Review AHSGE Language Run-ons and Sentence Fragments Sentence Fragments A sentence fragment is a collection of words that does not express a complete thought. Example: Waiting for her sister to get the pizza. Example: The best fried chicken in town. Run-Ons and Sentence Fragments Run-Ons A run-on sentence occurs when a commas is used in place of a period, semicolon, or comma + coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) to join two complete sentences. Sometimes, all punctuation is omitted. ▪ For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So ▪ Example: Lomax took the children to the park Lenetha entertained a friend at home. Comma Splice ▪ A comma splice is a type of run-on that involves two complete sentences being joined by only a comma. ▪ Example: I wasn’t doing my homework, I hadn’t been passing my tests in school. Run-Ons and Sentence Fragments How to correct a run-on Add a period to separate the two complete sentences, and add a capital letter to the second sentence. Add a semicolon to separate the two complete sentences. Add a comma + a coordinating conjunction to separate the two complete sentences. Run-ons and Sentence Fragments Label each sentence as a run-on or a fragment. Correct the sentence. Sheila played the trumpet in marching band they went to the national competition in October. Keri, the new girl in my English class from England. Max was leaning back in his chair, the chair slipped out from underneath him. Just in time for that midnight snack. Running all the way upstairs. We’re going through the house, you should stay outside. Tracy took the shortcut she didn’t want to walk far in the heat. Run-ons and Sentence Fragments Use a semicolon to join these two sentences in two different ways: The heat was unbearable. I went swimming. Run-Ons and Sentence Fragments Use a semicolon to join these two sentences in two different ways: The heat was unbearable; I went swimming. The heat was unbearable; therefore, I went swimming. Run-ons and Sentence Fragments Correct this sentence in three different ways: The speakers in that car were very loud, I wanted to get some for my car. Which underlined section of the sentence requires a change? My mom wanted me to help her however I had to hurry and get to work. Capitalization Rules Capitalize the first word in a sentence. Capitalize the first word of a direct quotation that is a complete sentence, even if it is within another sentence. Example: Mr. White said, “Be here next Saturday at 9:00 am.” Capitalize names of specific persons, places, things or ideas. Capitalize adjectives formed from proper nouns. Capitalization Rules Capitalize compass directions only when they designate a specific region. Capitalize family relationships only when they designate a specific person. Example: Did Grandma talk to my uncle? Capitalize every word in the titles of works of literature and film except articles (a, an, the), prepositions, conjunctions, and the to in infinitives. Punctuation Rules: Commas Commas separate sentences only when they are joined by a conjunction. Commas are used to set nonrestrictive elements off from the rest of the sentence. Nonrestrictive elements include “extra information” that is not actually needed in the sentence. Commas usually follow an introductory word, phrase, clause, or expression. Commas are used to separate items in a series of three or more words, clauses, or phrases. Punctuation Rules: Commas Commas are used to set off direct address, tag questions, interjections, and opposing elements. Commas are used before and after quotations. “Go at once,” Gene commanded, “and see what is causing that commotion.” Commas are not used after a quotation when the quotation is an interjection or a question. ▪ “Why has the price of gas tripled?” asked the spokeswoman. Punctuation and Capitalization Correct the following sentences: She shouted, “Smokey come here!” The dog, a black terrier, came dashing toward her. “Good boy,” she said, “come inside now, Smokey.” My mother is going to the store after work today. I told Dad that I made all A’s on my report card. Punctuation Which underlined section of these sentences requires a change? The flowers of spring are my favorites. Crocuses, daffodils, and tulips herald spring and affect my mood every year. Punctuation Because the hard drive crashed, my paper was not completed on time. My paper was not completed on time because the hard drive crashed. My hard drive crashed; therefore, my paper was not completed on time. Punctuation: Colons When are colons used? Generally, the colon is used to call the reader’s attention to what comes next. Some examples of when to use a colon include: ▪ Before a list of items, especially after words like “as follows” and “the following” ▪ Before a long, formal statement or quotation ▪ After the salutation of a business letter Punctuation: