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					Matakuliah   : J0282 / Pengantar Teknologi Informasi
Tahun        : 2005
Versi        : 02/02




                         Pertemuan 2
       Understanding the Components
            of the System Units




                                                       1
         Learning Outcomes


Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa
akan mampu :
• menjelaskan komponen di dalam sistem
  unit komputer




                                                 2
            Outline Materi


•   Processor
•   Memory
•   Adapter Cards
•   Ports and Connectors




                             3
               The System Unit
• What is the system unit?
  Ø   Case that contains electronic
      components of the computer used
      to process data
      §   Sometimes called
          the chassis




                                        4
               The System Unit
• What are common components inside the
  system unit?
                         power supply                drive bays
  Ø   Processor
  Ø   Memory                                                       processor

  Ø   Adapter cards
      §   Sound card                                               memory
                         ports
      §   Modem card
      §   Video card
      §   Network card
                                                                  sound card
  Ø   Ports
  Ø   Drive bays
  Ø   Power supply
                                                            video card
                                        modem card
                         network card

                                                                         5
             The System Unit
• What is the motherboard?
                                     adapter cards
                                                               processor chip
  Ø   Main circuit
      board in system
      unit
  Ø   Contains adapter
      cards, processor                                                          memory chips


      chips, and
      memory chips
  Ø   Also called
      system board                                                          memory slots

                         Expansion
                         slots for
                         adapter cards               motherboard

                                                                                    6
               The System Unit
• What is a chip?                         dual inline
                                          packages (DIP)
                                          holds memory
                                          chips
  Ø   Small piece of semi-conducting
      material on which integrated
      circuits are etched
      § Integrated circuits contain
         many microscopic pathways
         capable of carrying electrical
         current
                                          pin grid
  Ø   Chips are packaged so they can      array (PGA)
                                          package
      be attached to a circuit board      holds processor
                                          chips




                                                     7
                       Processor
• What is the central processing unit (CPU)?
  Ø Interpretsand carries                           Processor
   out basic instructions                 Control
                                          Control             Arithmetic
                                                              Arithmetic
                                           Unit             Logic Unit (ALU)
   that operate a computer                 Unit             Logic Unit (ALU)

    § Control unit directs and                      Instructions
      coordinates operations in                         Data
      computer                                       Informatio
                                                          n
    § Arithmetic logic unit
      (ALU) performs             Input                                           Output
                                Devices
                                          Data      Memory         Information
                                                                                 Devices
      arithmetic, comparison,
      and logical operations
                                                    Instructions
  Ø Also   called the processor                         Data
                                                     Informatio
                                                          n

                                                     Storage
                                                     Devices                          8
                      Processor

•   Which processor should you select?
Ø The faster the processor, the more expensive the computer
            Intel Processor   Desired Clock Speed

            Itanium or Xeon     1.3 GHz and up




            Pentium family
                                3.0 GHz and up

                                2.4 GHz to 3.0
                               GHz

                                Up to 2.4 GHz
            Celeron
                                2.2 GHz and up


                                                          9
                  Processor
• What are heat sinks and heat pipes?
  Ø   Heat sink—component
                                        heat sink fan
      with fins that cools
      processor
  Ø   Heat pipe —smaller
              e




      device for notebook
      computers


                      heat sink




                                                        10
           Data Representation
• How do computers represent data?
  Ø   Most computers are digital

                                   § Recognize only two
                                     discrete states: on or off
                                   § Use a binary system to
                                     recognize two states
                                   § Use Number system with
                                     two unique digits: 0 and
                                     1, called bits (short for
                                     binary digits)



                                                             11
            Data Representation
• What is a byte?
  Ø   Eight bits grouped together as a unit
  Ø   Provides enough different combinations of 0s and 1s
      to represent 256 individual characters
      §   Numbers
      §   Uppercase
          and lowercase
          letters
      §   Punctuation
          marks



                                                            12
                     Data Representation
• How is a letter converted to binary form
  and back?
                                    Step 1.
                                    The user presses                             Step 2.
                                    the capital letter D                         An electronic signal for the
                                    (shift+D key) on                             capital letter D is sent to the
                                    the keyboard.                                system unit.




 Step 4.                                                   Step 3.
 After processing, the binary                              The signal for the capital letter D
 code for the capital letter D is                          is converted to its ASCII binary
 converted to an image, and                                code (01000100) and is stored in
 displayed on the output device.                           memory for processing.


                                                                                                        13
                     Memory
• What is memory?                   Seat #2B4   Seat #2B3


Ø   Electronic components that
    store instructions, data, and
    results
Ø   Consists of one or
    more chips on
    motherboard or
    other circuit board
Ø   Each byte stored
    in unique location
    called an address,
    similar to seats
    on a passenger train
                                                            14
              Memory

• What is random access memory (RAM)?

