  Nonuniform
 (Examples: iron, sulfur,                    (Examples: water.                 also called a solution              distinct phases
  carbon, hydrogen,                      iron sulfide, methane,                  also called a solution             distinct phases
    carbon, hydrogen,                      iron sulfide, methane,            (Examples: air, tap water,         (Examples: soup,
    oxygen, silver)                        aluminum, silicate)                (Examples: air, tap water,          (Examples: soup,
      oxygen, silver)                        aluminum, silicate)                     gold alloy)                 concrete, granite)
                                                                                       gold alloy)                 concrete, granite)
                         HOMEWORK =)

 Read Oobleck Lab-There will be a QUIZ before the lab over what you will
  be doing!
 Make sure you bring the lab back-you will not receive another one. =)
 Book work:
  § PAGE 69: 15-17
  § PAGE 76: 21-23
  § PAGE 77: 25-27, 30
          FOR THE REMAINDER OF CLASS

 Work on Classifying Matter Worksheet
 If you finish-read Oobleck Lab

				
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