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                                  Voice of America Story
                        Match the two phrases to make a sentence
   also because it allows                        1 impact on average people
it is having the greatest                        2 key to the success
            I think the real M                   3 the price of a computer
              it gives users                     4 advantage in job markets
      it will give them an                       5 users to make changes
     he still cannot afford                      6 a sense of ownership
First listening: Listen and answer these questions
1.   Where does the story take place?
2.   What does it concern?
Second listening: Listen and answer these questions
1.   What are the benefits of this technology?
2.   What do NGO and SMME stand for?
3.   Who does the expert think will be using this technology?
4.   What does he expect to be the greatest difficulty in the future?
5.   What do students expect to gain from this?
6.   What great problem do the students face?
                                 Pilot's gun fires on US Airways flight
                                      Associated Press Mar. 24, 2008 02:01 PM
DENVER - A   gun belonging to the pilot of a US Airways plane discharged as the aircraft was on approach to
land in North Carolina over the weekend, the first time a weapon issued under a federal program to arm pilots
was fired, authorities said Monday.
   The "accidental discharge" Saturday aboard Flight 1536 from Denver to Charlotte did not pose a danger to
the aircraft or the 124 passengers, two pilots and three flight attendants aboard, said Greg Alter of the Federal
Air Marshal Service.
   "We know that there was never any danger to the aircraft or to the occupants on board," Alter said.
   The firing is the first time a pilot's weapon has been fired on a plane under a program created after the
Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks to allow pilots, for example, to use a firearm to defend against any act of air
piracy or criminal violence, he said.
   The Transportation Security Administration is investigating how the gun discharged and is being assisted by
the Air Marshal Service, Alter said.
   Federal Aviation Administration spokesman Mike Fergus said his agency is also investigating to make sure
that the plane is safe. The aircraft has been removed from service, the airline said.
                           Japan Plans to Reduce Garbage by 60 Pct
                                        Mar 25, 2008 7:23 AM (3 hrs ago) AP
TOKYO (Map, News) -    Japan will urge citizens to carry their own chopsticks instead of using disposable ones
and go shopping with their own bags instead of using plastic ones, in a bid to more than halve the garbage it
   The Cabinet approved a set of plans Tuesday to promote recycling, said Tsuyoshi Kawakami, an official in
charge of recycling at the Environment Ministry.
   Japan aims to reduce the total amount of garbage produced by industries and individuals to 25.3 million
tons - 40 percent of the amount produced in fiscal 2000 - by fiscal 2015 under the plan posted on the
ministry's Web site. The fiscal year begins in April in Japan.
   The government target for individuals was a reduction of 20 percent.
   "We are still lacking efforts. We have not been able to break away from the mass consumption society,"
Kawakami said.
   Stores in Japan normally hand out plastic and paper bags, while gifts are typically wrapped in elaborate
packaging. Environmentalists criticize the wide use of disposable wooden chopsticks in the country.
   The adopted plans also encourage people to use public transportation and ride bicycles.
                                      Now for today's feature story...
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    Experts: Free Open Source Software Could Help African Development
                                  By Kari Barber Dakar 21 March 2008

   In many African countries, few people have access to computers and the Internet.
 Experts say this is hindering development and preventing students from being able to
 compete for jobs. At a conference in Dakar this week, software experts, government
officials and students came together to look at how open-source software, which is free
           for anyone to use, could make technology available to more people.
                         Kari Barber has this report from Dakar.
                                  Children use laptops from the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) program
    Experts say that open source software is not only good for Africa because it is free, but also
because it allows users to make changes to the source code, which in
itself can provide a lesson in technology.1
  Derek Keats is a professor at the University of Western Cape in South
Africa. He says free, open software is having the greatest impact on
average people, non-governmental organizations or NGOs, and small,
medium and micro businesses, which he calls SMMEs.2
    "I think the real key to the success of free and open source software
is to imagine all of the smaller scale activities that are happening within
Africa: the SMMEs [small, medium and micro enterprises] that are
deploying free and open source software, the Internet service providers
that are making abundant use of free and open-source software in creating opportunities for
connectivity, the NGOs that are enabled through free and open-source software." 3
    Keats says being able to see the software's source code, or computer language code, and being
able to rewrite or make changes gives users a sense of ownership. He says explaining to people how
open-source software works and how it can help them is one of the biggest challenges.4
    "By having access to the source code it gives them power they would not otherwise not have.
 And that power, when you do not have access to the source code, is taken away from you. How do
we make people understand that free and open source software is as much about democracy as it is
about technology?"4
    Government officials at the conference said they hope free, open-source software will allow them
to use computers in more of their work to increase efficiency and in the long run save money.
Students said they hope learning to write computer source code will give them an advantage in job
markets where there are few opportunities for employment.5
    Hassan N'diaye is a university student who attended the conference.
    He says he believes open-source software could be helpful for students like himself. But, he says,
that when he watches European students walking around with personal laptop computers, he realizes
that software is not enough. He still cannot afford the price of a computer or an Internet connection,
but, he says, at least it is a start.6

                                           Another Story:
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Please find the word that doesn't match the other words in that row
depose            impeach             relax           unseat
house arrest close arrest preventive custody coronary attack
enclave            curved            retreat         sanctuary
invalidate         abolish           rescind         unmoving
tamper              butt             meddle            push
judiciary          bench            magistrate        podium
reinstate          repeat        rehabilitate         restore

Write a bolded word from the list above in each of the blanks in the following sentences.
1.    Members of the organization                       the leader after her plan to raise funds backfired
and almost bankrupted the group.
2.    After years of serving in various low-ranking jobs, Jeff was finally rewarded with a prestigious
position on the                       .
3.    In order to avoid a public relations disaster, it was decided to keep the quarrelsome rock star
under                           until his condition stabilized.
4.    The aroma of almonds immediately told the detective that somebody had                     with his
5.    Though he was found guilty of several crimes, the town’s by-laws required the assembly to
                  the mayor they had just fired.
6.    George bought a neighboring property whenever one went on sale and soon had created his
own                   covering thirteen hectares near the center of town.
7.    Jesse Owens gold medals in the Olympics were                                when it was discovered
he had won turkeys as prizes for races in school.
First listening: Listen and answer these questions
1.    Where does the story take place?