Colons Which sentences use the colon correctly? Tennis, reading, and swimming: are three of my favorite hobbies. Next summer we will travel through the following states: South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia. At an airport I like to listen to the many noises: engines roaring, people laughing, luggage rolling, and feet running. Misplaced Modifiers Misplaced Modifiers A modifier is a phrase or clause that helps clarify the meaning of another word. A misplaced modifier modifies the wrong noun in the sentence. Misplaced Modifiers Correct each sentence. Under the bed Tiffany was happy to find her notebook. Kicking and screaming in the high chair, the adult tried to calm the child. Last week Jason found a dog in his best jacket. Although the snow is deep, the children with the new sled slide rapidly down hill. Plural Nouns What is the rule for making words ending in “o” plural? The plural of nouns ending in “o” preceded by a vowel is formed by adding “s”; the plural of nouns ending in “o” preceded by a consonant is formed by adding “es.” The exception is nouns ending in “o” preceded by a consonant and referring to music form the plural by adding “s.” Make these words plural. Potatoes Heroes Volcanoes Radios Pianos Altos Solos Rodeos Plural Nouns What is the spelling rule to make compound nouns plural? The plural of compound nouns consisting of a noun plus a modifier is formed my making the noun plural. What are the plural forms of the following nouns? Daughters-in-law Attorneys-at-law Editors-in-chief Pronouns Pronouns A pronoun takes the place of a noun Subject Pronouns ▪ Are used as the subject of the sentence, or before the verb ▪ Ex: he, she, it, they, we, I, you Object Pronouns ▪ Are used after the verb in the sentence ▪ Ex: him, her, them, me, us, you Pronouns Which sentences use the correct pronoun? Fix the incorrect sentences. We girls built a very sturdy fort out of pillows. Jack and I knew that our football team would win the tournament. He and I went to Cathedral Caverns State Park to hike. Tell Samantha and me what you told your parents. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement Pronoun Takes the place of a noun Antecedent The noun that the pronoun refers to. Ex: Susan gave her sweater to Jill. The pronoun and antecedent must agree in both gender and number!!! Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement Correct each sentence: The first time a user places an order, he or she must provide a credit card number. Someone parked his or her car in my parking place. An honor roll student should be happy with his or her progress. Possessive vs. Plural vs. Contractions Choose the form of the word that correctly completes the sentence. (Its, It’s) too bad you blurted out the wrong answer before checking with your team. The (winds, wind’s) from the hurricane caused severe damage to the Mobile area. Many (workers’, worker’s) payroll records were destroyed in the fire that occurred in the main office of the factory. Verb Tense Correct the underlined verb in each sentence. Annabel threw the ball quickly to first base. I wonder if my father saw my mother right after the movie ended. Last Tuesday, my three best friends and I swam in the pond before school started. Verb Tense Correct the tense shifts in the following sentences: When my friend Sally cries, she won the argument. I am in my room, and I planed to read for an hour. Lee dashes into the house, slammed the door behind him, and yells for me. Active and Passive Voice When is a verb in the active voice? A verb is in the active voice when it expresses an action performed by its subject. **action verb** When is it in the passive voice? A verb is in the passive voice when the action it expresses is performed upon its subject. **helping verb + main verb** **by** Give an example of the same sentence in the active voice and in the passive voice. Timmy throws the ball. The ball was thrown by Timmy. Active and Passive Voice Identify each verb as active or passive. Tommy hit Kent in the face. Ashley’s hair was pulled by CJ. Mrs. Fountain kicked Remi in order to wake him up. Markia’s water bottle was thrown across the room by Seth. Parallel Structure Parallel Structure Parallelism in writing is a way of joining similar ideas and giving them emphasis through repetition. When a writer describes two or more items in a series, he or she must keep the structure similar, or the sentence will be unclear in its meaning. Parallel Structure Examples: Prepositional Phrases: ▪ The housekeeper looked inside the drawers, on top of the bookcase, and under the recliner for the missing wallet. ▪ The housekeeper looked inside the drawers, the bookcase, and under the recliner for the missing wallet. Nouns ▪ These gifted boys could name the types of trees, flowers, and birds in the forest. ▪ These gifted boys could name the types