Case hardening steels Carbodur Deutsche Edelstahlwerke GmbH

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Case hardening steels Carbodur Deutsche Edelstahlwerke GmbH Powered By Docstoc
					Case hardening
                          For how long a component meets the requirements          Hardness and toughness of the base material    Via the high level of control during the secon-
                          and how reliably it withstands sudden peak loads,        are determined by its chemical composition     dary metallurgical treatment and remelting pro-

Case hardening            depends on the material that the part is made of.        and heat treatment. The desired properties     cess, steels can be produced within very narrow

steels Carbodur
                                                                                   of the steel are already taken into conside-   analytical ranges and still obtain an extremely
                          In the end, the performance of a small part determines
                                                                                   ration at the melting stage.                   high degree of purity. The high level of macro-
                          the cost-effectiveness of large devices or machines.                                                    scopic and microscopic cleanliness, the homo-
                          The more meticulously a material is tailored to          The facilities at Deutsche Edelstahlwerke      genous structure and the fine particle stability
                          the functions of the individual components, the          allow for exact and reproducible chemical      of the Carbodur steels set standards:
                                                                                   compositions.                                  Carbodur: Providing special steel solutions
                     better the performance of the entire system. Deutsche
              Edelstahlwerke specialises in manufacturing specialty steels
        with specifically defined qualities. The family of case hardening
        steels marketed under the „Carbodur“ brand is proof of the top rank
        that Deutsche Edelstahlwerke holds internationally in the field of
        heavy-duty specialty steels.

                                       02                                                                                           03
The world of Carbodur steels

.... is geared up to meet your needs. The            Operational disruptions resulting from the         For each component, a suitable material          and impact without any cogs breaking. The
individual components of the powerful gears          failure of gear components are not only            is chosen based on factors such as safety,       case-hardened parts must be highly wear-
used in hydro-electric power plants, wind            costly but also represent a safety risk.           cost-effectiveness, durability as well as        resistant, exhibit high fatigue strength around
power plants and in the marine and offshore                                                             extreme short-term stresses if necessary.        the edges and impact resistance in the core.
industry not only have to withstand enormous         So in this field, it is not resistance to impact
pressures per unit of area, they also have to        or shocks that matters most, but hardness          The differential of a Formula 1 bolide, for
be able to run continuously. Wear resistance         and core strength. Our chromium-nickel-alloyed     example, must be able to perform for a
and fatigue strength are therefore essential.        and chromium-nickel-molybdenum-alloyed             relatively short period of time – the duration
The Carbodur precision gear wheels used              Carbodur steels have the best prerequisites        of one race, to be exact. In this short period
in propeller drives on oil rigs and turbo trans-     for fulfilling these demands.                      of time, however, the stresses resulting
missions in power plants are able to with-                                                              from the enormous torque transmission
stand those stress reliably, while their wear        As versatile as the requirements for com-          are extremely high. Carbodur steels can
resistance ensures that the components               ponents of the individual moving parts are –       be designed specifically for that task. The
remain dimensionally stable. In the mining           the possibilities of adjusting our Carbodur        gear wheels of a truck used in the harsh
industry, safety and reliability are of the          steels to the specific set of requirements         construction site environment, on the other
utmost importance. The underground mining            are just as versatile.                             hand, must be tough all the time and must
equipment is practically engaged non-stop.                                                              be able to withstand sudden shock loading

                                                04                                                                                                         05
In passenger transportation, safety is the           The precision required for a printing machine       Deutsche Edelstahlwerke not only provides
top priority. In automotive engineering,             is essentially comparable to that of clockwork      the perfect steels for any size cross-section,
engines and gears, the specific properties           mechanisms. Screen widths of up to 0.01 mm          but also delivers rough-machined parts such
of Carbodur steels are therefore particularly        are required in order to achieve the finest print   as breaker plates or hollow shafts as a sub-
beneficial, for example for piston pins,             results. The many gear wheels of the individual     contractor.
gear wheels, motor shafts, countershafts,            printing mechanisms must be manufactured
synchroniser bodies, ring gears, differential        to extremely close tolerances. Wear would           Please ask one of our experts about these
bevel gears, bevel pinions and differential          lead to clearances in the wheel work and could      options.
side gears. High precision on the one hand           thus negatively affect the print result. This
and maximum robustness on the other –                means that the gear wheels and individual
two different requirements, but Carbodur             components of premium printing machines
can meet them both.                                  must be manufactured from a steel with a
                                                     chemical composition specifically geared
                                                     towards requirements such as good harde-
                                                     nability. The steel and therefore the individual
                                                     components must exhibit high core strength
                                                     and wear-resistant surface. It must retain these
                                                     qualities over years and in despite very high
                                                     operational speed.