Second listening: Listen and answer these questions
1.    What was the new leader's initial order?
2.    What led to this situation?
3.    What was the destination of most of the journalists?
4.    What did the cleric declare upon his release?
5.    Are the conflicts finished? Why or why not?
6.    What would the groups like to do during March? What could be the result if they are

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                Pakistan's Deposed Judges Freed From House Arrest
                               By Steve Herman Islamabad 24 March 2008
 Pakistan's deposed chief justice and other ousted high court judges have been freed
 from house arrest. The move was ordered by the new prime
VOA Correspondent Steve Herman reports from Islamabad this
 ratchets up tension between the incoming government and
  incumbent President Pervez Musharraf who has vowed the
           judges would never return to the bench.
Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry waves as he appears at his residence
to cheer supporters after his release in Islamabad, 24 Mar 2008
       Yousaf Raza Gilani talks to media upon his arrival at Parliament
                             House in Islamabad, Pakistan, 24 Mar 2008
      Within minutes of a new prime minister being selected by
Pakistan's parliament, it was clear that President Pervez Musharraf was losing more authority.
   Mr. Yousaf Raza Gilani, in his first act as prime minister, ordered all deposed judges to be freed
from house arrest. Barricades and barbed wire were moved aside in the judges' enclave in the
  The deposed chief justice of Pakistan and 60 other judges had been under house arrest in the
compound and elsewhere for more than four months. Mr. Musharraf had replaced them with judges
he considered less likely to invalidate his re-election as president. Mr. Musharraf, who came to
power in a 1999 military coup, was also army chief when the election was held last October.2
  Reporters and lawyers on Monday evening rushed into the judges' residential compound in
Islamabad and headed to the home of the deposed chief judge, Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry.3
  Appearing with members of his family and supporters on his front balcony, the deposed chief judge
thanked the people of Pakistan for what he called the five-month-long struggle for the rule of law. Mr.
Chaudhry called for events to move forward in a "decent manner."4
   Members of bar associations in Pakistan's major cities had repeatedly protested Mr. Musharraf's
tampering with the judiciary. That resulted in sometimes-violent clashes with police.
   But the dispute between the legal community and the unpopular president is not over, because
the judges have not been reinstated.5
  The two anti-Musharraf parties, which are cooperating to form a coalition government, have
pledged to reinstate the judges within a month.
   That could force the embattled president from office if the judges get to rule Mr. Musharraf's re-
election as president for another five-year term was unconstitutional.6
 The Voice of America is among the world’s most trusted sources of news and information.

                        ... And Another!
                      Journey Beyond
GELLERMAN: It's Living on Earth. I'm Bruce Gellerman.
  Arthur Clarke was born in 1917 in the English seaside town of
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Minehead, a full 2 years before a landmark paper was published demonstrating space travel was
physically possible. As a young boy Clarke fashioned a telescope out of a cardboard tube and a
couple of lenses, which he focused on the distant heavens. And he'd spend a few pence on the
American sci-fi pulp magazine, Astounding Stories of Super Science -- where years later he published
his first science fiction story. Over his prolific career, he authored more than a hundred books and
countless short stories, about advanced science and the human condition.
   He wrote, "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic." And Arthur
Clarke was most certainly a masterful magician, weaving stories of far-flung frontiers and near-
distant futures.
   He foresaw high orbiting telecom satellites decades before they rocketed into space. Today
astronomers call their place 22 thousand miles above the Earth, a Clarke Orbit.
  Arthur C. Clarke in a video greeting to NASA to mark the flyby of Cassini spacecraft last September.
                                                                                         (Image: NASA)
CLARKE: In my time I have been very fortunate to see many of my dreams come true.
GELLERMAN: Of course not all of Arthur Clarke's predictions, dreams and imaginings came true. He
boldly anticipated atomic powered rockets and cold fusion with the same certainty as
geosynchronous satellites. And another of his favorite predictions has yet to be realized -- the space
elevator -- tethering orbiting satellites to earth.
CLARKE: I'm always asked when do I think the space elevator will be built. And I always say about
ten years after everyone stops laughing. Maybe 20 years. But I am pretty sure that the space
elevator is an important element in future space travel.
GELLERMAN: Arthur Clarke often had the last laugh. He was optimistic about science, if not
humanity. In his book, "The Hazards of Prophecy: The Failure of Imagination," Sir Arthur laid out his
so-called Clarke laws -- the first: "When a distinguished but elderly scientist states that something is
possible, he is almost certainly right. When he states that something is impossible, he is very
probably wrong."
GELLERMAN: On March nineteenth, Arthur Clarke died, as he would say, "marking his 90th orbit of
the sun." On the very day he died, astronomers discovered the first inklings of life beyond our solar
system. Using the orbiting Hubble telescope, they detected the organic molecule methane and water
in the atmosphere of a distant planet. We suspect Sir Arthur Charles Clarke would have been
Related links:
- Arthur C. Clarke Foundation
- To hear IEEE Spectrum's full interview with Arthur C. Clarke, click here
- Research and discussion site for Arthur C. Clarke

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