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					      Here I have tried to answer some basic SAP HR Questions:

      1. What are infotypes?

      Infotype is a logical grouping of related fields of employee information. For example, Employee addresses
      (Permanent, Temporary, Home, Emergency etc...) form one Infotype.

      2. What are personnel actions? What is the transaction for executing personnel actions?

      Any activity carried out on an employee (personnel) such as - hiring, promotion, change of pay,
      termination etc... is called a Personnel Action. In SAP, each actions is performed as a combination of
      edits to several individual infotypes. The transaction for executing Personnel Actions is PA40.

      3. What are the important info types for a hiring action?

      The following infotypes are part of the hiring action and will be edited in the same sequence when the
      hiring action is performed:

1.    0000 - Actions (to capture employee movement info in the organization)
2.    0001 - Organizational Assignment (to capture employee positioning in the organization)
3.    0002 - Personal Data
4.    0006 - Address
5.    0007 - Planned Working Time (Store planned working hours for the employee.)
6.    0008 - Basic Pay
7.    0009 - Bank Details
8.    0014 - Recurring Payment
9.    0015 - Additional payment
10.   0016 - Contract Elements
11.   2006 - Absence Quotas


      4. What is IMG? What is its importance? What are the functions you can execute using IMG?

      IMG is short for "Implementation Guide". It is used for customizing SAP R/3. The SAP Implementation
      guide lists all the required steps for configuration, customization and implementation of various SAP
      modules like HR, FI, CO, MM, SD etc... in a simple to understand tree structure. This can be accessed by
      the transaction "SPRO".

      5. What is customizing? What does customizing support?

      Customizing means modifying the functionality of the system provided by SAP to meet the needs of the
      company implementing it.

      6. How do you create a Project IMG? What are project views?

      On SAP Easy Access Menu, Go to Tools -> Customizing -> IMG -> Project Administration. Click on
      'Create' and give necessary details.

      7. What are the IMG attributes?

      Each IMG activity has the following attributes as part of the IMG structure.
Assignment to ASAP Roadmap, Processing necessity level, Critical function, Assignment to business
application component, Country assignment, Assignment to Customizing object, Enhancement.

Further attributes are possible.


8. What is an enterprise structure? enterprise structure is the back bone of HUMAN RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT. Enterprise Structure is an structure depicting the organizations units i.e personnel areas,
personnel subareas, employees . In Enterprise structure we define company, company code, personnel
area , personnel subarea


9. What is a personnel structure? The Enterprise Structure and Personnel structure are used exclusively
in system rules for the processing of pay roll, time benefits and changing organization structure

10. What is the highest level of the enterprise structure? Company Code

|

Personnel Area

|

Personnel Sub Area

11. What is company code? Is it defined in HR? If not where is it defined? company code is defined in
financial management of enterprise structure. It is a 4 character alpha numeric code to be defined in order
to be unique and identifiable.

12. What are personnel areas and its functions?

"A personnel area is an organizational entity representing an area within an enterprise defined by specific
aspects of personnel administration, time management and payroll."

13. What are personnel sub areas and its functions?

personnel sub areas are sub divisions of personnel area. The strategies for designing of personnel
subareas is to represent a categorization of the position units in the organization. It also helps to define
the type of employees or persons to be hired


14. How is an employee in the HR Master data linked to a company to which he belongs?

An employee is an Pers area and Pers Sub area. These are assigned to a Company code and country
grouping.

15. Can a personnel area be assigned to many company codes?

A pers area / pers sub area combination can be assigned to one company and one country grouping.
Thus a pers are may be linked to one or more company codes. Country code determines currency for the
employee. Company code determines the organizational structure that the employee belongs to. It
provides the links to FI/CO and for functions/processes like payroll posting, costing. When you assign a
     person to a pers area/sub area, you also need to assign to a position in an Org unit. To do this the
     MP000100 goes to the FI module to check if FI is implemented.

     16. What are the indicators defined by personnel sub areas?

     17. How do you categorize the employee groups?

     Employee groups are just ways of categorizing employees such as 'Active', 'Retired', 'Intern', 'Inactive',
     'Temporary', etc. however a company may define it.

     18. What are employee subgroups and what are the indicators set up using employee subgroups?

     Employee subgroups are used to break down the Employee Groups such as someone who is in the
     'Active' group could be considered several different types of employees within the organization. The
     subgroups can be defined how a company sees fit be it different types of 'Hourly' and 'Salary' groups or
     defined by administrative position or task.

     19. Employee groups are two character and employee subgroup are two character representations in the
     IMG. Do you support this statement? Employee group is one character i.e. 1 active , Employee sub group
     is division of employee group two characteristics i.e 02- salaried employee....

     No, Employee Groups are single alphanumeric characters while Subgroups are two character.

     20. In the HR Master data where are planned working times for an employee seen?

     In transaction 'PA20' or 'PA30', Planned working time (infotype 0007) can be found under the contract
     data tab. Or give the infotype as 7 in the infotype field in PA20 or PA30 click on Display button on top.

     21. Do I need to give country assignment to personnel sub areas in customizing? If true support the
     statement and if not what’s true?

     False. See answer to Q 15 above.

     22. What are the various objects in an organizational plan?. How does any company use an
     organizational plan?

     An organizational plan is a hierarchical overview of the organization and is comprised of Org Units (O),
     Positions (S), Jobs (C), Persons (P), Cost Centers (K), Tasks, and Users.

     23. Describe the following

1.   Tasks - a specific function or activity that can belong to another
2.   Job - Description of activity performed by the employee
3.   Position - occupied by an employee in the company , it is company specific
4.   Organizational unit - describes various units of the company it depends on tasks and functions
5.   Cost Center - cost center can be related to organizational unit and position.

     24. Which of the above objects belong to HR?

     All of them are utilized in HR.
25. How do you integrate OM and PA? If integration is active what happens when a position is entered in
IT 0000.? What else does the system default? Can these values be changed? What is this called?

The integration switch PLOGI - ORGA must be set (value X) in the table T77S0 to enable the integration
between OM and PA. If the integration is active, on entering the position in IT 0000, the system populates
the org unit, cost center, job, company code, business area, payroll area etc by default in IT0001.

26. Are cost center assignments hierarchical? Where do you assign these in OM?

Yes. Cost center assignment is inherited from the hierarchy above. Cost center can be assigned to an
organizational unit or a position.

27. What are attributes of objects? Is vacancy a common attribute for all objects? Object attributes are
object name and abbreviations object type object ID planned status planned version relationship validity

28. What are the other additional organizational assignments?

29. Name the three administrators? How do you default these in IT0001?

Personnel administrator, Payroll administrator and Time administrator. these are defaulted using the
feature PINCH

30. What is organizational key? How many bytes/characters does it constitute? How can it be defined?
What is it mainly used for?

31. What are employee attributes and how are they classified? Employee attributes are activity status,
employment status and training status.

32. What are features? What is the transaction for features?

Features are objects in the system that determine a specific value by querying different enterprise
personnel or data structure fields. The value is known as a "return code" or "result". This value is used to
determine default values and to control certain system processes. Features enhance system flexibility.
Transaction: PE03. Example: Feature ABKRS provides a default value for the payroll area. This is based
on the data found in an employee’s Org Assignment.

33. What are the features to default and in which infotype

1.Work Schedule Rule SCHKZ- IT0007 2.Pay Scale Data TARIF-IT0008 3.Wage Type Model LGMST-
IT0008 4.Administrator groups PINCH-IT0001 5.Number Range Intervals NUMKR

Feature NUMKR is used to define whether the employee numbering created for such personnel area
would be created internal (proposed by the system) or external assignment (User Define).

Feature TARIF can be used to default basic pay Info group entries per Personnel Sub Area based on pay
scale type/area and its relationship with payscale group and leveling.

Another useful feature is ABKRS, that is the feature which defaults payroll area

34. Number Range Intervals
     NUMAP is the feature in order to identify the Applicant Number Ranges NUMKR
     is the feature in order to identify the Infotype 0000 (Actions) while Hiring
     an employee

     35. What is ABKRS? feature for default payroll areas

     ABKRS : Default Value for Payroll Area Task : This feature enables you to obtain the default value for the
     payroll area. Use : Infotype 0001, Organizational Assignment Procedure : The return value of the feature
     is a payroll area from table T549A, Payroll Areas. This can be overwritten and is reassigned and
     displayed in a warning message when changes are made to the organizational assignment.


     36. What are the two ways of maintaining features? Transaction Code PE03

     37. What is the info type to store personal data for an employee?

     Ans : 0002

     38. Where are the default values for working hours per period taken from in IT 0008?

     39. Why is employee subgroup grouping for pcr significant for payroll?

     40. What does collective agreement provision determine? How do you depict different payments in the
     system?

     41. What does employee subgroup grouping for CAP allow you to assign?

     42. What is payscale type and payscale area? Payscale type - industry eg: Metal/Chemical Industry
     Payscale Area - Geographic Region


     43. You assign payscale types and areas to

1.   Company code
2.   Payroll area
3.   Employee subgroup
4.   Personnel subarea

     44. What are wage types? How wage types are broadly classified? Wage types are classified as Model
     Wage types starts with M Customized wage types start with number Technical Wage types always starts
     with /

     45. How do you set up wage types? PU30 - copy wage type from model wage type T511- Wage type
     characteristics

     46. What are slash wage types? Technical wage types, these are generated during payroll calculations
     and cannot be maintained directly.

     47. Why are wage type groups used? Give some examples of wage type groups.

     48. What is transaction pu95?
49. Where in the IMG do i ensure that the wage types are associated with the enterprise and personnel
structure.?

50. Where are all wage types stored?

51. Are all wage types permissible for all info types ? If Yes or NO support statement?

52. What are the wage type characteristics that can be defined?

53. How do you valuate wage types? Where do you configure this in the IMG?

54. What are module name and module variant?

55. Explain significance of TARIF , SUMME and PRZNT in regards to indirect valuation?

56. Briefly explain the two different ways to perform pay increase?

57. In dynamic pay increase what are variants A, G, D, E, T , C and R?

58. What are the info type attributes?

59. What are system controls?

60. What is DYNPRO ? What are the main elements of a screen?

DYNPRO represetns the screen and it's flow logic in module pool concept.
Screen elements = text fields, input/output field, drop down list box, check
boxes, push button, box, sub screen, table controls/ step loops, tabstrip
control, status icon, OK_CODE field

http://www.thespot4sap.com/Articles/SAP_Design_Screen_Elements.asp

61. What naming conventions are the info types subject to?

62. Where are the info types relevant to retroactive accounting for payroll and time management defined?

63. What are the significance of field triggers in retroactive accounting?

64. What do you need to do in the IMG to specify certain info types for certain countries only?

65. Where can you store a passport photo of an employee? Where do you do the settings in the IMG?

66. What is TCLAS = A and TCLAS = B?

67. Where can you change the attributes of individual screens?

68. What are infotype menus or info menus? Are they user group dependable?

69. What setting do i need to make for a SAP user to see that he has the relevant infotype menus?
70. Where do I assign the IG (infogroup) to the personnel action type? Are infogroups user group
dependable?