                                                06                                                                                                        07

Effects of alloying elements on                       impact resistance in chromium-manganese                                             Up to a carbon content of approximately 0.5 %,
hardenability                                         steels.                                                                             molybdenum, chromium and manganese                                                  0.90
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  17 Cr 3
The case hardening steels may be distinguished                                                                                            increase hardenability. At higher carbon levels,                                                                                        20 NiCrMo 2-2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0.80                                                20 MoCr 4
by alloy composition as follows:                      The properties of case-hardened parts are                                           however, the hardness begins to drop again.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 MnCr 5
                                                      affected by hardness in the core just as much                                                                                                                           0.70        C                                       20 NiMoCr 6-5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  17 CrNi 6-6
  non-alloyed case hardening steels                   as by the hardness in the carburised layer. A                                       The following diagram demonstrates the case                                         0.60            0.60
  chromium-alloyed case hardening steels              surface hardness of 57-63 HRC has proved                                            hardening depth of different case hardening

                                                                                                                                                                                                Carbon content in weight %
  manganese-chromium and molybdenum-                  favourable for optimal wear resistance. This                                        steels at equal carbon curves in the surface layer.                                                        0.46            1.50 mm

  chromium-alloyed case hardening steels              hardness is usually achieved at a surface                                           According to the diagram, the different alloy                                       0.40                   0.39
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             0.35 % C
  nickel-chromium-alloyed                             carbon content of approx. 0.7 % C and is not                                        contents lead to a case hardening depth that is                                                            0.34
  case hardening steels                               dependent on the steel composition.                                                 twice as high in the 17 Cr 3 steel (CD 0.80 mm)
  nickel-chromium-molybdenum-alloyed                  Higher carbon contents in the surface layer                                         as it is in the 17 CrNi 6-6 steel (CD 1.56 mm)

  case hardening steels and                           increase hardness only slightly. Over-carburisa-                                    despite the otherwise identical conditions.                                         0.10         Eht


  chromium-nickel-molybdenum-alloyed                  tion in the edge zone may lead to decreased
  case hardening steels                               toughness as a result of secondary cementite                                                                                                                                    0       0.4    0.8      1.2      1.6         2.0      2.4   2.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Distance from the surface in mm
                                                      precipitating. The hardness may also decrease
The alloying elements affect the hardenability        with increasing residual austentite levels.
of the base material and of the carburised
                                                                                                                         The effect
surface layer. The hardenability of a base ma-
                                                                                                                         of alloying-
terial is characterised by the face quenching                                                                            elements on
test according to DIN EN ISO 642 and is an                                                                               the depeth of
important parameter in assessing hardness                                                                                case hardening

in the core because case-hardened parts are
                                                      Hardness in HRC

tempered at low temperatures of up to 180 °C
in order to retain a high degree of surface hard-
ness. The following diagram shows the effect of
alloying elements on the hardenability of different
case hardening steels according to the DIN EN
10084 face quenching test. At a distance of
                                                                        Distance from the quenched front surface in mm
1.5 mm between abutting faces, the hardness
is primarily determined from carbon content.          The case hardening depth (CD) – which per
The further course of the face quenching curve        definitionem signifies the distance from the
is also affected by other alloying elements that      surface of a case-hardened workpiece to the
increase hardenabiltiy, such as molybdenum,           point, where the Vickers hardness is generally
manganese, chromium and nickel. For smaller           550 HV1 (see DIN EN ISO 642) – is defined
cross-sections, full hardening is possible with       by the depth of hardening, the heating and
chromium or manganese-chromium steels,                cooling conditions during hardening and by
whereas larger cross-sections require additional      the hardenability in the carburised surface layer.
alloying elements such as molybdenum or               However, the conditions that apply to the base
nickel to fully harden. For the sake of retaining     material, do not apply to the hardenability of
toughness, the carbon content is limited to           the edge layer because the effects of the alloy
approx. 0.25 %. In special cases boron may be         components on hardenability also depend
added to increase hardenability or to increase        on the carbon content.

