AHSGE Language - Baby's First Year by pptfiles



AHSGE Language
Run-ons and Sentence Fragments

 Sentence Fragments
  A sentence fragment is a collection of words that
   does not express a complete thought.
  Example: Waiting for her sister to get the pizza.
  Example: The best fried chicken in town.
Run-Ons and Sentence Fragments

 Run-Ons
  A run-on sentence occurs when a commas is used in place
   of a period, semicolon, or comma + coordinating
   conjunction (FANBOYS) to join two complete sentences.
   Sometimes, all punctuation is omitted.
   ▪ For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So
   ▪ Example: Lomax took the children to the park Lenetha entertained
     a friend at home.
  Comma Splice
   ▪ A comma splice is a type of run-on that involves two complete
     sentences being joined by only a comma.
   ▪ Example: I wasn’t doing my homework, I hadn’t been passing my
     tests in school.
Run-Ons and Sentence Fragments

 How to correct a run-on
  Add a period to separate the two complete
   sentences, and add a capital letter to the second
  Add a semicolon to separate the two complete
  Add a comma + a coordinating conjunction to
   separate the two complete sentences.
Run-ons and Sentence Fragments

 Label each sentence as a run-on or a fragment.
  Correct the sentence.
   Sheila played the trumpet in marching band they went to
    the national competition in October.
   Keri, the new girl in my English class from England.
   Max was leaning back in his chair, the chair slipped out
    from underneath him.
   Just in time for that midnight snack.
   Running all the way upstairs.
   We’re going through the house, you should stay outside.
   Tracy took the shortcut she didn’t want to walk far in the
Run-ons and Sentence Fragments

 Use a semicolon to join these two
  sentences in two different ways:
  The heat was unbearable.
  I went swimming.
Run-Ons and Sentence Fragments

 Use a semicolon to join these two
  sentences in two different ways:
  The heat was unbearable; I went swimming.
  The heat was unbearable; therefore, I went
Run-ons and Sentence Fragments

 Correct this sentence in three different
   The speakers in that car were very loud, I wanted
    to get some for my car.
 Which underlined section of the sentence
  requires a change?
   My mom wanted me to help her however I had to
    hurry and get to work.
Capitalization Rules

 Capitalize the first word in a sentence.
 Capitalize the first word of a direct quotation
  that is a complete sentence, even if it is
  within another sentence.
   Example: Mr. White said, “Be here next Saturday
    at 9:00 am.”
 Capitalize names of specific persons, places,
  things or ideas. Capitalize adjectives formed
  from proper nouns.
Capitalization Rules

 Capitalize compass directions only when they
  designate a specific region.
 Capitalize family relationships only when
  they designate a specific person.
   Example: Did Grandma talk to my uncle?
 Capitalize every word in the titles of works of
  literature and film except articles (a, an, the),
  prepositions, conjunctions, and the to in
Punctuation Rules: Commas

 Commas separate sentences only when they are
  joined by a conjunction.
 Commas are used to set nonrestrictive elements
  off from the rest of the sentence.
   Nonrestrictive elements include “extra information”
    that is not actually needed in the sentence.
 Commas usually follow an introductory word,
  phrase, clause, or expression.
 Commas are used to separate items in a series of
  three or more words, clauses, or phrases.
Punctuation Rules: Commas

 Commas are used to set off direct address, tag
  questions, interjections, and opposing elements.
 Commas are used before and after quotations.
   “Go at once,” Gene commanded, “and see what is
    causing that commotion.”
   Commas are not used after a quotation when the
    quotation is an interjection or a question.
    ▪ “Why has the price of gas tripled?” asked the spokeswoman.
Punctuation and Capitalization

 Correct the following sentences:
  She shouted, “Smokey come here!”
  The dog, a black terrier, came dashing toward her.
  “Good boy,” she said, “come inside now,
  My mother is going to the store after work today.
  I told Dad that I made all A’s on my report card.

 Which underlined section of these
  sentences requires a change?
  The flowers of spring are my favorites. Crocuses,
   daffodils, and tulips herald spring and affect my
   mood every year.

