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					Integrating Large Scale, Innovative Solar Thermal Systems into the Built Environment




June 26, 2013
J    26
11:00am – 12:30PM
Track: Renewable & Alternative Energy Sources
Sponsor: 6.7 Solar Energy Utilization


Hybrid Geothermal / Solar Thermal                  Jim Leidel
      S t     Part1 D i
HVAC System: P t1 Design                           O kl d University
                                                   Oakland U i    it
(OU Human Health Building)                         Denver, June 26, 2013
        Session Learning Objectives
1. What do solar thermal energy systems provide for the built
   environment?
2. Components of active solar thermal systems?
3. Examples of loads served by solar thermal systems.
4 Th            t di    h
4. Three case studies where l        l thermal systems.
                             large solar th     l   t
5. Thermal energy storage (it’s use and sizing) required by
             gy pp y
   solar energy supply vs load. Review for each case.
6. Design challenges & major system design options faced
   while implementing large solar thermal projects.

   ASHRAE is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit
earned on completion of this program will be reported to ASHRAE Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion
                                    for non-AIA members are available on request.

  This program is registered with the AIA/ASHRAE for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include
content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or
   any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to
            specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.       2
                   AGENDA
• Quick Look at Solar Thermal Economics as
  Compared to Solar PV
• Case Studies:
  – Oakland University Human Health Building: Hybrid
    Geothermal / Solar Thermal HVAC System: Pt 1 Design
                 gy
  – District Energy St. Paul: Solar Thermal & Biomass for
    Downtown St. Paul, Minnesota
  – Drake Landing Solar Community with Seasonal Energy
    Storage




                                                      3
Economics of Solar Thermal


 Solar PV vs. Solar Thermal
  in Today’s Marketplace
$600
                                y     @ ,        q       (60% efficient)
                       Thermal System @$1,400 / sq meter (             )
$500                   PV System @$4.00 / Watt (15% efficient)
$400

$300
                                                                                                 16% solar capacity factor
$200                                                                                             for both & solar thermal
                                                                                                 assumes 80% effeff.
$100
           $5 to $12 / MCF                                                                       displaced gas heat
  $0
       $0.02

               $0.03

                         $0.04

                                 $0.05

                                         $0.06

                                                 $0.07

                                                         $0.08

                                                                 $0.09

                                                                         $0.10

                                                                                 $0.11

                                                                                         $0.12

                                                                                                    $0.13

                                                                                                            $0.14

                                                                                                                    $0.15

                                                                                                                            $0.16

                                                                                                                                    $0.17
                        Utility Cost per kWhr (or kWhr equivalent of natural gas)


   Comparison of the annual energy value of two
            $10,000
   separate $10 000 solar systems: PV and solar
          thermal at various utility rates.
                    PV Annual Output Value for a $10,000 Investment

                            $1,000
                            $1 000

                     alue    $900
                             $800
              nergy Va

                              $700
                              $600
                              $500
      Annual En




                              $400
                              $300
                              $200
                              $
      A




                              $100                                                                         $0.16
                                 $0                                                                       $0.14
                                                                                                        $0.12
                                     0

                                    0
                                   .5




                                                                                                       $0.10
                                                                                                       $0 10
                                  .0


                                                   0
                                $2




                                                 .5


                                                            0
                               $3




                                                          .0


                                                                     0

                                                                                                     $0.08
                                              $3




                                                                   .5


                                                                              0
                                                       $4




                                                                            .0


                                                                                       0
                                                                $4




                                                                                     .5


                                                                                                0
                                                                         $5




                                                                                              .0
                                                                                  $5                Utility Electrical


                                                                                           $6
                                     Cost per Watt (installed cost)                                 Cost per kWhr
                                                                                                           p

Sensitivity analysis of $10,000 PV investment with varying
installed cost and natural gas or electric rates
     Thermal Annual Output Value for a $10,000 Investment


                          $1,000
                          $
                           $900
                   alue

                           $800
    Annual Energy Va



                            $700
                            $600
                            $500
           E




                            $400
                            $300
                            $200
    A




                            $100
                               $0                                                                  $11.00
                                                                                                  $9.00
                                    00

                                   00




                                                                                                $7.00
                                 00
                                  ,0




                                                  00
                                ,1
                              $1




                               ,2




                                                            00

                                                                                               $5.00
                                                                                               $5 00
                             $1




                                                ,3




                                                                      00
                            $1




                                                          ,4




                                                                                00
                                             $1




                                                                    ,5




                                                                                          00
                                                       $1




                                                                                               Utility Natural
                                                                              ,6
                                                                 $1




                                                                                        ,7
                                                                           $1


                                                                                     $1
                                                                                                 Gas Cost
                            Cost per Square Meter (installed cost)
                                                                                                 p
                                                                                                 per MCF
Sensitivity analysis of $10,000 solar thermal investment with
varying installed cost and natural gas or electric rates
                                                             PV                                                                          Solar Thermal

                      $1,000
                                                                                                              $1,000
                       $900
                                                                                                                   $900
Annual Energy Value




                       $800
                                                                                                                   $800
                        $700
                                                                                                                   $700
                        $600                                                                                       $600
                        $500                                                                                       $500
                        $400
                        $                                                                                          $400
     l




                        $300                                                                                       $300
                        $200                                                                                       $200
                        $100                                                                         $0.16         $100
                           $0                                                                       $0.14             $0                                                                    $11.00
                                                                                                  $0
                                                                                                  $0.12                                                                                   $9 00
                                                                                                                                                                                          $9.00
                               0




                                                                                                                           00
                              0
                             .5




                                                                                                 $0.10                                                                                   $7.00




                                                                                                                          00
                            .0


                                             0




                                                                                                                        00
                                                                                                                         ,0
                          $2