71. What is IGMOD?

IGMOD is a feature. The SAP description of the feature is

IGMOD Infogroup Modifier

Object Feature Task Grouping combinations of control features in an event
using a modifier. Use o Table - Infotype groups - T588D o Infotype - Events -
(I0000) Procedure In table T5299, the nameup is, in turn, defined in table
T588D in conjunction with the control features: company code, personnel area,
employee group, employee subgroup. The return code of the feature is a
modifier which reads table T588A.


72. For a country reassignment action what setting do i need to do in the IMG?

73. What are additional actions? What are the ways in which i can activate additional actions for an
employee? Where are additional actions stored? Can we see the infotype record where additional actions
are stored directly?

74. What is the significance of status indicator in personnel actions?

75. What are MSN20, MSN21 and MSN32 in relation to personnel actions?

76. Where do you define the action reason in the IMG?

77. What is user group dependency of the action menu?

78. With a leaving action what is the employment status changed to?

79. What are dynamic actions? What can they trigger?

80. What is PAMA? What is M0001?

81. What are general authorizations?

82. What are structural authorizations?

83. How are authorizations defined? An authorization object can define maximum 15 fields that occur in
an authorization? True or False?

84. What is an authorization profile? How are users authorizations determined?

85. What is a role? How the access to transactions, reports and web based applications included in a role
defined?

86. Roles can be found under generic name SAP_HR*? True or False?

87. What is a profile generator?
     88. How do you create users?

     89. What are the ways of setting up general authorization checks?

     90. What are the two types of double verification principle ? Explain with example?

     91. Authorization main switches are stored in Table T74SO or T76SO or T77SO? To permit extended
     authorization check along with master data check what settings need to be done?

     92. Describe in brief the period of responsibility with reference to a user giving examples?

     93. What are P_ORGIN and P_ORGXX?

     94. What are evaluation paths?

     95. To implement structural authorizations you need to have existing the PA module? True or False?

     96. What do C, S, P and O stand for?

     97. What do mean by the terms

1.   Status vector
2.   Display depth
3.   Period
4.   Function Module

     98. Describe in brief giving examples how period of responsibility is determined for the general
     authorization check in a structural authorization check?

     99. What are PD profiles and SD profiles? What do they do?

     100. What do you mean by planned times? Where are these stored for an employee?

     101. What do you mean by actual times? Where are these stored for an employee?

     102. What do you mean by deviations? Where are these stored for an employee?

     103. What do you mean by negative time and positive time? Where do you use time evaluation?

     104. What is RPTQTA00? What does it do? What is RPTIME00?

     105. What is time management status 7? What is it used for?

     INTRODUCTION                                                                                   Top of Form

                                                                                                        /w EPDw UKMTAy

     PS: I am trying to change the look and feel of this wiki and i hope you enjoy this
                                                                                                    A
     transition which is something similar to craning your neck,widening your eyes and
                                                                                                    Community
     reading from the walls of a cave to lets say an ECC-6.0 portal. Don't ask for more. I am a
                                                                                                    of 2.0
SAP consultant --> got it folks. Enjoy Reading.                                            Million
                                                                                           Professional
                                                                                           s
Another request is those editing this wiki do it at the end by copying and not making
changes to the existing answers. Sriinivas                                                   Your E-mai

I hope that many young SAP HR consultants have tried answering these questions.I
                                                                                             Get Started
would like to discuss these questions and would begin first by discussing what SAP HR is
all about. SAP HR or SAP Human Capital Management (HCM) is one of the largest
modules in the SAP R/3 system which consists of many submodules like                         2


Organizational Management                                                                    /w EWBALz9K6oD

Personnel Administration
                                                                                           Bottom of
Recruitment                                                                                Form

Time Management

Payroll                                                                                    Popular
                                                                                           Articles in
Benefits                                                                                   SAP Human
                                                                                           Resources
Compensation Management

Personnel Cost Planning
                                                                                           Documentin
Budget Management
                                                                                           g the AIX
Personnel Development                                                                      VIO Server
                                                                                           VSCSI
Training & Event Management                                                                Allocations
                                                                                           using a
Travel Management
                                                                                           Database.
Environmental Health & Safety (under the SAP HR node in SAP Easy Access)
                                                                                           Webalizer
Many of these sub modules are further sub divided into many components for eg Time
                                                                                           Basics of
Management is further divided into Time Administration, Shift Planning, Incentive
                                                                                           Excel VBA:
Wages and Time Sheet. Environment Health & Safety is further divided into
                                                                                           Cell
Occupational Health & Industrial Hygiene & Safety.
                                                                                           Navigation

                                                                                           How do I
With the advent of mySAP, SAP HR was then called mySAP HR. What got added with
                                                                                           escape
"mySAP" (mark this word) was the web services like ESS (Employee Self-Service) and the
                                                                                           single
MSS (Manager's Self Service) which gave empowerment to the employees and
                                                                                           quotes in
managers - employees to better manage their own data and managers to better manage
                                                                                           SQL
their own departments/divisions. This became the turning point for SAP HR to shift from      queries?
being a data repository to a strategic tool where the HR departments now focused more
of strategic tasks than administrative ones which were now offloaded to the employees        Sharepoint
and managers using these self services.                                                      Interview
                                                                                             questions

Looking back at the earlier days, when the HR Head required a headcount report from
all his divisions, it would mean asking for each division to provide data and than
receiving this data at the HR Headquarters. Compiling the same and providing it to the
management could possibly take a few days to maybe weeks where the data accuracy
could be questioned, data could be redundant etc. This was due to the fact that the HR
data would be sitting across in different systems in different locations and the IT
practices being followed differently (if not HR) at these different locations.If one could
not get an accurate HR report one could wonder trying to get information of HR
integrated to other functions like Logistics etc would have made life so difficult for an
HR consultant.

With the advent of SAP , and the SAP HR module , all the HR information for an
organization/company got collated at one place in a very structured manner.To find a
specific information for an employee (one who is on the payroll of the organization) or
applicant(one who intend to be on the payroll of an organization), all one needed to do
is use a transaction like "PA20" which is Display HR master data( note this is so
important because this is the basis of an SAP system ie it is a transactional system) and
enter the 4 digit infotype number to view an infotype.

To see the address of an employee use the transaction "PA20" and go the Display HR
master data screen, enter the unique 8 digit employee number (this is the primary key
to all employee information ), type infotype 0006for that employee and see the current
information or history (using the list view)stored there.



[edit]

INFOTYPES



Infotypes are also called information types and are pre-defined templates to enter
sensible related information for an employee or applicant. for eg an address infotype
would have fields like street & house no, city, pin code.This infotype is unique and is
represented by an infotype number eg address has infotype no 0006. There other
infotypes like
0000 - Actions (to capture employee movement info in the orgnization)

0001 - Organizational Assignment (to capture employee positioning in the organization)

0002 - Personal Data

0006 - Address

0007 - Planned Working Time (Store planned working hours for the employee.)

0008 - Basic Salary

0009 - Bank Details

0014 - Recurring Payment

0015 - Additional payment

0016 - Contract Elements

2006 - Absence Quotas


The above infotypes together in the same sequence form a part of the Hiring Action.To
make you understand this better just try and recollect the contents of your offer letter
which your organization might have given you. It would possibly read "We are delighted
to offer you the position (IT 0001) of ______. You will belong to ______ department (IT
0001). Your joining date will be ______(IT0000)and you will be paid a salary of ______
(IT 0008). You will be paid monthly allowances ______ (IT 0008 or IT 0014) and we are
also offering you a joining bonus of ______ (IT 0015). You will be eligible for annual
leave of ______ days (IT 2006) and sick leave of ______ (IT 2006).You will be on a
probation for six months from the date of joining (probation date & confirmation date in
IT0016). Your working hours will be from ____ hrs to ____ hrs beginning Monday to
Friday (IT 0007) and we look forward to your presence on date ______(IT 0016)......

I hope this gives you some idea of what an infotype is.

This must have raised a question in many minds that "Hey ! I got the offer during my
recruitment so how come this is being referred to after hiring?" Well thats simple - this
is because all your relevant data that was captured during recruitment was transferred
to the the master (called HR master data)during the hiring process.

So how was it captured in recruitment?

Well, this was captured using recruitment actions like shortlist candidate, for interview,
make offer, offer accepted till you join the organization and sign the joining letter when
your data actually gets transferred from the Recruitment module to the Personnel
Administration module.Again this data was captured in recruitment infotypes.

So we can now get an idea that in SAP HR ,all data is captured in infotypes.

[edit]

INFOTYPES CATEGORISED

Infotype 0000-0999 - Personal Administration

Infotype 1000-1999 - PD objects (for OM)

Infotype 2000-2999 - Time Management

Infotype 4000-4999 - Recruitment

Infotype 9000-9999 - For Custom Development

If you closely observe that many of the recruitment infotypes are clones of personnel
administration infotypes.I hope this gives you some idea of what an infotype is. Lets
look at what we mean by subtypes. A subtype is sub-categorization of an infotype. Not
all infotypes are sub-categorized and hence only some required infotypes would have
subtypes. Lets take the case of Address Infotype (IT 0006). Now we would like to use the
same screen template to store ifferent types of addresses like Permanent,Temporary,
Office etc.This is because we would be capturing the same type of information which
would require the same fields like Street No, City, Country, Pin Code etc to capture
different address types information.SAP handles this by using subtypes for the Address
Infotype (IT 0006). So to store any Address Information we would need to specify both
the infotype and subtype. Certain other infotypes with subtypes are Dependents (0021),
ID Data (0185) etc.



