Counterclaims and Rebuttals by pptfiles


									Language of Argument
 …how to lay the smack down on your
     unsuspecting opponent!
Language of Argument
  Counterclaims and Rebuttals
         Language of Argument
Counterclaim (n): An argument that makes an
 opposing point to another argument.

Rebuttal (n): A statement that gives reasons why an
 accusation is untrue; when you make a rebuttal of a
 counterclaim in an argument, you give reasons why
 that counterclaim is not a good argument.
           Counterclaim and Rebuttal
      You should buy a motorcycle. They are smaller than cars and
allow you to move into and through traffic with ease. By being able
to move into and through traffic with ease, you can save time by
not having to sit in traffic.
      Some may argue that because motorcycles are smaller than
cars, you should not buy one. While this argument is valid in the
sense that motorcycles can be more dangerous than cars because
they are smaller, the benefits of driving a motorcycle, such as
saving money on gas, make it a good reason to buy.
         Counterclaim and Rebuttal
      Hybrid cars are an effective strategy to fight pollution.
Driving a private car is a typical citizen’s most air polluting
activity. Because cars are the largest source of private (as
opposed to industry produced) air pollution, switching to hybrid
cars should have an impact on fighting pollution.
      Another reason why hybrid cars are an effective strategy to
fight pollution is because hybrid cars combine a gasoline engine
with a battery-powered electric motor. This combination of
technologies means that less pollution is produced.
        Counterclaim and Rebuttal
     Some people feel that instead of focusing on cars,
which still encourages a culture of driving even if it cuts
down on pollution, the nation should focus on building
and encouraging use of mass transit systems. While mass
transit is an environmentally sound idea that should be
encouraged, it is not feasible in many rural areas, or for
people who must commute to work; thus hybrid cars
are a better solution for much of the nation’s population.
       Counterclaim and Rebuttal
       Sentence starters for Counterclaim and Rebuttal

“On the other hand, some people believe ______...”

“One may argue _________; however, _____...”

“Some people feel that_________; however,_____...”
      Counterclaim and Rebuttal
Make the Counterclaim real!

You will not fool anyone by misrepresenting
 people who disagree with you; in fact, you will
 only weaken your own position because you will
 appear to fear the truth. Bring up a counterclaim
 that represents a (seemingly) valid objection to
 your claim.
      Counterclaim and Rebuttal
Never make a counterclaim you cannot rebut!

Bringing up the opposing viewpoint and then failing
 to show why it is wrong will cause your audience
 to doubt that your position is the only right one
 (which is the point of persuasion, after all).
         Counterclaim and Rebuttal
Make it clear that you do not agree with the

Do not allow your audience to think you are simply
 contradicting yourself. How can you persuade
 someone to accept your claim if you sound like you do
 not completely accept it?
          Counterclaim and Rebuttal
Do not repeat a reason you have already given to rebut
 the counterclaim!

The rebuttal should focus specifically on the objection in
 the counterclaim. If you merely repeat what you have
 already said, your audience will assume you cannot
 think of an effective response.
           Counterclaim and Rebuttal
You are allowed to have more than one rebuttal!

The more reasons you can give to show that the counterclaim is
 wrong, the better.
            The Context of your Claim
                How do you start your letter?

Before you can jump into your claim, evidence, warrants,
  counterclaims and rebuttals, you must explain the context
  for your argument in an introduction.

Three teenagers, all of which are deserving, are applying for
 admission to your university and the basketball program.
       The Context of your Claim
        How do you start your letter?

This is your chance to WOW the reader!!!
         The Context of your Claim
You may want to address these questions in your

 What was the process for deciding which teen
  should be first on the list?
 Who made up the committee (group) that is making
  the recommendation?
 What considerations did you take into account as
  the criteria for judging each candidate?
         How to Write Your Letter
                     Evidence #1:


 Evidence #2:        Counterclaim:

 Warrant:            Rebuttal:
         Closing Out Your Argument
           How do you END your letter?

After you have stated your claim, evidence,
 warrants, counterclaim, and rebuttals, it is
 time to tie is all together in a conclusion!
        Closing Out Your Argument
A good conclusion in an argument paper should
            include a call to action!

You’ll want to reiterate who your athlete of
choice was, state the two most important
qualities he/she possesses (evidence), and what
exactly you want the committee to do!

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