                                              08                                                                                                                                                                             09
Case treatment, a case hardening procedure                                                                                                            Phases of case treatment

There are many options for making the surface        Hardening                                                                                        Direct hardening                                                                         Single hardening
of a steel harder: Inductive hardening of the        Hardening is a type of heat treatment, which                                                                    Carburisation (gas or salt bath)                                          after isothermal transformation
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ac3 (core)
surface is possible for steels with sufficiently     entails austenitisation and quenching under                                                                                                  Ac3 (surface)                                                 Carburisation

                                                                                                                                                                                     Hardening (oil)                                                                               C
high carbon content, while other steel grades        such conditions that the hardness increases                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ac3 (core)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ac3 (surface)

                                                                                                                                                                                            Tempering                                                                               Hardening (oil)   Perlite
with lower carbon levels may be nitrided,            as the result of the more or less full transfor-                                                                                                                                                             Salt bath
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      stage (core)
                                                                                                                                                                     Time                                                                                         transformation
borided or carburised. As the chart below            mation of austenite into martensite and possibly
shows, there are different carburising methods.      bainite. Quenching from hardening temperature                                                    In direct hardening, the temperature is lowered
The carburising procedure initially used was         is performed in oil or, if the materials and work-                                               slightly to the hardening temperature after                                              After carburisation, the product is placed in
carburisation in the solid state by means of         pieces are not too sensitive, in water.                                                          carburisation, then the workpiece is hardened                                            a salt bath for isothermal transformation,
charcoal powder. Then carburisation in salt          In order to transform larger amounts of re-                                                      in oil until it reaches room temperature and at                                          then brought to hardening temperature again,
baths became common. Today, carburisation            sidual austenite into martensite after hardening,                                                the end it is tempered.                                                                  hardened in oil and then tempered. This is a
in plasma or in an appropriate gas are standard      subsequent subzero cooling may be performed                                                                                                                                               very time-consuming procedure hardly used
methods. Carburisation always entails several        for chromium, nickel, and chromium-nickel-                                                       Single hardening                                                                         with today‘s molten salt baths.
steps:                                               molybdenum steels.                                                                               after cooling from the case
                                                                                                                                                                     Carburisation                                                             Double hardening
                                                                                                                                                                                                    C                          Ac3 (core)
  Carburisation of the surface layer by                                         Basic heat treating methods                                                                                                                    Ac3 (surface)                 Carburisation

                                                                                                                                                                                                       Hardening (oil)
  carbon diffusion at high temperatures                                                                                                                                 (case                                                                                                                         Ac3 (core)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ac3 (surface)
                                                                                                                                                                        or air)

                                                                                                                                                                                                       Tempering                                                                   Hardening (oil)
  Subsequent hardening                                                                Thermo-                                         Thermal
                                                         Thermal                      chemical                                         forming                                                                                                                  Hardening
                                                        procedures                                                                                                   Time                                                                                                           Tempering
  Stress relief                                                                      procedures                                      procedures                                                                                                                 (oil)