[edit]

DATA AND AUTHORIZATIONS

When it comes to data these are the things that we can do to it

1> create data ( in sap hr we do this by creating new records )

2> view data ( by viewing the records created)

3> maintain data ( by changing/deleting records)

To be able to do one or three of the above , the sap hr user needs to be authorized to do
so . This is a part of data security handled by sap using what is known as authorizations.
Authorizations in sap hr are handled through roles ( such as payroll administrator,
training administrator , time administrator where these roles are given
create/maintain/view authorizations for combination of hr objects/hr infotypes&
subtypes /hr transactions/hr reports/hr clusters)called role based authorizations or a
combination of role based authorizations and the hr structures (like organization
structure, training calendar etc) called structural authorizations. These roles and
structural authorizations are assigned to the sap hr user based on his job profile.Data
security is the key andits important to know that you would see,create and maintain
data based purely on the tasks you perform in your organization as a sap user.So do not
get upset if your colleague can see more than you and does not divulge information as
the authorizations would be based on his/her job profile and remember that company
confidentiality & professional ethics are the most important qualification for any sap
user.

Coming back to authorizations (this is for the configurators) , I mentioned earlier that
authorizations can be purely role based or a combination of role based and structural
authorizations . Lot of hr consultants state thatwe do not need structural authorizations
as we can use theorganizational key ( a field used for authorizations available only in IT
0001-Organizational Assignment).

However, one must clearly note that further authorizations using role based
authorizations can be provided by using organizational key field and that the
organization key does not replace the hr structures



[edit]

ORGANIZATONAL KEY IN AUTHORIZATIONS



The organizational key is a 14 character code which is restricted to a combination of
certain fields of the organizational assignment infotype -0001 like organization unit,
personal area, personal subarea, etc. Organization unit is a part of IT0001 and it is often
used as a part of the organization key. For most organizations, the organization key
suffices. However, when complex authorization requirements arise than organizations
with sap hr opt for structural authorizations. If you want an employee to have
authorizations to certain employee data of 5 sub-ordinate organization units you would
probably have to maintain all thefive organizational keys in the role assigned to the
employee which means more maintenance. This increases authorization role
maintenance and authorization errors ( if there is data inconsistency),which is realized
by organizations who are implementing or in a process of implementing structural
authorizations.


If you want to restrict the sap hr user access on the basis of training calendar or other hr
structures then you would need to use structural authorizations and cannot use role
based authorizations unless you do some custom development( which is not
recommended, when you have standard sap meeting your requirements). I would give
full credit to SAP for having understood that many organizations deviate from the
normal practices and have their own specific practices for which wherever
appropriate,Business Add-Ins also known as BADI’s have been provided to handle such
scenarios.

For more detailed information and whenever in doubt, always refer to your experienced
sap hr colleagues for guidance and help. Refer to appropriate sap documentation
provided by sap or its authorized education partners/vendors such as for ex. [1]. Please
note that this wiki is purely a discussion and not an education guide or a for formal sap
hr training. The assumption here is that all reading this wiki areyoung sap hr consultants
who are looking for advice or a forum to share their skills and knowledge.



[edit]

TRANSITION OF DATA TO INTELLIGENT DATA



Coming back to the discussion on data ( i would be visiting this time and again) one
needs to understand the transition of data with the advent and advancement of
information technology.Data started as drawings during stone age times , then came the
paper and we have text,numbers and language and with computers we had the
database systems storing data in structered format or we can call it structured data.
With the erp systems such as sap we advanced to Logical data and with the Business
Warehouse we further advanced to strategic data. Then came business intellegence and
we are now in a quest for intelligentdata.Its important to note the transition of data
from need driven to business driven and a continuous quest to improve data.Companies
who spend and invest in IT need to move with times and SAP has really helped countless
organizations achieve this transition. Companies are realising that good IT systems
means enhanced business returns, staying above competition and opportunities for
growth. Of course for this we need Human Resources ( i still do not like the word human
capital , i would prefer it to be called Human Talent)
[edit]

LOGICAL DATABASES



For every sap hr consultant it is important to understand HR logical databases in sap hr.
A layer above the physical database lies the hr logical databases called PNP, PCH and
PAP. Logical databases contain data tables from sub-modules of sap hr.

PNP logical database contain data tables (HR Master Data & Time Data)
infotypes 0000-0999 and 2000 to 2999)

PAP logical database contains data tables of Recruitment (4000-4999)

PCH logical database depends upon whether the object type is specified or not.

If the object type is specified , it would contain all infotypes for that object type and
those infotypes of objects related to that object type., However, if not specified it would
contain all infotypes.

Note : You should know when to choose between the PNP and the PCH logical
databases when building your report or query and the key is whether you want the
primary key for selection to be the personnel number or the object type.If the primary
key is to be the PERNR ( personnel number) then you should select the PNP logical
database and if you want it to be any object type like O – org unit, S- position, C- job ,L-
Business Event Group, D- Business Event Type E- Business Event….etc)

This means if you want to query by employee the business events attended, you choose
PNP, and if you want to know for certain specific business events who are the
attendees, you choose PCH logical database to build your query,program or reports.To
conclude,we can say that to build an sap hr query ,user & standard sap programs or
reports the preferred option and sap standard too, we use logical databases. I have used
the word preferred and not the only option because quering also allows you to directly
reference the physical tables without using logical databases but this is never
recommended by sap due to problems that it creates in hr authorizations and would
overlook error handling provided by sap for the infotypes. All sap hr queries, programs
& reports should use the logical databases.Hence if an sap user does not have
authorizations for that object or infotype which the program, query or report
references, then it would throw an error for the user.Please refer to the exhaustive sap
help documentation for more information on sap hr logical databases, infosets ,
reporting and quering.
[edit]

UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS



Deviating from the question and answers, I would like to highlight a story from the
Indian mythology. A teacher teaching his student archers asked them all to shoot an
arrow at a clay bird perched on the top of a tree and hit the eye of the bird. All the
archers shot at the bird but only one of them managed to hit the eye of the bird. When
the teacher asked all the student archers what did they see when they shot the clay
bird,some said they saw the bird on a tree,some said they saw the bird perched on the
branch. The archer who shot the bird was quiet. When he was asked by the teacher as
to what he saw , prompt came his reply “I saw the eye of the bird”.What I am trying to
highlight here is that it is very important for an SAP HR consultant to understand what
the customer requirements are and be focused on those requirements only.

[edit]

PROJECT SCOPING

All projects are time defined based upon agreed business requirements. Delivering what
has been agreed upon is what the consultants need to focus upon. Do not try to deviate
from what is defined unless agreed upon by the customer and the project team. Save
the frills, fancies and anything extra for the enhancements.SAP projects cost a lot of
money and the estimation is based on work to be done. A project's success depends on
meeting the objectives, goals and requirements for what the project endeavor was
carried out within the defined time lines. If the project deviates in cost, quality and time
, it indicates that what was defined as required by the customer is not being met.
Deviations to projects makes the project team loose motivation and interest, disturbes
human resource planning for other projects when they are to be released from the
existing projects and begin work on the other projects. In short it creates a chaos
besides financial losses.Many of us are in consulting and we need to understand the
bottomline- time is money. If your projects make profit, your company makes profit and
you too profit. This should be your motto.

So remember and drill this in your mind that requirements for an sap hr project are to
meet the company’s goals and objectives in initiating the project and clearly not what
the sap hr user or even for that matter the sap configurator fancies or wants.The
success of the sap hr project is only when the project sponsor states that it is a success.



[edit]
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS



[edit]

INFOTYPES

I have decided to answer all the questions directly to begin with now that you have
some fundamentals explained and then go ahead with more discussions

1.What are info types ?

Infotypes, known as information types are units of human resources information formed
by grouping related data fields together. These are represented in the sap hr system by
a unique 4 digit number eg. Personal Data (0002), Address (0006) etc. All customer
infotypes fall in the number range from 9000 to 9999. The fields in the infotype would
vary based on the country grouping for eg. if any employee belongs to country grouping
10 then he would have the SSN no field in the Personal Data infotype which would not
be seen in same infotype for country grouping 99.

*Infotype no SAP HR sub module

0000-0999 Personal Administration (HR Master Data)

1000-1999 PD Infotypes ( OM etc)

2000-2999 Time Infotypes

4000-4999 Recruitment Infotypes

[edit]

PERSONNEL ACTIONS& HIRING ACTION



2.What are personnel actions? What is the transaction for executing personnel actions?
Personnel Actions are the events of an employee’s employment history within the
organization beginning from hiring an employee to termination of the employee.Each of
these events need specific information to be captured. This is achieved in sap hr by
grouping together infotypes called as infogroup which appear one after another in
sequence to capture/change information in the infotypes whenever the personnel
action is executed. Personnel Actions are executed by transaction pa40.

3.What are the important info types for a hiring action? The important infotypes for
executing a hiring action are.

0000- Actions

0001- Organizational Assignment

0002- Personal Data

0003- Payroll Status ( this is automatically maintained by the sap system and not
required to be maintained in the info group for hiring)

0006-Address

0007-Planned Working Time ( This should always be maintained before infotype 0008
Basic Pay)

0008- Basic Pay

0009- Bank Details

0016-Contract Elements

0041- Date Specifications

2006- ( For annual leave & sick leave)

Note that it is the hiring action that allows you to assign an employee to the hr
structures.

[edit]

IMG & PROJECT IMG



4.5 & 6 What is IMG? What is its importance? What are the functions you can execute
using IMG? What is customizing? What does customizing support? How do you create a
Project IMG? What are project views?

IMG means the implementation guide. The configurators would customize the sap hr
system as per the customer requirements in the img. In the img you can create project
img’s which limit the customizing nodes to the requirement of the projects and for each
project img you can create multiple views like MM,SD,HR etc to get more specific. To go
to the implementation guide or img from the sap easy access menu ,you have to enter
transaction spro in the command line.

[edit]
ENTERPRISE & PERSONNEL STRUCTURE



5.What is an enterprise structure?

The enterprise structure is one of the HR structures. The HR enterprise structure
composition depends upon the hr administrative, time and payroll functions for that
company. It comprises the client, company code, personal area, personnel subarea and
the organization key. The hiring action assign an employee via infotype 0001-
Organizational Assignment to the enterprise structure. The enterprise structure is the
enterprise perspective of an employee.

6.What is a personnel structure?

The organizational personnel structure describes how the employee is positioned in the
organization. This is an individual perspective of an employee in an organization. It
comprises of the employee group, the employee sub group and the organization plan
(org unit, position, job) for that employee. The hiring action assigns an employee via
infotype 0001- Organizational Assignment to the personnel structure.


7.What is the highest level of the enterprise structure?

The client is the highest level of the enterprise structure.

8.What is company code? Is it defined in HR? If not where is it defined?

The company code is an organization unit(this is different from the hr organization unit.
Different modules like SD, MM, etc have their own organization structures with their
own organization units) which has its own balance sheet and profit and loss account and
is defined in the FI module.

9.What are personnel areas and its functions?