 Because the hard drive crashed, my paper
  was not completed on time.
 My paper was not completed on time
  because the hard drive crashed.
 My hard drive crashed; therefore, my paper
  was not completed on time.
Punctuation: Colons

 When are colons used?
  Generally, the colon is used to call the reader’s
   attention to what comes next.
  Some examples of when to use a colon include:
   ▪ Before a list of items, especially after words like “as
     follows” and “the following”
   ▪ Before a long, formal statement or quotation
   ▪ After the salutation of a business letter
Punctuation: Colons

 Which sentences use the colon correctly?
  Tennis, reading, and swimming: are three of my
   favorite hobbies.
  Next summer we will travel through the following
   states: South Carolina, North Carolina, and
  At an airport I like to listen to the many noises:
   engines roaring, people laughing, luggage rolling,
   and feet running.
Misplaced Modifiers

 Misplaced Modifiers
  A modifier is a phrase or clause that helps clarify
   the meaning of another word.
  A misplaced modifier modifies the wrong noun in
   the sentence.
Misplaced Modifiers

 Correct each sentence.
  Under the bed Tiffany was happy to find her
  Kicking and screaming in the high chair, the adult
   tried to calm the child.
  Last week Jason found a dog in his best jacket.
  Although the snow is deep, the children with the
   new sled slide rapidly down hill.
Plural Nouns
 What is the rule for making words ending in “o” plural?
   The plural of nouns ending in “o” preceded by a vowel is formed by
    adding “s”; the plural of nouns ending in “o” preceded by a consonant
    is formed by adding “es.” The exception is nouns ending in “o”
    preceded by a consonant and referring to music form the plural by
    adding “s.”
 Make these words plural.
     Potatoes
     Heroes
     Volcanoes
     Radios
     Pianos
     Altos
     Solos
     Rodeos
Plural Nouns

 What is the spelling rule to make
  compound nouns plural?
  The plural of compound nouns consisting of a
   noun plus a modifier is formed my making the
   noun plural.
 What are the plural forms of the following
  Daughters-in-law
  Attorneys-at-law
  Editors-in-chief

 Pronouns
  A pronoun takes the place of a noun
  Subject Pronouns
   ▪ Are used as the subject of the sentence, or before the
   ▪ Ex: he, she, it, they, we, I, you
  Object Pronouns
   ▪ Are used after the verb in the sentence
   ▪ Ex: him, her, them, me, us, you

 Which sentences use the correct pronoun?
  Fix the incorrect sentences.
  We girls built a very sturdy fort out of pillows.
  Jack and I knew that our football team would win
   the tournament.
  He and I went to Cathedral Caverns State Park to
  Tell Samantha and me what you told your parents.
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement

 Pronoun
  Takes the place of a noun
 Antecedent
  The noun that the pronoun refers to.
  Ex: Susan gave her sweater to Jill.
 The pronoun and antecedent must agree in
  both gender and number!!!
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement

 Correct each sentence:
  The first time a user places an order, he or she
   must provide a credit card number.
  Someone parked his or her car in my parking
  An honor roll student should be happy with his or
   her progress.
Possessive vs. Plural vs. Contractions

 Choose the form of the word that correctly
  completes the sentence.
  (Its, It’s) too bad you blurted out the wrong
   answer before checking with your team.
  The (winds, wind’s) from the hurricane caused
   severe damage to the Mobile area.
  Many (workers’, worker’s) payroll records were
   destroyed in the fire that occurred in the main
   office of the factory.
Verb Tense

 Correct the underlined verb in each
  Annabel threw the ball quickly to first base.
  I wonder if my father saw my mother right after
   the movie ended.
  Last Tuesday, my three best friends and I swam in
   the pond before school started.
Verb Tense

 Correct the tense shifts in the following
   When my friend Sally cries, she won the argument.
   I am in my room, and I planed to read for an hour.
   Lee dashes into the house, slammed the door
    behind him, and yells for me.
Active and Passive Voice

 When is a verb in the active voice?
   A verb is in the active voice when it expresses an action
    performed by its subject.
   **action verb**
 When is it in the passive voice?
   A verb is in the passive voice when the action it expresses
    is performed upon its subject.
   **helping verb + main verb**
   **by**
 Give an example of the same sentence in the active
  voice and in the passive voice.
   Timmy throws the ball.
   The ball was thrown by Timmy.
Active and Passive Voice

 Identify each verb as active or passive.
   Tommy hit Kent in the face.
   Ashley’s hair was pulled by CJ.
   Mrs. Fountain kicked Remi in order to wake him
   Markia’s water bottle was thrown across the room
    by Seth.
Parallel Structure

 Parallel Structure
   Parallelism in writing is a way of joining similar
    ideas and giving them emphasis through
   When a writer describes two or more items in a
    series, he or she must keep the structure similar,
    or the sentence will be unclear in its meaning.
Parallel Structure
 Examples:
   Prepositional Phrases:
    ▪ The housekeeper looked inside the drawers, on top of the bookcase, and under
      the recliner for the missing wallet.
    ▪ The housekeeper looked inside the drawers, the bookcase, and under the
      recliner for the missing wallet.
   Nouns
    ▪ These gifted boys could name the types of trees, flowers, and birds in the forest.
    ▪ These gifted boys could name the types of trees, flowers, and some special
      kinds of birds in the forest.
   Verbs
    ▪ Carlos Mendoza took pictures of smiling people, developed the pictures in his
      darkroom, and sent them to the company for the contest.
    ▪ Carlos Mendoza took pictures of smiling people, develops the pictures in his
      darkroom, and sent them to the company for the contest.
   Pronouns
    ▪ Take him, her, and them to the football game.
    ▪ Take him, she, and them to the football game.
Parallel Structure