                                                                                                                                                      In this procedure, the component is cooled
Carburisation                                                               Non-metal
                                                                                                                            diffusion                 down to room temperature after carburisation                                             After carburisation, the product is hardened
                                                                            procedures             procedures              procedures
The level of carbon in the surface layer primarily                                                                                                    and then heated up to hardening temperature                                              in oil from the carburisation temperature,
depends on the carburating effect of the medium,                                                                                                      again. This method is time consuming and can                                             cooled down to room temperature and then
                                                                Carburisation        Nitriding      Boriding     Decarburisation   Dehydration
while the depth of hardening is dependent on                                                                                                          lead to cracking.                                                                        heated to hardening temperature once again.
the temperature and duration of the treatment.                                                                                                                                                                                                 Once the material has reached the actual
Because the diffusion rate increases with rising                                                                                                      Single hardening                                                                         hardening temperature, it is hardened in oil
                                                     Carburisation in   Carburisation in     Carburisation      Carburisation in   Carburisation in
temperatures, the desired depth of hardening          solid matter         salt bath            in gas              plasma          low pressure      after intermediate annealing                                                             and then tempered. Double hardening is only
is generally achieved faster with high tempe-                                                                                                                                                                                                  performed if tough surface layers and cores
ratures. At the same time, the carbon content        Tempering/stress relief                                                                                                         Intermediate            C    Hardening Ac3 (core)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ac3 (surface)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               are required in large cross-sections with high
                                                                                                                                                                        Cooling      annealing                    (oil)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ac1 (core)
gradient flattens from the surface to the core.       This method entails heating a hardened work-                                                                       (case                                                                  hardening depths. Double hardening generally
                                                                                                                                                                        or air)
Representative of their different carbon levels,     piece once or several times to temperatures                                                                                                                                               entails hardening from slightly above the Ac3
surface and core of a workpiece exhibit              between 150 to 200 °C depending on the                                                                                                                                                    temperature of the core and then from slightly
different Ac3 and Ms temperatures as well as         steel grade. Tempering martensite in this way                                                    The diagram shows additional intermediate                                                above the Ac3 temperature of the surface layer.
differing transformation curves. If carburisation    reduces the risk of tension cracking and                                                         annealing after cooling from the carburising                                             The high risk of deformation is a disadvantage
occurs at too high a temperature or for too          increases ductility.                                                                             treatment, so that the carburised product                                                of double hardening.
long, it may result in unwanted grain growth                                                                                                          becomes more resistant to cracking. However,
(mixed grain) and possibly in distortion.                                                                                                             manufacturing is tedious.                                                                The case hardening methods and media are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               greatly and generally dependent on material,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               shape and cross-section.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               For economic reasons, however, the direct
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               hardening procedure is most widely used.

                                              10                                                                                                                                                                                                             11
Processing guidelines                                                                                                                                                         Overview of the Carbodur Family

Cost reduction potential                             Premium quality for premium products                                                                                                     Code             SAE           Core                           Availa-
                                                                                                                                                                              Grade           designation      similar       strength   Toughness   Costs   bility
Case hardening is a rather tedious process           We supply premium quality for your special                                                                                                                              --o++      --o++       --o++   --o++
consuming large amounts of energy. Since             demands. You can look forward to the following                                                                           Carbodur 1140   C 15 R                            --         --         ++        o
the diffusion process in carburisation is depen-     properties in our select materials:                                                                                      Carbodur 5714   16 NICR 4                          o         +          o         -
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 5715   16 NICRS 4                         o         +          o         -
dent on temperature, the process time may
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 5732   14 NICR 10       3415              +         +           -        -
be cut in half if the temperature is increased                     Steels may be used as components
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 5752   17 NICR 13       3310, 3312,
significantly, up to 1,050 °C. In order to main-                   for anti-friction bearings,                                                                                                                 3316             ++        ++           -        -
tain fine grain stability despite the higher                       low distortion due to modified                                                                             Carbodur 5792   12 NICR 3                          o         +          o         -
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 5805   10 NICR 5 4                        o         +          o         -
temperature, we provide the suitable steel                         hardenability of the steel,
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 5807   15 NICR 6 4                        o         +          o         -
grades, for example 18CrNiMo7-6 modified or                        high grade quality according to
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 5810   18 NICR 5 4                        +         +           -        -
20NiMoCr6-5 modified. The fine grain stability                     DNV approval,                                                                                              Carbodur 5860   14 NICR 18                        ++        ++           -        o
of these steel grades at high temperatures                         properties according to ISO 6336-5,                                                                        Carbodur 5918   17 CRNI 6 6                        +         +          o         +
and their suitability for operation have been                      superclean and sulphur-free,                                                                               Carbodur 5919   15 CRNI 6        4320              +         +          o         +
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 5920   18 CRNI 8                          +        ++          o         +
proven. They are also suitable for components                      case hardening up to process temperatures
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 6523   21 NICRMO 2 2    8615, 8617,
with large cross-section that require enormous                     of 1,060 °C due to additions to the material.                                                                                               8620, 8717        o         +          o         +
hardening depths making carburising treatments                                                                                                                                Carbodur 6526   21 NICRMOS 2 2                     o         o          o         o
of up to 80 h necessary.                                                                                                                                                      Carbodur 6543   21 NICRMO 2 2                      o         +          o         -
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 6566   17 NICRMO 6 4                      o         +          o         -
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 6569   17 NICRMOS 6 4                     +         o          o         -
Heat treatment before case hardening
                                                         Carbodur fine grain stability ... with or without niobium (schematically)                                            Carbodur 6571   20 NICRMOS 6 4                     +         o          o         o
The preceding heat treatment is essential                                                                                                                                     Carbodur 6587   18 CRNIMO 7 6    ~                ++         +          o        ++
for a good result after case hardening (also                                                    Without niobium
                                                                                                With niobium
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 6657   14 NICRMO 13 4 9310                +        ++           -        o
determined by the grain size of the material).                                  1,080                                                                                         Carbodur 6723   15 NICRMO 16 5                    ++        ++          --        -
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 6757   20 NIMOCR 6 5                      +         +          o         +
As the following diagram shows, the different                                   1,060
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 7015   15 CR 3          5015              -         -          ++        +
                                                    fine grain stability [°C]