Personnel (( Please note the spelling -> its Personnel (group of people)and not
Personal(Individual)) Area is the sub division (understand these two words) of the
company code and can represent a functional area or geographical location.These play a
very important role in the time and payroll configurations. Each personnel area is
unique to a company code (mark these words) and is represented by a 4 character code.

10.What are personnel sub areas and its functions?

The further divisions (understand this word) of a personnel area are defined as
personnel subareas. The functions are similar to the personnel area. Each personnel
subarea too is unique to a personal area (mark these words) and is represented by a 4
character code.

Hi everyone, i would be continuing with the answers to the rest of the questions as an
when i get the time and try to keep this going till completion.

11.How is an employee in the HR Master data linked to a company to which he belongs?

EMPLOYEE--->PERSONNEL AREA--->COMPANY CODE--->COUNTRY GROUPING-->CLIENT

12.Can a personnel area be assigned to many company codes?

No. A Personnel Area can be only assigned to one company code. Many personnel areas
can be assigned to the same company code but the vice versa is not true.

13.What are the indicators defined by personnel sub areas?

The indicators are all personnel sub area groupings for hr, time, payroll which are very
critical to the sap hr implementation. They are also used tolimit HR authorizations.

14.How do you categorize the employee groups?

Employee groups are categorized based on employee/staff regulations of work and pay
such as

Active

Retiree/Pensioner ….. and so on.

These are also used to limit HR authorizations.

15.What are employee subgroups and what are the indicators set up using employee
subgroups?

Further division of the employee groups are called the employee subgroups such as
under employee group 1-Active you could have employee subgroups such as AA–Hourly
wage earner, AH–Salaried Employee …. And so on.The indicators are all employee sub
area groupings for hr, time, payroll which are very critical to the sap hr implementation.
They are also used to limit HR authorizations.

16.Employee groups are two character and employee subgroup are two character
representations in the IMG. Do you support this statement?

False. Employee groups are one character and employee subgroups are two character
representations.

17.In the HR Master data where are planned working times for an employee seen?
IT 0007- Planned Working Time using transaction pa51 – Display time data

18.Do I need to give country assignment to personnel sub areas in customizing? If true
support the statement and if not what’s true?

No. You do not need to give country assignment to personnel sub areas. You need to
give country assignments to the employee subgroups on assigning to employee groups
in the enterprise structure.



[edit]

HR MASTER DATA & ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT



19.What are the various objects in an organizational plan?. How does any company use
an organizational plan?

Tasks

Job

Position

Organizational unit

Cost Center etc

The company organization structure and reporting structure is represented through the
organization plan. The active plan version is the current plan version and the other plan
versions are considered as various planning stages.Used for manpower planning.
Normally plan version"01" is always made the active plan version.

12.How do you integrate OM and PA? If integration is active what happens when a
position is entered in IT 0000.? What else does the system default? Can these values be
changed? What is this called?

Integration of OM and PA is possible through the integration switch setting in table
T770S which is PLOGI ORGA 1. If the integration is active and the position is entered in
IT0000 during a hiring action , than in IT0001 the following are automatically defaulted

Percentage

Job Key
Org. Unit.

These values are greyed out and cannot be changed. This is called account assignment.

13.Are cost center assignments hierarchical? Where do you assign these in OM?

Cost center assignments are hierarchical. You assign these in the account assignment for
OM objects. If your org unit in the lower hierarchy does not have a cost center
assignment , than it will be assigned the cost center of the upper hierarchical org unit till
one is found. For a position, if the cost center is not assigned, it will be assigned the cost
center of the org unit to which the position belongs and if not found here, than it will be
assigned the cost centre of the upper hierarchical org unit till one is found. These
assignments can be overridden by the cost distribution (IT 0027).

14.What are attributes of objects? Is vacancy a common attribute for all objects?

Attributes of an object are the properties of the object by which it is described. The OM
objects have some common attributes like Description, Relationship, Account
Assignment , Work Schedule etc and some unique attributes like Vacancy assignment
which is only for the OM object position.

15.What are the other additional organizational assignments?

The other additional organizational assignments are assigning the employee to
administrators in org assignment infotype 0001.

16..Name the three administrators? How do you default these in IT0001?.

The three administrators are

Personnel Administrator

Payroll Administrator

Time Administrator. Besides these the employee can also be assigned to

Group Administrator

A Supervisor.

These are defaulted through the feature PINCH.

17.What is organizational key? How many bytes/characters does itconstitute? How can
it be defined? What is it mainly used for?

An Organization key is a 14 character code that could be formed by the combination of
parts/whole of certain field values in the org assignment infotype (0001) eg employee
group, subgroup, personnel area, sub area, org unit etc. It is used for authorizations.

18.What are employee attributes and how are they classified?

The employee attributes are all the information pertaining to that employee. They are
typically classified according to the HR structures to which the employee belongs such
as organization structure, pay structure, and are stored in form of well defined and
related information called infotypes.



[edit]

FEATURES



19.What are features? What is the transaction for features?

Features are objects those that default values by quering different enterprise, personnel
or data structure fields. The transaction code for features are pe03.

20.What are the features to default and in which info type ?

Work Schedule Rule

Pay Scale Data

Wage Type Model

Administrator groups

Work Schedule Rule SCHKZ - IT0007

Pay Scale Data TARIF - IT0008

Wage Type Model LGMST - IT0008

Administrator groups PINCH - IT0001

21. Number Range Intervals

Number Range Intervals NUMKR( which infotype??You try and answer this one)

22. What is ABKRS?

ABKRS is the feature that defaults payroll area

23. What are the two ways of maintaining features?)
The two ways of maintaining features are use using the table method or the tree
method.The experienced sap hr consultants prefer the table method of configuring a
feature whereas those who worked on 4.6 and later prefer the tree method.

24.What is the infotype to store personal data for an employee?

Infotype 0002 – Personal Data is used to store personal information of an employee. In
some countries you could use infotype 0077- Additional Personal Data.

25.Where are the default values for working hours per period taken from in IT 0008?

Taken from Infotype 0007- Planned Working Time. (Try and answer from which field???)

26.Maintaining a feature or its structure

In the Development(DEV) Client, use transaction PE03 to change a feature's decision
table. You can use either a tree structure view or a table view. For a beginner the first
one is easier to understand.

A feature provides a return value based on the decision tree using the values at the time
of execution. It is similar to a PCR (or a payroll calc rule) or a decision table which many
people would be familiar with.

A feature uses a data structure which is populated by the program before calling the
feature. A feature may use all or some of the fields in its structure. You can see which
fields can be used when you go to change/maintain a feature and then navigate to the
structure. The feature / structure screen shows the usable fields highlighted. If you need
to use a field not used currently, then highlight or select it. Then save it and regenerate.
Then the feature's decision table can be changed to use the new field/s.

The same applies if you want to use a different structure. The program that uses or calls
the feature will fill the new structure, provided the data is available in the program /
module / function / routine.

After changing the decision table and saving it in a transport, generate the feature.
Generating the feature is required when you change it manually. Then move the
transport to Quality Assurance(QA) or User Acceptance(UAT), Production and other
clients. Moving transports to another system/client will automatically result in
generating the feature in the target client. In older SAP versions like R/3 3.0 it was
required to generate after transport.

In Test or Prod system, sometimes the feature may not have been generated; this will
result in incorrect processing. This can be corrected by re-generating the feature in the
relevant client.

Some features use another feature. This is indicated in the function part having
'FLDID=xxxx'; here xxx would be the secondary feature being called by the primary
feature.
With such features, it is possible that the subfeature is copied from client 000 when the
main feature is generated. If you wish to force the feature to use the one from the
config client, a trick is to change the one in the config client with an insignificant change,
save it and then regenerate the main feature.

Feature is a client dependent object though it generates a program and client
dependent customizing transports (not workbench transports) are used.
For example, if you have a Development System with separate Dev clients for different
companies, then it needs to be maintained in the development client for that company.
One development system is used for Company A client 100 and Company B client 110.
Then the features need to be separately maintained in the relevant system and
transported to the corresponding QA & Prod clients.

In many customer installations, there are multiple clients for a Development system -
e.g., 010 for Dev (ABAP objects), 100 for config, 200 for Dev Test. If you have separate
client for employee/org data, then in the Test client you need to copy the transport
from the conifig client with SCC1 transaction, then generate the feature.

Generating a feature will result in generating a subroutine pool member. This
subroutine is called by the calling program in real time.
For example, LGMST feature will result in /1PAPA/FEATnnnLGMST, where nnn is the
system client number.



[edit]

PAYROLL



26.Why is employee subgroup grouping for pcr significant for payroll? 27.What does
collective agreement provision determine? How do you depict different payments in the
system 28.What does employee subgroup grouping for CAP allow you to assign?

The Personnel Calculation rule allows one wage type to be processed in different ways
in payroll and these different ways are through the ESG for PCR and ESG for CAP. The
ESG for PCR classifies which employees are to be paid on an hourly or monthly basis.
The ESG for CAP further classifies these employees based on their Collective Agreement
Provision as industrial workers or salaried workers (based on their worker/union
agreements.)Try and understand the esg grouping for pcr and esg grouping for cap and
how basic pay infotype behaves for these hourly, periodic and monthly agreements.
29.What is payscale type and payscale area?

These are used to assign the collective agreement types and areas to an employee via
infotype 0008- Basic Pay. Eg payscale type “01” -> Metal Industry and payscale type “01”
-> North Region

30.You assign payscale types and areas to

Company code

Payroll area

Employee subgroup

Personnel subarea

You assign payscale types and areas to personnel subareas under the node in the img
Check Assignment of Pay Scale Structure to Enterprise Structure


31.What are wage types? How wage types are broadly classified? 32.How do you set up
wage types? 33.What are slash wage types? 34.Why are wage type groups used? Give
some examples of wage type groups. 35.What is transaction pu95? 36.Where in the IMG
do i ensure that the wage types are associated with the enterprise and personnel
structure.? 37.Where are all wage types stored? 38.Are all wage types permissible for all
info types ? If Yes or NO support statement? 39.What are the wage type characteristics
that can be defined? 40.How do you valuate wage types? Where do you configure this in
the IMG? 41.What are module name and module variant? 42.Explain significance of
TARIF , SUMME and PRZNT in regards to indirect valuation?

Wage types are payroll objects used to store payroll components which include the
amount, number and rate. SAP has standard model wage types for different country
versions and depending upon your payroll implementation you should copy model wage
types from the correct country versions only.

The wage types are broadly classified into primary/dialog and secondary/technical or
slash wage types. Dialog wage types are those in which you can store values in the wage
types through the permissible payroll infotypes. The technical or slash wage types are
those wage types that are create during the payroll run only eg /101 – Total gross
amount, /550 – Statutory Net, /559 – Bank Details.