of trees, flowers, and some special kinds of birds in the forest. Verbs ▪ Carlos Mendoza took pictures of smiling people, developed the pictures in his darkroom, and sent them to the company for the contest. ▪ Carlos Mendoza took pictures of smiling people, develops the pictures in his darkroom, and sent them to the company for the contest. Pronouns ▪ Take him, her, and them to the football game. ▪ Take him, she, and them to the football game. Parallel Structure Examples: Correct each sentence. I am going shopping, to the skating rink, and bicycling this weekend. Shelby asked him to bring the truck and moving the refrigerator. Mom invited the guests, baked a cake, and decorates the house to get ready for the birthday party. Subject/Verb Agreement Subject Verb Agreement The subject of a sentence must agree with the corresponding verb of the sentence. ▪ The subject is the word performing the action. ▪ The object (or noun) of a prepositional phrase cannot be the subject of the sentence!!!!!!! ▪ Example: My older brothers play baseball in the park. ▪ Example: The same frogs croak in the Chuckfee Bay every night. Subject/Verb Agreement Choose the correct verb in the parentheses: Many (arrives, arrive) early at school each day. The confusion among his students (is, are) understandable. Neither of the girls (wants, want) to visit the art museum today. It (don’t, doesn’t) matter to me if you eat all of the pizza. The pack of wolves spreads out and (surround, surrounds) their prey. A meteorite from Mars (land, lands) in Antarctica 17 million years ago. Commonly Confused Words Say the meaning of each word, and use it in a sentence: Accept / Except Capitol / Capital Affect / Effect All ready / Already Through/Threw To/Too/Two Commonly Confused Words Accept- verb; to receive Except- but Capitol- a legislature’s building Capital- a legislature’s city Affect- verb; to influence Effect- noun; a result All ready- pronoun plus adjective; everyone is ready Already- adverb; previously Commonly Confused Words Choose the word in parentheses to correctly complete the sentence: Montgomery is the (capital, capitol) of Alabama. Morrie is three minutes older (then, than) his twin brother Mike. Alisha had (to, two, too) much homework. Jackson quickly ran past the (principal, principle) of the school just as the bell rang. Commonly Confused Words What is the purpose of each apostrophe in three of the words below? You’re- You are It’s- it is They’re- they are Hers- possessive pronoun Ours- possessive pronoun Why do hers and ours not have an apostrophe? Possessive pronouns do not have apostrophes unless they are contractions What does each contraction mean? Use each contraction in a sentence. Specific Wording Specific Words convey messages accurately. Give a more specific word for each word below: ▪ Car ▪ Furniture ▪ Teacher Transitions Transitions A transition is a word or phrase used to link ideas. It helps the reader to make connections. Example: finally, however, consequently, first, secondly, lastly Introduction and Conclusion What are the elements of an effective introductory sentence? An effective introductory sentence should: ▪ Introduce the main idea ▪ Omit a detailed explanation of any idea; the statement should be very general ▪ Capture the reader’s attention What are the elements of an effective concluding sentence? An effective concluding sentence should: ▪ Provide a satisfying ending ▪ Omit new ideas ▪ Sum up the paragraph Revision Revision Revision involves altering and improving the content of an essay Revision Strategies Organize during prewriting to avoid major revisions Change or delete sentences that are off topic and improve word choice Persuasive Techniques Purpose of Persuasion To get the reader to see your point of view Techniques State the facts. State the benefits to the audience. State the author’s expertise. Connect emotionally with the reader. Grammatical Errors Which sentence is correct? What must be corrected in each of the other three sentences? We were going to the movies, but mom said that we had to wait. Dad needed the car to run an errand, and he don’t know when he will be back. Deanna and me played cards for a few minutes. We left for the movies as soon as Dad returned, and we were there in time for the previews. Grammatical Errors What is wrong with the following sentences? “I wish the dogs would stop barking long enough for me to get a little bit of sleep,” moaned my tired mother. “Vanessa,” her best friend pleaded, “are you still angry at me for the trick I played on you?” I wish the cafeteria at Kashwee High School served Chinese food once in a while. My English class just finished reading the poem entitled “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe and the novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee.
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