heat treatment methods clearly affect fine grain
                                                      Max. tempature for

                                                                                1,040                                                                                         Carbodur 7016   17 CR 3                            -         -          ++        +
stability. It is therefore important to choose                                                                                                                                Carbodur 7121   20 CRMNS 3 3                       -         -          ++        +
the preheating treatment that is appropriate                                                                                                                                  Carbodur 7131   16 MNCR 5        5115              -         -          ++       ++
for the material before the process steps are                                   1,000                                                                                         Carbodur 7139   16 MNCRS 5                         -         -          ++       ++
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 7147   20 MNCR 5        5120              -         -          ++        +
determined so that the final product fulfils                                     980
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 7179   20 MNCRS 5                         -         -          ++        +
all of its requirements.
                                                                                 960                                                                                          Carbodur 7160   16 MNCRB 5                         -         -          ++        o
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 7168   18 MNCRB 5                         o         -          ++        +
Machinability of case hardening steels                                                      U             BF        ACI       ACII            N            FP                 Carbodur 7211   23 CRMOB 4                         +         o          +         −
in the soft state                                                                                                                                                             Carbodur 7242   16 CRMO 4        ~                 +         o          +         o
                                                          U: untreated                            ACI: AGC < Ac1           N: normalised
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 7243   18 CRMO 4                          +         o          +         −
Machinability depends on the chosen material          BF: tempered                                ACII: AGC > Ac1         FP: treated for ferritic-pearlitic microstructure
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 7264   20 CRMO 5        ~                 +         o          +        ++
and its state of heat treatment. In isolated
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 7271   23 CRMOB 3 3                       +         o          o         o
cases, modified analyses may be helpful as well                                                                                                                               Carbodur 7311   20 CRMOS 2                         +         o          o         −
as adding a small amount of certain alloying                                                                                                                                  Carbodur 7321   20 MOCR 4                          +         +          o         o
elements promoting machinability.                                                                                                                                             Carbodur 7323   20 MOCRS 4                         +         o          o         o
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 7325   25 MOCR 4                          +         +          o        ++
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 7326   25 MOCRS 4                         +         o          o        ++
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 7332   17 CRMO 3 5                        +         o          o         o
                                                                                                                                                                              Carbodur 7333   22 CRMOS 3 5                       +         o          o         +