Wage types are permitted to be stored in payroll infotypes only if these are added to
the wage type groups. Eg Basic Pay IT0008 has wage type group 0008. Please note that
not always do Infotype no = wage type group.

Transaction pu95 is used to edit wage type groups. You need to assign the wage types to
the respective employee sub group groupings and personnel subarea groupings
wherever configuration permits for the wage types to be associated with the enterprise
and personnel structure. All wage types are not permissible for all infotypes( refer wage
type groups concept).

The wage type characteristics are attributes of the wage type as to what is permissible
and not permissible, what are the maximum and minimum value limits , what are the
units permissible, whether they are to be valuated directly ( values entered) or indirectly
( values as a reference to other wage type values).

You valuate wage types directly or using indirect valuation. You configure these in the
wage type characteristics and the corresponding indirect valuation tables where the
corresponding wage types from where the indirect values are figured out(these need to
exist). Module names are names given to different types of modules that valuate wage
types according to certain criteria eg TARIF, PRZNT etc. Variations in the module
valuation process are further provided by the specific module variants. For eg for TARIF
module the variants could be A, B, C and D. TARIF provides valuation according to
payscale group or/and level, SUMME & PRZNT are valuation using the basic
pay(IT0008)wage types . The 'SUMME' module corresponds to the 'PRZNT' module
except that the value of the wage type to be valuated indirectly is always the entire
basic pay.



[edit]

KEEPING FIT-MUST FOR SAP CONSULTANTS



The answer to my non sap question is ... Carnegie Mellon professor Scott E. Fahlman
was the inventor of the smiley

Since its Xmas time and the New Year 2008 arriving in a few days, I am not going to post
answers but share a story with you. Now this time of the year is when you gorge on food
and maybe add a few kilos too. Well what the heck we are all supposed to have fun this
time of the year.

Coming back to the story (I cannot confirm if this is true since it has been told to me)
there is this CEO cum owner of one of the biggest private corporations in India ( I will
call him CEO X) who had gone overseas for some round of negotiations to formalize a
contract worth several million dollars.The CEO of the company that was tendering the
contract (We shall call him CEO Y) was there too and he made CEO X walk across the
plant and climb a few stairs which left the Indian CEO sweating and panting for breath.
Now came the moment of signing the contract and CEO Y took CEO X aside and told him
in private that he was signing the contract mainly due to the business acumen of CEO X
but was really in two minds of taking that risk looking at the fitness of CEO X. CEO X
immediately realized that not only was this contract at stake but even his company was
at stake due to his fitness. He promised to get in shape in a few months and fulfilled his
promise to become one of the fittest CEO’s of the Indian corporate world.

I was also reading the other day and I quote “Good Looking People Get More Frequent
Promotions” or something similar like that. I would like to replace the Good Looking
with the words “Fitter” & “Well Groomed”.


This story applies very much to sap consultants too who are under constant pressures to
meet deadlines and have abnormal times of brunches, lunches and dinners coupled with
odd hours of sleep. Exercising in some form or the other to keep fit is a must, whether it
is laughter therapy, simple old fashioned walking or a hitting the gym for a six pack. If
you are hitting the gym for the first time make sure you are exercising under the able
guidance of a fitness expert.

It not all about sap that makes one a sap consultant folks.

Happy and Prosperous 2008.



[edit]

PAY INCREASE IN SAP HR




Welcome back and lets get back to answering the rest of the questions for the
remaining posts i make before i close this wiki from my end and let you all take over by
adding more questions and answers and carry this forward.

43.Briefly explain the two different ways to perform pay increase? In dynamic pay
increase what are variants A, G, D, E, T , C and R?

The two ways are

Simple pay scale increase using report RPU51000 which increases the wage types in
customizing

Standard pay scale increase where the wage types entered in IT0008 can be
automatically increased and the history of the wage types in IT0008 are also updated.
• Variant A ->Increases a wage type in IT0008 to an absolute amount

• Variant G->Increase total pay in IT0008 to an absolute amount

• Variant D->Increase by a difference by value or percentage.

• Variant E->Valuate according to another pay scale group

• Variant T->Add a new wage type to IT0008

• Variant C->Delimit an existing wage type in IT0008

• Variant R->Replace one wage type by another in IT0008


Only one variant can be defined for a wage type. You need to maintain table V_T510D in
the customizing and run the program RPITRF00 to carry out the standard pay scale
increase.

Make sure that you test your configuration and the execution of the report RPITRF00
only in the test system, run payroll test cases and take user acceptance before
transporting these changes to the Production. It is highly recommended that you always
do this in the supervision of a senior consultant with good sap payroll experience.



[edit]

INFOTYPE ATTRIBUTES

Hello once again.Moving to the next question on infotype attributes.

44.What are the info type attributes?

The attributes of the infotype are

The Text describing the infotype

The fields that make up the infotype

The subtype for the infotype whether mandatory when creating the infotype

The time constraint for the infotype

The retroactive accounting triggers for time and payroll

Entries in the payroll past are permissible or not
Org assignment(IT0001) check for the employee required or not.

Date settings for creation and selection of the infotype e.g. the infotype should always
be created with end date equal to 31.12.9999.

Technical details of the infotype such as single screen no, list screen no, activate list
entry or not, the dialog module, structure and consultant database table connected to
the infotype and something which we do not notice and that’s the field Applicant
(database)TAB which contains the name of a database table for an applicant infotype.

Infotype views

Country assignment/assignments of infotype

These are all defined as per requirements in the standard infotypes provided by SAP but
when you are defining custom infotypes in the 9000-9999 series range you need to
make sure you correctly define the attributes required for the custom infotype.

Before we end for now just checking on whether have we all made our New Year
Resolutions??? Any resolution for SAP????

I was watching an advertisement of a sitcom and there an very emotional and upset
mom was asking her teenage son and I quote “Do you really care for me?,do you love
me son? The son replied with all innocence on his face and truth in his eyes and I quote
again “ Of course mom, is that a question to ask, I do love you ,I do love your credit
card”

So would your SAP resolution be something like I love to work on sap and would
continue doing so because ……… ( don’t expect me to fill in the rest, its your resolution
folks).

Welcome back. My sap resolution is to finish answering the questions at the earliest and
this is forced since the coffee bills are beating the food bills at home.Lets now
understand something about the sap front end and what dynpro's is all about.

47.What is DYNPRO ?

In the SAP HR module, you execute a transaction by either entering a transaction code
or by selecting a branch from the SAP Easy Access tree for e.g.take the transaction pa20-
Display HR Master Data. Then you select the infotype and click display to view the
infotype. Each Screen in the sap hr module is typically made up of a screen which is
identified by a unique screen i.e. 2000 and contain screen fields .A screen program is
called as a module pool program. Eg infotype 0001 – Organizational Assignment screen
is the module program MP000100. Your transaction pa20 and selection of infotype 0001
is to display specific data for an employee. In this process this module program is
connected to the back end database through a corresponding data structure PA0001 by
this program and the data is read into the screen fields. This is only possible provided
the user authorization to access data is determined .The GUI status for this is
maintained as display where there are controls maintained at screen level to make sure
that changes to this infotype are not allowed.You can see this when you go to the
infotype 0001 in the display mode and press the key F1 and then read the technical
information where the information is mainly broken into three parts.

1.Screen Data – Where the module pool program MP000100 and screen number 2000 is
seen

2.GUI status – You see the module pool program MP000100 and the status DIS (Display)

3.Field Data – Information on the data base field on which you pressed the key F1.

In case of the transaction pa30, the data entered in the fields would first be checked by
system controls like data type, length, user access etc and than on save would the data
be transferred from the screen to the database through the data structure connected to
the screen. The technical information would read

1.Screen Data – Where the module pool program MP000100 and screen number 2000 is
seen

2.GUI status – You see the module pool program MP000100 and the status MOD
(Modify which means create or change)

3.Field Data – Information on the data base field on which you pressed the key F1.

Looking at the above we can now conclude that the sap screen, the interface programs
and controls of data flow from the screen to the database through the appropriate data
structure and vice versa could be called a dynpro. In case of creation of custom
infotypes , you will notice that the dynpro is a component of an ABAP program that is
created using the screen painter of the ABAP Workbench.



[edit]

DESIGN



Hi folks, today is the day when the car 'Nano'(priced around USD 2500/-) is launched by
non other than the legend Mr. Ratan Tata. Just to tell you that i kind of started my
career as a young employee learning the ropes and working for one of his companies in
India when he too was kind of establishing himself and was given this company to
progress .We were waiting for him to arrive to celebrate, if i recollect correctly, the 10th
anniversary of the company and there was a man who looked so confident and sure of
himself. Never has his group companies during his time or his predecessors time seen
any form of retrenchment under any circumstances.I and many others of my generation
have grown up hearing the name TATA and its brand value has always grown and never
diminished. We always relate TATAS to trust whether it is investment, products or
society in general. I would personally as an Indian like to salute him for this
achievement.Just to let people know that the car was something this legend wanted to
build the moment he saw a large family sitting on a scooter with small children.

A question to you folks before i say bye for now Did the project 'Nano happen due to 1>
Technological Advance 2> Environmental
Reasons 3> Social Causes or > Others?

If i was in India now i would now wonder what to buy, a computer or Nano. Irrespective
of it all it is the design of the Nano which has evoked interest everywhere. I was reading
some material on design and its very interesting to note that there are recommended
standards on web design. However, what my opinion is that whatever standards are
applied to software, you know your design is a success in all aspects if you have many
users viewing/creating maximum data in the shortest span of time.This indicates that
the users like to use the system time and again because the design features are liked by
them and meet there requirements,the system is easy to understand and use without
complications and the output created/viewed by them (data in this case) meets there
requirements.

Till we meet again.

Coming back to the answer on DYNPRO, you can now realise that the major advantage
of this design is that it separates the application from the database. There are error
checks built in the application level which do not permit syntatically incorrect data
enteries and try and keep the data in the database as clean as possible. That is why
whenever we load data to the sap system through BDC programs in these BDC programs
the ABAP consultant first records the screens for data capture and makes sure that the
data is loaded through the screen/module pool programs and never tries and writes
directly to the database. Then why do we always find sap hr data as incorrect and not
meeting the requirements? In my analysis the hr data is always changing for every
employee in the organization and this data has to correctly reflect in the sap hr systems
which is not happening or is getting delayed. One of the primary causes is because the
employee is not being given the ownership of his or her own data to maintain and the
process of gathering this data from the employee has not fully evolved in many
organizations. SAP realised this early and has come up with the Employee Self Service
interface. But this is not enough. For strategic HRdata we need to integrate the sap hr
system with the other sap modules/systems and give more value to the hr data.