 Examples: Correct each sentence.
  I am going shopping, to the skating rink, and
   bicycling this weekend.
  Shelby asked him to bring the truck and moving
   the refrigerator.
  Mom invited the guests, baked a cake, and
   decorates the house to get ready for the birthday
Subject/Verb Agreement

 Subject Verb Agreement
  The subject of a sentence must agree with the
   corresponding verb of the sentence.
   ▪ The subject is the word performing the action.
   ▪ The object (or noun) of a prepositional phrase cannot be
     the subject of the sentence!!!!!!!
   ▪ Example: My older brothers play baseball in the park.
   ▪ Example: The same frogs croak in the Chuckfee Bay
     every night.
Subject/Verb Agreement

 Choose the correct verb in the parentheses:
   Many (arrives, arrive) early at school each day.
   The confusion among his students (is, are)
   Neither of the girls (wants, want) to visit the art
    museum today.
   It (don’t, doesn’t) matter to me if you eat all of the
   The pack of wolves spreads out and (surround,
    surrounds) their prey.
   A meteorite from Mars (land, lands) in Antarctica 17
    million years ago.
Commonly Confused Words

 Say the meaning of each word, and use it in
  a sentence:
    Accept / Except
    Capitol / Capital
    Affect / Effect
    All ready / Already
    Through/Threw
    To/Too/Two
Commonly Confused Words

 Accept- verb; to receive
 Except- but
 Capitol- a legislature’s building
 Capital- a legislature’s city
 Affect- verb; to influence
 Effect- noun; a result
 All ready- pronoun plus adjective; everyone is
 Already- adverb; previously
Commonly Confused Words

 Choose the word in parentheses to
  correctly complete the sentence:
  Montgomery is the (capital, capitol) of Alabama.
  Morrie is three minutes older (then, than) his twin
   brother Mike.
  Alisha had (to, two, too) much homework.
  Jackson quickly ran past the (principal, principle)
   of the school just as the bell rang.
Commonly Confused Words

 What is the purpose of each apostrophe in three of
  the words below?
     You’re- You are
     It’s- it is
     They’re- they are
     Hers- possessive pronoun
     Ours- possessive pronoun
 Why do hers and ours not have an apostrophe?
   Possessive pronouns do not have apostrophes unless they
    are contractions
 What does each contraction mean?
 Use each contraction in a sentence.
Specific Wording

 Specific Words convey messages accurately.
  Give a more specific word for each word below:
   ▪ Car
   ▪ Furniture
   ▪ Teacher

 Transitions
  A transition is a word or phrase used to link ideas.
  It helps the reader to make connections.
  Example: finally, however, consequently, first,
   secondly, lastly
Introduction and Conclusion

 What are the elements of an effective introductory
   An effective introductory sentence should:
    ▪ Introduce the main idea
    ▪ Omit a detailed explanation of any idea; the statement should be
      very general
    ▪ Capture the reader’s attention
 What are the elements of an effective concluding
   An effective concluding sentence should:
    ▪ Provide a satisfying ending
    ▪ Omit new ideas
    ▪ Sum up the paragraph

 Revision
  Revision involves altering and improving the
   content of an essay
 Revision Strategies
  Organize during prewriting to avoid major
  Change or delete sentences that are off topic and
   improve word choice
Persuasive Techniques

 Purpose of Persuasion
  To get the reader to see your point of view
 Techniques
    State the facts.
    State the benefits to the audience.
    State the author’s expertise.
    Connect emotionally with the reader.
Grammatical Errors

 Which sentence is correct? What must be
  corrected in each of the other three
  We were going to the movies, but mom said that
   we had to wait.
  Dad needed the car to run an errand, and he don’t
   know when he will be back.
  Deanna and me played cards for a few minutes.
  We left for the movies as soon as Dad returned,
   and we were there in time for the previews.
Grammatical Errors

 What is wrong with the following sentences?
  “I wish the dogs would stop barking long enough for
   me to get a little bit of sleep,” moaned my tired
  “Vanessa,” her best friend pleaded, “are you still
   angry at me for the trick I played on you?”
  I wish the cafeteria at Kashwee High School served
   Chinese food once in a while.
  My English class just finished reading the poem
   entitled “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe and the
   novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee.

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