                       Memory chips that can be
                        read from and written
                           to by processor
                                        Most RAM is
                         Also called
                                       volatile, it is lost
                        main memory
                                       when computer’s
                         or primary
                                           power is
                           storage
                                          turned off

                           The more RAM a
                           computer has, the
                            faster it responds


                                                              15
                  Memory
                                              dual inline memory module

• Where does memory
  reside?
 Ø   Resides on small circuit
     board called memory
     module
 Ø   Memory slots on            memory chip     memory slot

     motherboard hold memory
     modules




                                                                   16
                             Memory
• How much RAM does an application require?
  Ø   Software package
      typically indicates    System Requirements
                                                 ®
                             Windows XP Home Edition/Professional
      RAM requirements       • Intel Pentium processor at 233MHZ or higher
                             • AMD K6 (Athlon Duron Family processor at 233MHZ or higher
  Ø   For optimal            • 64 MB of RAM


      performance, you
      need more than
      minimum specifications




                                                                                      17
                               Memory

• How much RAM do you need?
Ø     Depends on type of applications you intend to run
      on your computer
RAM        128 to 256                  256 to 1 GB                         1 GB and up
Use        MB
         • Home and business      • Users requiring more advanced • Power users creating
           users managing           multimedia capabilities              professional Web sites
           personal finance       • Running number-intensive           • Running sophisticated
         • Using standard           accounting, financial, or            CAD, 3D design, or
           application software     spreadsheet programs                 other graphics-intensive
           such as word           • Using voice recognition              software
           processing             • Working with videos, music, and
         • Using educational        digital imaging
           or entertainment       • Creating Web sites
           CD-ROMs                • Participating in video conferences
         • Communicating with     • Playing Internet games
           others on the Web

                                                                                              18
                            Memory
• What is read-only memory (ROM)?

Memory chips that store                                  Nonvolatile memory, it is not
   permanent data                                           lost when computer’s
   and instructions                                           power is turned off

                                  Three types:
                                                             EEPROM
            Firmware—                                      (electrically
            Manufactured with                  erasable programmable
            permanently written                   read-only memory)—
            data, instructions,                        Type of PROM
            or information                       containing microcode
                                     PROM                 programmer
                                (programmable                  can erase
                                    read-only
                                   memory)—
                                  Blank ROM
                                chip onto which
                                 a programmer
                             can write permanently                                19
                                               Memory
• What is flash memory?
  Ø      Nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and
         reprogrammed
  Ø      Used with PDAs, digital cameras, digital cellular phones, music players,
         digital voice recorders, printers, Internet receivers, and pagers
                                                                                     Step 3.
 Step 1.                                                                             Plug the headphones into the MP3
 Purchase and download MP3 music tracks                              To headphones   player, push a button on the MP3
 from a Web site. With one end of a special      Flash memory chip                   player, and listen to the music
 cable connected to the system unit, connect                                         through the headphones.
 the other end into the MP3 player.




                                From computer

                                                        Flash memory card

                             Step 2.
                             Instruct the computer to copy the MP3 music track
                                                                                                                MP3 Player
                             to the flash memory chip in the MP3 player.

                                                                                                                             20
                  Memory
• What is CMOS?

                  Complementary       Used in some
                    metal-oxide     RAM chips, flash
                  semiconductor     memory chips, and
                     memory           other types of
                                      memory chips


         Uses battery      Stores date,
       power to retain       time, and
      information when      computer’s
        other power is        startup
          turned off       information


                                                        21
                       Memory
• What is access time?
  Ø   Amount of time it takes processor
      to read data from memory
  Ø   Measured in nanoseconds (ns),
      one billionth of a second
  Ø   It takes 1/10 of a second to blink
      your eye; a computer can perform
      up to 10 million operations in same amount of
      time
                   Term         Speed
                  Millisecond   One-thousandth of a second
                  Microsecond   One-millionth of a second
                  Nanosecond    One-billionth of a second
                  Picosecond    One-trillionth of a second

                                                             22
   Expansion Slots and Adapter
                Cards
• What is an adapter card? Types of Adapter Cards



  Ø   Enhances system unit or
      provides connections to
      external devices called
      peripherals
  Ø   Also called an expansion card




                                                    23
  Expansion Slots and Adapter
               Cards
• What is an expansion slot?
Ø   An opening, or socket,
    on the motherboard
    that can hold an
    adapter card
Ø   With Plug and Play,
    the computer
    automatically
    configures cards
    and other devices
    as you install them

                                24
           Ports and Connectors
• What are ports and connectors?
  Ø   Port connects external devices to system unit
  Ø   Connector joins cable to peripheral
      §   Available in one of two genders: male and female




                                                             25
      Ports and Connectors

• What are different types of connectors?




                                            26
         Power Supply

• What is a power supply?

         Converts              Fan keeps
         AC Power             system unit
           into               components
         DC Power                 cool


            External peripherals
              might use an AC
            adapter, which is an
           external power supply

                                            27
• Source : Shelly, Gary B. Discovering
  Computers (2004/2005/2006). Thomson
  Course Technology. PPT for Chapter 4.




                                      28

				
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