[edit]

CHANGING HR DATA AND IMPACT



Some questions you ask yourself? How good is the HR administration in your
organization? Do you consider HR as a service industry? How come it felt by many that
HR folks come across as arrogant and rude? Is this due to lack of proper processes,
information and systems, lack of manpower or lack of initiative?

My answer to the question is that it is a combination of all factors and companies are
paying attention to all but the last factor and that is initiative.Do not companies pay the
sales personnel huge bonus/incentives for achieving their targets?Are not the
employees in finance paid incentives for closing the year balance sheets on time? Than
why is there no bonus/incentive for the HR folks for doing a good job such as meeting
recruitment targets, managing retention and an evergrowing requirements of
employees doubling their count every year and much more?This needs deep thinking ?
After all HR folks are human too. But than again as HR folks lets try and keep our cool
and not let our stress and frustrations rub on the employees. Lets try and give our best
and hope for the best.

My warning to the companies is if you do not give the HR folks what they truly deserve,
you would loose students choosing the stream of HR and looking at the requirements of
HR which are ever increasing with times these predict dangerous times ahead.



[edit]

BACK AGAIN TO INFOTYPES



Welcome back and now we are in the fast track mode.

61.What naming conventions are the info types subject to? 62.Where are the info types
relevant to retroactive accounting for payroll and time management defined? 63.What
are the significance of field triggers in retroactive accounting?

Infotypes are defined by 4 digit numbers and follow the following naming convention
0000-0999 -> PA Infotypes

1000-1999->PD infotypes ( which includes OM)

2000-2999-> Time Infotypes

4000-4999-> Recruitment Infotypes

9000-9999-> Customer defined infotypes

So whenever you are searching for a customer defined infotype make sure your search
is restricted between 9000 -9999.The infotypes relevant to retroactive accounting for
payroll and time infotypes are defined in the
IMG . Personnel Administration-->Customizing Procedures-->Infotypes-->Define fields
relevant for retroactive accounting--> Retroactive accounting relevance for payroll and
time per IT

Under this node you define for each infotype the following:- 1.Check if no organizational
assignment exists for the employee in IT0001-Organizational Assignment and throw an
error, warning or no message.

2.Maintenance of this infotype is permissible, permissible with warning, or not
permissible after the employee has left the organization (employee in inactive status).

3.Entries in payroll past are permissible, not permissible or check for entries in the
payroll past are infotype specific.

4.Infotype is not relevant for retroactive accounting, change in the infotype triggers
retroactive accounting or retroactive accounting is field-dependent according to table
T588G where the fields whose change in values should trigger retroactive accounting
are defined. Hence you can see the significance of field triggers in retroactive accounting
where retroactive accounting for a given infotype can be restricted to changes in the
past to certain fields of the infotype.

64.What do you need to do in the IMG to specify certain info types for certain countries
only?

SPRO-->Personnel Administration-->Customizing Procedures--> Assign infotypes to
countries



[edit]

PHOTO IN HR MASTER DATA
65.Where can you store a passport photo of an employee? Where do you do the
settings in the IMG?

You can store passport photos of your employees in the infotype header in infotype
Header Definition view (T588J).In the System Table view T77S0),determine the
document type with which you want to enter the passport photos in the optical archive.
The settings can be done at SPRO--> Personnel Administration--> Customizing User
Interfaces--> Change Screen Header

Again folks do not try this on your own but under the guidance of an senior HR
consultant and test this thoroughly in your test systems before moving to the live
system.



[edit]

TCLAS-THE CONCEPT



66.What is TCLAS = A and TCLAS = B?

TCLAS=A -->Transaction Class for Master Data (Personnel Administration)

TCLAS=B-->Transaction class for Applicant Data (Recruitment)


This transaction class has confused a lot of functional consultants and you just need to
understand that whenever you write a dynamic action, if you are writing one for Master
data then use TCLAS=A and if for Recruitment use TCLAS= B before you begin writing the
code for the dynamic action. Let us compare the Personnel Administration infotypes and
Recruitment Infotypes.

Personnel Administration :

IT0000 – Personnel Actions

IT0001- Organizational Assignment

IT0002-Personal Data…and so on

Recruitment

IT4000- Applicant Actions
IT0001- Organizational Assignment

IT0002-Personal Data.. and so no

If you can see above both the personnel administration and the recruitment modules
use a lot of the similar infotypes to store data . You can verify this by going to the PA
infotype through pa20 , choosing IT0001 and choosing any field and that press key <F1>
to view technical details and you dothe same when you go to display applicant master
data under transaction data through pb20 where you choose any applicant , select and
view infotype Organizational Assignment (IT0001) and than press key<F1> to view
technical details.

In both the cases you will see the same tech specs for IT0001 of Personnel
Administration and IT0001 for Recruitment. So how should your dynamic action, BADI or
any program know which infotype 0001 to choose , whether Personnel Administration
or Recruitment. That is where TCLAS comes in use.

When you choose TCLAS= A you are referring to all infotype tables PA0001, PA0002 ,…
PA* And when you choose TCAS = B you are referring to all infotypes tables
PB0001,PB0002,… PB*

Now my friends I am sure you folks will never forget what TCLAS is all about. Sometimes
when lost in deep thought, it helps scratching you head)might activate your grey cells)



[edit]

UNDERSTAND SAP AND DONT CRAM TABLES



There is another story I would like to tell you and most of my Indian readers would be
familiar with this.Whenever a mother complained about her school going child (typically
boys since girls are kind of more sincere at that age) that the child is not studying and
only playing. The father(who may not have done to well in his studies) will ask the
childfor his exam marks and what he has got in Maths. The son replies 70 on a 100 and
the dad asks his son a question on Maths tables such as “Whats 11 * 12 equal to and the
son is taken aback for a while and fumbles while replying.The father concludes with a
thundering voice “You are not studying at all since you do not know your Maths Tables”.

We surely have a fixation of learning things by heart and a greater fixation for tables and
this carries with us for life, but trust me whats more important is understanding what
you learn. This even goes for sap as I have given interviews for some big companies and
more than wanting to know what I understood about the business, there was more
interest in knowing how many sap tables I could rattle off. To give you an example,if I
ask you about how an absence quota is configured, a typical reply would be go to spro
node so and so … and there you can do absence quota configuration. What I feel is more
important is what attributes I could configure like I would first define a quota type for a
quota, than define its quota values … and assign it to a deduction rule which is a part of
the counting rule which would be assigned to an absence and so on.

Even if you spent 15 mins in the spro under HR you would be able to locate the node
under Time Management.Therefore, its not so important in making it a point to
forcefully remember sap hr tables or img nodes. With projectsand experience, they
would be remembered by you without any force.Whats most important is what can you
deliver in sap hr and even if you do not have immediate answers you need to sit an
explore like a research scientist and this never ends. Every time you look at the sap
system , you may just discover or learn something new.



[edit]

UGR,INFOTYPE MENUS & INFOGROUPS



Welcome back and lets continue. I think i covered question 67 before and i am skipping
to 68.

Q 68.What are infotype menus or info menus? Are they user group dependable?. Q
69.What setting do i need to make for a SAP user to see that he has the relevant
infotype menus?

Infotype menus are menus that you see when you

Display HR Master Data (transaction pa20)

Maintain HR Master Data (transaction pa30)

Infotype menus are user group dependable and you can have different infotype enus for
different user groups.To make sure that a user is able to see the appropriate infotype
menu you need to make sure that in the user parameters of the sap hr user (use
transaction su3), you maintain the user parameter UGR=<usergroup value>. Typically in
most of the implementations you may see that the UGR =<usergroup value>=<country
grouping value>, however there is no hard and fast rule for that states that this applies
everywhere.

There are four steps that you need to understand here
Step 1: Here you need to assign the define the infotype menus for different user groups.
The node for this is Personnel Administration--> Customizing Procedures--> Infotype
Menus-->User group dependency on menus and info groups

Step 2: Here you need to assign the infotypes to the infotype menus for different user
groups. The node for this is Personnel Administration--Customizing Procedures--
>Infotype Menus-->Infotype menu

Step 3: The Main infotype menu’s are defined and assigned to a reference user group. A
reference user group is that UGR parameter value that should be referenced or
considered if UGR is not maintained for the sap hr user.

Personnel Administration-->Customizing Procedures-->Infotype Menus-->Determine
choice of infotype menus-->User group dependency on menus and info groups.Here the
Main Infotype menu 01-Personnel Administration would be used to assign the infotype
menus for Display/Maintain HR Master Data.

Step 4: In this step you would assign the infotype menus defined by you to the main
menu for a particular user group. In order to define which infotype menus would you
choose for the display/maintain HR master data you need to assign those infotype
menus to the main menu 01-Personnel Administration.

This is done under the node

Personnel Administration-->Customizing Procedures-->Infotype Menus-->Determine
choice of infotype menus-->Infotype menus

To make it more simpler, the sap user 1 may see different infotypes in display /maintain
master data than sap user 2, or to simplify it further lets consider we are having a global
implementation and for countries like Germany( country grouping/user group value 01)
and USA (country grouping/user group value 10). We could have same/different
infotype menus with ame/different infotypes required to be accessed and maintained
by a sap hr user in Germany than a sap hr user from USA. In this we will assign UGR=01
to the sap hr user from Germany and UGR=10 to the sap hr user from USA.

As functional hr consultants, whenever sap hr roles and authorizations are assigned to
sap hr super users, coordinate with the basis team to ensure these parameters are
assigned before you ask the super users to start testing or go live in production. You
could make a mention of this in the sap hr user manual and train the sap hr users on
setting the user group parameters.



[edit]
RETRENCHMENT OF EMPLOYEES



Hi, friends, maybe i spoke to early about some companies not retrenching but that was
a scenario that existed before. Jobs with good organizations meant stability and security
for the employee and his family. Life was peaceful and people were smiling more often.
Business ran and no one ever got fired for any reason unless it was an ethical issue.
Todays world is different. You walk in the office and you just hope you do not see a pink
folder on your desk. Profits rule the world and then any individual. My advice to young
sap consultants is that save for the rainy day. Take good insurance coverages to cover
for your health and your families. Keep fit and learn to say "NO" when asked to work for
indecent no of working hours because it is these same organizations who can throw you
at the drop of a hat for being physically incapable to work. Finally keep updating your
skills to meet the market requirements.To companies and the Bosses who rule, do not
forget you guys are human and dealing with humans. My personal opinion is that
retrenchment is not the answer . In bigger organizations with so many locations and
departments, relocation in job function, department and location is very much possible
and should be given as an option to the employee before deciding to show him/her the
door.