                                           .5


                                                      0




                                                                                                                                          00
                                                                                                                       ,1
                         $3




                                                    .0




                                                                                                                     $1
                                                               0




                                                                                               $0.08




                                                                                                                      ,2
                                                                                                                                                                                       $5.00




                                                                                                                                                    00
                                        $3




                                                             .5




                                                                                                                    $1
                                                                        0




                                                                                                                                        ,3




                                                                                                                                                              00
                                                 $4




                                                                                                                   $1
                                                                      .0


                                                                                 0




                                                                                                                                                  ,4




                                                                                                                                                                        00
                                                          $4




                                                                                                                                     $1
                                                                               .5


                                                                                          0




                                                                                                                                                            ,5
                                                                   $5




                                                                                                                                                                                  00
                                                                                                                                               $1
                                                                                        .0




                                                                                                                                                                                       Utility Natural




                                                                                                                                                                      ,6
                                                                            $5




                                                                                                                                                         $1
                                                                                              Utility Electrical
                                                                                     $6




                                                                                                                                                                                ,7
                                                                                                                                                                   $1


                                                                                                                                                                             $1
                               Cost per Watt (installed cost)                                 Cost per kWhr                                                                              Gas Cost
                                                                                                                    Cost per Square Meter (installed cost)
                                                                                                                                                                                         per MCF




                      Sensitivity analysis of separate $10,000 PV or solar
                      thermal investments with varying installed cost and
                      natural gas or electric rates
        Conclusion?

 Need to utilize solar thermal
  energy for more than just
space heating & domestic HW.
             g

    Look t
    L k at space coolingli
(displacing electricity usage)
Located in Southeast
Michigan, just north of Detroit
in suburban Oakland County
Public University

Golden Grizzlies

19,000 students

3.0M square feet

132 baccalaureate
degree programs

126 graduate
degree and
certificate
programs
1,440 acre
campus
      Clean Energy Projects at Oakland




Human Health Building: Geothermal / Solar Thermal Hybrid Project
What are Ground Source Heat Pumps?




Cooling Mode              Heating Mode
400 Tons                  150 Tons



   Heat                       Heat
   Rejected                   Absorbed
   to the                     from the
   Earth                      Earth

 also referred to as Geothermal Heat Pumps
               or GeoExchange
HHB Project Overview
Technologies Utilized
Geothermal System




             150 ton ground loop
             (heating load only)
Geothermal System (grant funded full system)




                 400 ton ground loop
                 (full cooling load)
Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pumps
Solar Thermal Desiccant Dehumidification
Temperatures Needed for Thermally Activated
Cooling Technologies
100% Outdoor Air Unit (with desiccant)
Technical Approach
Desiccant Dehumidification
         Cooling
         C li




Dedicated Outdoor Air Units (DOAS)
    Desiccant Dehumidification
             Cooling
             C li




COOLING
MODE
Ground Loop Spec’s
Ground Loop Spec’s (pg2)
ENERGY
SYSTEM
DIAGRAM
ENERGY
FLOWS
                           ete     o at o
                          Meter Information
TAG      Description            Unit   Media             Dirctn Meter
Eelect
  l t    Electrical utility     kWhr Electricity         In       Nexus 1262
Espv     Solar photovoltaics    kWhr Electricity         In       Shark 200
Eng      Natural gas utility    MCF    Natural gas       In       Gas
Esth     Solar thermal system   BTU    Solar hot water   In       Ultrasonic BTU
Egeo     Ground loop            BTU    Ground loop water Bi-dir   Ultrasonic BTU
Estore   Solar ground storage   BTU    Solar hot water   Bi-dir   Ultrasonic BTU
EV1in    DOAS intake air        BTU    Outdoor air       In       Air flow & temp
EV1out   DOAS intake exhaust    BTU    Exhaust air       Out      Air flow & temp
EV2in    DOAS intake air        BTU    Outdoor air       In       Air flow & temp
EV2out   DOAS intake exhaust    BTU    Exhaust air       Out      Air flow & temp
Eexh     Laboratory exhaust     BTU    Exhaust air       Out      None
Esmelt   Snow melt system       BTU    Hot water         Out      Ultrasonic BTU
Meter information
Nexus 1262       Utility switchboard electric meter

Shark 200        Multifunction panel electric meter

G
Gas              Rotary natural gas meter with pulser
                 R t      t l         t    ith l

Ultrasonic BTU   Ultrasonic flow and energy meter

Air flow & temp Dedicated Outdoor Air Unit (DOAS)
                with packaged air flow station and
                temperature / humidity sensors used
                by the building automation system to
                  l l
                calculate energy
MECHANICAL
  SYSEMS
      SOLAR            BOILER   DOAS
DOAS
     THERMAL                      2
  1
               H/C’s




                    SNOW    SOLAR
                    MELT   THERMAL
GROUND                     STORAGE
 LOOP    DOMESTIC
           HW
 GROUND LOOP
WATER DIAGRAM
SIMPLIFIED HEATING DIAGRAM
SIMPLIFIED
 HEATING
 DIAGRAM
 SIMPLIFIED
  COOLING
  DIAGRAM



SWS = SOURCE
WATER SUPPLY
CONTROL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
VRF
Heat
   p
Pumps
 a ab e
Variable
Refrigerant
Flow
Compressors
with VFD’s
Solar PV on top of penthouse
End of Part 1: System Design




        Construction,
Part 2: Construction Commissioning &
Lessons Learned
Part 3: Energy Monitoring & Performance
    Questions ?
         Jim Leidel
Director of Clean Energy Systems
       leidel@oakland.edu
       leidel@oakland edu
  www.oakland.edu/CERC and
   www.oakland.edu/ENERGY

				
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posted:8/6/2013
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