                                               12                                                                                                                                                                               13
Overview of the Carbodur Family                                                                                  Carbodur steels — anything but mass-market             Preparatory work upon request
                                                                                                                 goods. Custom tailored to your needs. Any of           Deutsche Edelstahlwerke is able to deliver
Grade           Group              Application/Properties                                                        the basic grades listed here may be adjusted           these steels as bars with large cross-sections
Carbodur 1140   Non-alloyed case For parts in mechanical engineering and automotive engineering with low         for optimal processing and/or low distortion           and at any processing stage.
                hardening steels   core strength, primarily for high wear stresses, such as levers and shafts.
                                                                                                                 during case hardening by means of heat treat-          We not only manufacture hollow shafts or steel
Carbodur 5714   Ni-Cr-alloyed      For highly stressed components subject to high impact loads
Carbodur 5715   case hardening     in mechanical engineering, which are required to exhibit excellent            ment at the factory.                                   discs sawed from the bar with or without bores
Carbodur 5732   steels             toughness at low temperatures.                                                                                                       but also components forged to shape. The
Carbodur 5752                                                                                                                                                           manufacturing depth includes shiny surfaces
Carbodur 5792                                                                                                                                                           with tight tolerances.
Carbodur 5805
Carbodur 5807
Carbodur 5810                                                                                                                                                           Take advantage of our diverse facilities and
Carbodur 5860                                                                                                                                                           allow us to be your subcontractor. Speak
Carbodur 5918   Cr-Ni-alloyed      For highly stressed components in mechanical engineering and auto-                                                                   with one of our experts, they will develop
Carbodur 5919   case hardening     motive engineering with high level of hardness and toughness in                                                                      a customised solution with you.
Carbodur 5920   steels             larger cross-sections, e.g. bevel drive pinions, bevel wheels, shafts,
                                   pins and countershafts.
Carbodur 6523   Ni-Cr-Mo-alloyed For parts in mechanical engineering and automotive engineering with
Carbodur 6526   case hardening     higher core strength, such as gear wheels, universal joint crosses
Carbodur 6543   steels             and ball bearing retainers.
Carbodur 6566
Carbodur 6569
Carbodur 6571
Carbodur 6587   Cr-Ni-Mo-alloyed For heavy and highly stressed components in mechanical engineering,
Carbodur 6657   case hardening     which are required to exhibit excellent toughness, e.g. gear wheels,
Carbodur 6723   steels             bevel wheels and worm gear shafts.
Carbodur 6757   Ni-Mo-Cr-alloyed For highly stressed components in mechanical engineering and auto-
                case hardening     motive engineering with high level of hardness and toughness e.g.
                steels             bevel drive pinions, bevel wheels, shafts, pins and countershafts.
Carbodur 7015   Cr-alloyed case    For parts in mechanical engineering and automotive engineering
Carbodur 7016   hardening steels   with low core strength, primarily for high wear stresses, such as
                                   piston gears and cam shafts.
Carbodur 7121   Cr-Mn-alloyed      For parts in mechanical engineering and automotive engineering
Carbodur 7131   case hardening     with higher core strength, such as piston gears, cam shafts and
Carbodur 7139   steels             gear wheels.
Carbodur 7147                      For parts in mechanical engineering and automotive engineering
Carbodur 7179                      with higher core strength, such as pinions, ring gears, main shafts
Carbodur 7160                      and countershafts.
Carbodur 7168
Carbodur 7211   Cr-Mo-alloyed      For parts in mechanical engineering and automotive engineering
Carbodur 7242   case hardening     with higher core strength, such as gear wheels and bevel drive
Carbodur 7243   steels             pinions with high gear tooth strength.
Carbodur 7264
Carbodur 7271
Carbodur 7311
Carbodur 7321   Mo-Cr-alloyed      For parts in mechanical engineering and automotive engineering
Carbodur 7323   case hardening     with higher core strength, such as pinions, ring gears, main shafts
Carbodur 7325   steels             and countershafts.
                                                                                                                 General note (liability)
Carbodur 7326                                                                                                    All statements regarding the properties or utilization of the materials or products
Carbodur 7332   Cr-Mo-alloyed      For parts in mechanical engineering and automotive engineering                mentioned are for the purpose of description only. Guarantees regarding the existence
Carbodur 7333   case hardening     with higher core strength, such as gear wheels, ring gears, shafts            of certain properties or a certain utilization are only ever valid if agreed upon in writing.
                steels             and universal joint crosses.
                                                                                                                 No responsibility is taken for the correctness of this information.

                                         14                                                                                                                                15

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