[edit]

TIME MANAGEMENT



Hi folks welcome back. I decided i would like to keep trying posting to this wiki
irrespective of time constraints (the non working hours busy with the IPL cricket
matches for now), however these posts would not be at regular intervals. Time
Management in SAP HR/HCM is all about recording all of the employees times, working
and non working relevant to the organization , specific union agreements which decide
the working hours of the employees, their breaks, their off days , their holidays , their
overtimes , their compensatory offs, their leave entitlements and leaves etc. In a typical
factory environment which has thousands of employees, you can picture employees
coming in shifts, swiping their smart cards or punching buttons into sophisticated
electronic clock systems or the older clock systems with punch cards to record their
every movement when they enter the plant or leave it. You got a time office which
monitors these times and analyzes these times to make sure that the employees follow
the time rules and regulations as per their union agreements or contracts. In many
countries time records are stored as archives for a decade or more to settle labour
disputes when these records need to be produced in the labour department or the law
office so make sure that you have a correct archive strategy for all old time records and
dont dispose them away.

Before i end for today , i would like to comment that SAP Time Management is an ocean
in itself and i do not think that there could possibly exist any time management package
that could deliver so much that this does with its seamless integration to almost all
areas of sap. It is absolutely flexible and meets the requirements of all possible
scenarios that exist with organizations which is why i am fascinated with this sub
module of sap hcm/hr. When we meet the next time i will talk about what SAP Time
Management contains and than go about answering the questions.


Before i get into more details of sap time management i wanted to describe the todays
scenario of time management.Picture a Maintenance Engineer working in a service
organization and performing maintenance tasks for different customers carrying a PDA
or a mobile phone. Once he or she completes the task immediately charges the working
times through these modern devices with he click of a few buttons. These times are
integrated with the invoices/orders charged to the customers for payment in sap .

If the work in done for another department in the same organization to which the
maintenance engineer belongs, then through internal orders etc.

He/she is has a dentists appointment which they have managed to get with great
difficulty for 2 hours. The leave is applied again through this device, reaches the bosses
PDA or computer for approval, which once done get recorded into the sap hr system as
an absence.

Yes times are changing fast, so is the technology so you better change too.

Today devices like mobiles etc with newer versions and technology are coming into the
market at the speed of at least one per year per manufacturer. Like i said before and i
repeat HR/HCM consultants cannot claim not to be techno savvy anymore. HR/HCM
needs to be tightly integrated to other verticals. In fact they should actually push for
more and more integration once the base HR/HCM systems are up, settled and running
and take note that the technologies for integration are becoming more sophisticated,
better and faster.

Make sure you spend time keeping abreast of which new technology is becoming a part
of sap, at least what can be applicable to the HR/HCM module. You however, do not
need to worry about the technical specifications of these devices unless you get into a
project using these.

[edit]
INFOTYPES IN TIME MANAGEMENT

Time Management in SAP HR is mainly categorized into

1>Negative Time

2>Positive Time .

A> Personnel Time Events

B> Plant Data Collection (Incentive Wages)

3> Shift Planning

4> Cross Application Time Sheet (CATS)

5> Time Managers Workplace

6> Time Workflows through ESS & MSS

7> Time Integration to Other Components


Before I come back to to this discussion I would like to explain the basic info types used
in Time Management which are


Planned Employee Times

0007-Planned Working Time ( The most important info type)

Actual Employee Times

2011- Time Events (Automatic recording through time recording machines)

2002-Attendances (Manual Entries)

Positive Time Infotypes

0050-Time Recording Info

2002-Attendances

2011-Time Events

2012- Time Transfer Specifications

2013 -Quota Corrections
Deviations to Employee Times

2001- Absences

2002-Attendances

2003-Substitution

2004-Availibility

2005-Overtime

Entitlements

2006-Absence Quotas

2007-Attendance Quotas

Time Related Payments

0416- Time Quota Compensation

2010- Employee Remuneration Info

Just try and read about these info types and the next time I will explain that’s so special
about info type 0007 (Planned Working Time).

Hi Welcome back. I hope you folks out there are enjoying the Euro Cup and managing to
stay awake at work( just kidding !).

What do we mean by planning or planned?

Sounds very simple but try deciphering it and you realize its not that simple to explain.
The nearest that I felt I could get was “Building a framework (plan) of what is to be done
in the future using resources over a period of measure (such as time)”.

A plan could be a sequence of instructions, a drawing, a map etc.

People, Infrastructure, Machines & Capital could broadly qualify as resources.

Planning is done by individuals, teams, departments, organizations, nations and even
groups of nations.

What is done now could be an execution of a plan of the past. What is done in the past
is history. What could be possibly done in the future is a forecast.

What is the manner in which the execution of the plan is heading considering, the past,
present and the future is a trend and this is very significant for any organization for
strategic planning whether it’s the sales, production, employee retention or costs.

To be able to define a trend its very important to have accurate data for the past and
present and for this again we need good information technology systems of which HR
Information systems such as SAP HR play a very important role.

[edit]

PLANNED WORKING TIME(INFOTYPE 0007)

So what do we mean by planned working time? Split the words as “planned” and
“working time” I am sure you will be now be able to come up with this answer.

Planned Working Times are working times which are planned for an employee in
advance such as the shifts the employee is to work, the breaks the employee gets during
these shifts, the off days (such as weekly off days) and the holidays applicable to the
employee. These planned times are stored as work schedules which are generated
through what is known as the work schedule rule which includes all the recipe or rules
for generating these planned times. The work schedule rule is assigned to the employee
in infotype IT0007(Planned Working Time) or defaulted using the feature SCHKZ. The
recipe includes

1>The daily working times(including flexitimes) with break times stored in the Daily
Work Schedule

2> The pattern of daily work schedules to be followed repeatedly over a period of time
such as days or months stored in the Period Work Schedule

3> The Holidays that fall on those days which the employee is eligible due to his/her
union or collective agreement stored in the Holiday Calendar. These holidays can be
movable or fixed. The Holiday Calendar is assigned to the personnel subarea grouping to
which the employee belongs.

4> The Day type and the selection rule (or recipe making rule). The day type indicates
what type of day is that employees daily work schedule i.e

“0” regular working day and paid to work

“1” A weekly off day and paid for that off day

“2”An Off Day and not paid for this off day.

“3” A special day

The selection rule XX helps you to build a rule such as you want all days from Monday to
Friday be of day type 0 and all Saturdays and Sundays declared as of day type 1 when
you are generating the work schedule for a work schedule rule that includes this
selection rule XX.

Once all the above are defined and assigned to the work schedule rule( the recipe),
generation of the work schedule (the final dish ) is carried out . This could be for a
period of months or years . Normally work schedules are generated for a few years in
advance.

To know more about shifts refer to the wikipedia which gives some good information
about what shifts are, their history etc.

For more details on the configuration of work schedules refer to sap help

http://help.sap.com/saphelp_46c/helpdata/en/22/72369adc56d11195100060b03c6b76
/frameset.htm

Before we end the discussion on planned working times and work schedules, another
question to ask ourselves is

Do we generate the work schedules for individual employees?

The answer is typically No. The work schedules are generated for the employee sub
group grouping and personnel sub area grouping for work schedules. These groupings
and the assignment are a part of the img. However, there could be an exceptional case
of only one employee belonging to one employee subgroup and one personnel sub area
(naturally) which could be again grouped into only into one employee subgroup
grouping and one personnel sub area grouping.

Another few questions for which I will not provide the answers but for you to derive?

1.Can we assign the common work schedules to different employee sub grouping

and personnel sub area grouping? Think real hard.

2.Is it alright to create the Basic Pay infotype (IT0008) before creating(IT0007) Planned
Working Time ? Does your payroll run for that employee?

[edit]

ACTUAL TIMES

What do you mean by actual times? Where are these stored for an employee?

Actual times means “real times” or times that are recorded as true.

In sap hr the actual times are recorded in the infotype (IT 2011) called Time Events.Mark
the word “Event” since this is important to identify movement or the employee in the
organization such as when did the employee come in (called clock in) and left for
lunch(start of break) , came back from lunch(end of break) and left for the day(clock
out) . In case the employee applies for absence at the time recording terminal than
he/she would select an absence/attendance reason linked to an absence or attendance.
If I did not have the events and only the times would that make any sense to me? Actual
times are also recorded as number of hours in the Attendances Infotype(IT 2002).

I would be continuing this section in parallel to the new one on project management so
this is definitely not the end for the question and answers from me.

Hi i thought of saying something urgent since i mentioned technological advance. If you
are the pilot driving your project through SOLMAN (Solution Manager) a sincere request
is please do not sleep over 30,000 ft of documents in the cockpit.

Do not sleep over a technological advance but whats more important for heavens sake
is don"t sleep with it.

Sleeping in the cockpit became headlines and who is to blame is the question? But the
answer is do we have to blame someone? There could be a lot of questions like why did
the cockpit not be programmed to sound a buzzer 30 mins before destination is
reached? Was this a failure of design? Did fatigue have to be carried to the cockpit? I
think there are answers to it all which can ensure that these problems do not occur in
future rather than playing the blame game. In the above case the object would have
continued to Timbuktu till fuel ended since autopilot is a very proven technological
advance.

Lets be honest we are humans and we make mistakes so it time to say ok it was a
mistake, lets plug it and move on.


Welcome back and coming right back to the question and answers, we saw that actual
times are recorded either in infotype 2011( Time Events )or in the Attendances infotype
(2002).

When do we decide which infotype should we choose to capture the actual times?

The answer is it depends upon whether you want to capture the actual clock in and
clock out times for the employees and use them for processing in time or payroll ,then
you can use infotype 2011.

If you are integrating your time recording terminals to the sap system, then you need to
have CC1 certified time recording systems which can talk to sap .Data such as personnel
time events and employee expenditures are passed from sap to these terminals and vice
versa through the CC1 interface (Communication Channel One Interface). CC1 interface
is an sap certified interface and all vendor time recording systems claiming to integrate
with the sap system need to be CC1 certified. These systems transfer data to the sap
systems and vice versa through the ansynchronous ALE transfer in form of IDOC's or
realtime using BAPI's.

The sap certified interfaces are CC1- HR (Human Resources) CC2 –PP (Production
Planning) CC3-PM (Plant Maintenance) CC4-PS (Project Systems) CC5-PP-KAN ( Used for
Material Planning using KANBAN)

What happens when you have time recording systems but not CC1 certified and you
want to integrate to sap ?

Well provided that these are not punch card systems, and are electronic time recording
systems that record the time events into a computer database/file such as access
database or excel, then these can be periodically uploaded through batch jobs into the
sap time events infotype 2011 using an abap conversion program to convert the data to
suit the sap system.

I will stop the discussion on the communication channels here and not complicate
matters. However, I felt the need to discuss this since when you visualize a solution you
should be able to see end to end.

If you are not really worried about processing the clock in clock out times and are more
interested in gathering the number of hours that the employee has spent at work , his
overtime hours and other attendances then infotype 2002 (Attendances) is used.

So what happens in an employee is absent or on training ?

We will take this up the next time.

Sriinivas

[edit]

DEVIATIONS IN TIME MANAGEMENT

What do you mean by deviations? Where are these stored for an employee?

A deviation in simple English means “doing different from whats planned” . You promise
your spouse a movie and our boss whose married for ages and probably does not watch
movies and only thinks work makes you sit late. You “deviate” your plans and you
change your plans to dinner in a fancy restaurant (if its not the end of the month) or
maybe the roadside food stalls with a walk on the beach.

Similarly, when you are deviating from your planned working times( defined in IT0007)
such as going for training or simply being absent ( you called in sick) or you got up in the
morning and just did not have the energy to go to work or your in laws are to be picked
up from the airport ( you took a casual leave/half-day leave and your boss is shaken but
not stirred ( Bond I apologise) .You store all of these in time infotypes ( training –
attendance infotype (2002) , casual and sick leave – absence infotype(2001),
Substitutions-- infotype (2003))

These deviation times get superimposed on the planned times of the employee and
become his/her personal work schedules. Substitutions are typically shift substitutions
or position substitutions where the differential payment could be made to that
employee working on that shift or position.

With this background I will talk about negative time and positive time. I am honest to
admit that this is the most ridiculous words coined for time management and I prefer to
avoid using this and use time evaluation or no time evaluation instead. We will talk
about this the next time.

Till than, have a great weekend and don’t deviate . (Bosses have a heart folks)

[edit]

NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE TIME IN TIME MANAGEMENT

Hi, Welcome back.

Before I move to negative and positive time let me ask you a couple of questions?

1>Is Overtime (recorded in IT2002/IT 2005) a deviation? When do you record overtime
in IT 2005?

2>Lets say that you have recorded the clock times of an employee using time recording
systems and he/she has come and gone as per planned times for that day of work than
do you superimpose these times on the planned times?

Think hard and I will give you the answers next time.

Coming back to positive and negative time, let me ask you another question. This is for
those who would be implementing time management in sap.Are you going to use time
recording systems to record employee clock times and upload to sap(IT 2011 Time
Events) ? I hear an equal number of ayes and nays

Those who say ayes. These are the folks implementing positive time recording (or so
called positive time management).

Those who say nays. These are the folks implementing negative time recording (or so
called negative time management).

So what’s positive or negative about the time management ?? The ayes and nays…..
The answer that look at the time management status = 0 for negative time recording is
not exactly accurate. What do we than say about time management status = 7 or 9??
where time management status TMSTA is maintained in infotype 0007 (Planned
Working Time) . These employees who have time management status 7 or 9 still assume
that their planned times in IT0007 are their working times (besides the deviations) and
do not have their clock in clock out times recorded in IT 2011 but however, they use
time evaluation to generate absence quotas or shift differential wage types, overtime
wage types etc.

In other words you still have negative time recording but you use time evaluation.

That’s why I prefer to stick to differentiate employees as those that have time
evaluation and the others that don’t to make life simple.

[edit]

TIME EVALUATION

Coming back to those two questions the answers are 1> Overtime is a deviation since it
is not a part of your regular working hours. IT 2005 is used to record approved
overtimes. 2> The answer is does it really matter since both times are the same so you
would compare(mark this word very carefully) these recorded times with your planned
working hours for that employee on that day and say "Hey, there is no difference. Lets
leave things as they are" This comparison is the principle of time evaluation. If the times
go different on comparison ( recorded times being more or less than planned times) you
want to know the following 1> What are there different times? Ans : Less or more than
the planned times. 2> How do i process these normal and different times? Ans : Less -
Absence More - Overtime 3> How do i valuate these normal and different times? Ans :
Absence - Pay or Not to Pay? Overtime -> At what rate to pay for what hours of
overtime 4> Do i store all these times for historical information? Ans : Time clusters.

To do all these you need to build in processing and valuation rules in time management
and payroll. for eg . If the Overtime hours are worked on a weekday - than pay 1.5 times
the regular hourly pay rate if the Overtime hours are worked on a holiday - than pay 2
times the regular hourly pay rate If the Overtime hours are worked on a weekend - than
give time off credits ( via absence quota) if the Overtime hours are worked on a holiday
and weekend - than pay 2 times of the regular hourly pay rate and give time off credits
too and if no Overtime worked and employee not absent - pay regular rate if employee
absent ... and so on

You build these rules in the customizing tables as well as payroll and time schemas
which call functions which in turn call pcrs or personnel calculation rules. The personal
calculation rules build the processing logic using operations and operators.
The schemas are called by driver programs ( payroll driver programs for payroll which
are country specific and RPTIME00 for time evaluation). Time evalution programs are
run before running payroll so that the time credits and time wage types created which
these get valuated in the payroll run.

When the TMSTA status = 0 in IT0007, this means no time evalution is permitted.

When the TMSTA status = 1 in IT0007, this means time evalution is to be carried out.

When the TMSTA status = 7 in IT0007 , than time evaluation is used just for absence
quota generation. This status is similar to TMSTA = 0 , the only difference being that
time evalution is permitted for absence quota generation.

There are other TMSTA status but the above ones are the significant ones.

The typical time evaluation schemas are

TM00 Time Evaluation with Personnel Time Events ( used with TMSTA = 1)

TM01 Time Evaluation for Work Schedule Deviations ( used with TMSTA = 9)

TM02 Time Evaluation for External Services Management ( used with TMSTA = 8)

TM04 Time Evaluation Without Clock Times (used with TMSTA = 1 when times are
recorded in IT2002)

TQTA - Generate Absence Quotas( used with TMSTA = 7)

Time evaluation is a subject on its own and this forum is for beginners so we do not
want to add more complications here.

This is for your information

For help on payroll and time schemas refer transaction code : pdsy in the sap r/3 system

For schemas - transaction code pe01

For PCR's - transaction code pe02

For functions and operations - transaction code pe04

Those interested can refer to sap help website which is http://www.help.sap.com

[edit]

END & THANK YOU

I would once again advise young consultants reading this wiki that this is not a formal
education on sap hr/hcm. To obtain formal education in sap hr/hcm and recognition for
the same , you could do your course and certification from SAP and their education
partners who are the only authorised professional bodies to provide formal education
based on your understanding of the HR business process, your budget and the market
requirements (which should play a very important factor in your decisions).


Thank you for bearing me folks. I end my contribution to this wiki and enjoyed writing it.
I know i could have written a book instead , but i wanted to share my thoughts and
learning in a very unconventional way, besides money was never the criterion here. It
was triggered by a message sent to me asking for more clarity in the sap hcm/hr
fundamentals and i remembered my early days when i struggled too.

A special thanks to ittoolbox, who have given IT consultants an opportunity to share
their knowledge experiences, thoughts and views. I wrote this wiki in parts as and when
thoughts emerged and i could pen them by just logging into ittoolbox and keying away.
The next time i plan to write on my culnary skills( my wife has burst out laughing).

Just let me end by saying what the famous Indian cricketer Vijay Merchant said

"End your contributions when the goings are good"

and i also distinctly remember his famous words when he said every week at the end of
every program called -Cricket with Vijay Merchant

I never say goodbye but "au revoir", till we meet again. Thank you.

Sriinivas

[edit]

PROJECT MANAGEMENT & ASAP METHODOLOGY

I am going to keep on writing on project and project management because had i learnt
this subject earlier, I am honest to admit, that my career decisions would probably have
been more mature and different. This is because this learning has enhanced my
understanding and view point of what a project is and the high stakes involved for
everyone involved in the project .

Before we understand whats all this hype about asap methodology , we need to
understand these terms which are the customer or client, the vendor , the project
sponsor the project manager, the project team and the stakeholders in relation to a
project. When we talk about a customer, those who have had a part of their career in
sales would have always heard these famous words from your sales manager which is
“The customer is the king”. A vendor/contractor/sub contractor is one who is providing
a product (or products) or service(or services) at a price. The one who is buying this
product or service by paying a price is the customer.

Whats a project?

A project is a definite endeavor which has a definite beginning and end and whose end
result is a product or service of the highest quality to satisfy and meet the customers
requirements and objectives for what this endeavor was taken. Every project has a
logical conclusion of either a success or a failure the reasons of which are usually
debatable.

A project could be the result of a commercial, social ,environmental , educational or
business requirement, a new concept, idea, vision, mission or design, a new system or
new technology to replace the old or even a political campaign for the presidential
election candidates.

Who is a project manager?

[edit]

CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS

I will come back to the previous discussion but before i do so i would like to come back
to the statement i earlier made which is

"Every project has a logical conclusion of either a success or a failure, the reasons of
which are usually debatable."

Is this a problem with the asap methodology or project management? NO (WITH
CAPITAL LETTERS).

Then why is there a heated argument during most project closures to agree on the
success or failure of a project with all concerned parties?

The reason is because on your project document somewhere you have mentioned
whats called the critical success factors and nobody took this seriously but these could
actually determine the success or failure of your project besides your contractual
documents.

Its very important that along with the objectives , the critical success factors and their
measure for a project be well defined by the customer. This should than be reviewed by
the project team as well as the other stakeholders in the project ( such as functional
managers who would be affected by the project since the output of the project would
be a part of operations under their responsibilities) to come to a common agreement
before the start of the project. You can have situations where the project sponsor on
the beginning of the project stating with "i want this project to meet these objectives"
and than the sponser changed mid way during the project and the new sponser now
categorically states "But thats the way things are done here". Your objectives and critical
success factors duly signed and agreed by all stakeholders would come in extremely
handy is such situations.

To know more about critical success factors there is some good information i found on
this site

http://www.rapidbi.com/created/criticalsuccessfactors.html

Sorry folks for not posting. Quite busy. However, i had some interesting information to
share. My good friend Jason Westland (whom i consider a guru of Project Management)
has come up with a new project management software which has a dashboard and lots
of exciting stuff and is a wish list for project management of projects. The website is
http://www.projectmanager.com Check it out.

Sriinivas

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