Docstoc

TRAINING AND EDUCATION OF CYTOTECHNOLOGISTS

Document Sample
TRAINING AND EDUCATION OF CYTOTECHNOLOGISTS Powered By Docstoc
					TRAINING AND EDUCATION OF
CYTOTECHNOLOGISTS IN
EUROPE
    Anic V. et al. on behalf of EACC
BACKGROUND

   Updated, extended and revised version of the
    Questionnaire on training of Cytotechnologists in
    Europe that was presented at the EFCS meeting
    during the 17th International Congress of Cytology
    in Edinburgh.
   There are included issues related to the numerical
    state, academic level, included subjects and
    duration of the basic education and training in
    cytology. Required number of slides examined
    under supervision prior to sign out cervical cytology
    specimens.
   Accreditation and recognition of education, also
    issues related to the strategy of continuing
    education and external quality assurance scheme.
   We will try to answer the questions about the future
    optimal training Cytotechnologists, degrees and
    diploma that would enhance the acknowledgement
    of Cytotechnologists in Europe.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:

   A questionnaire was sent to 25 countries, 14
    countries that are EACC members and to the 11
    countries that are members of the EFCS but without
    representatives in EACC.
   On this questionnaire, we received responses from
    18 countries.
Countries – EACC membersReply

Austria (AUT)            YES

Belgium (BEL)            YES

Croatia (CRO)            YES

Denmark (DEN)            YES

Finland (FIN)            YES

France (FRA)             YES

Germany (GER)            YES

Italy (ITA)              YES

Netherlands (NED)        YES

Norway (NOR)             YES

Slovenia (SLO)           YES

Sweden (SWE)             YES

Switzerland (SUI)        YES

United Kingdom (UK)      YES
Countries EFCS members – without EACC representative
                       Reply

Albania                  No reply

Greece (GRE)             YES

Hungary                  No reply

Macedonia                No reply

Poland                   No reply

Portugal (POR)           YES

Romania                  No reply

Russia                   No reply

Slovakia                 No reply

Spain (ESP)              YES

Turkey (TUR)             YES
Note: Replies from Italy, Greece and Turkey are
excluded from this survey because:

   In Italy, education does not exist, and answers to
    the rest of questionnaire are not received.
   In Greece, Cytotechnologists do not exist as a
    profession. Cytopathologists perform screening.
   In Turkey there is no official Cytotechnologists,
    however few biologists with MSC or PhD are
    practising as Cytotechnologists at some laboratories.
      RESULTS


The approximate number of fully trained and employed
Cytotechnologists:


AUSTRIA BELGIUM CROATIA DENMARK FINLAND FRANCE            GERMANY   THE NETHERLANDS

                                                700-800
300      ± 300   225      175         180-200             2600      600



          PORTUGAL                         SWEDEN SWITZERLAND
NORWAY               SLOVENIA SPAIN                                 UNITED KINGD

                                UNKNOWN 220          UNKNOWN        ± 1300
130       2000       35
   According to competence level most of the
    Cytotechnologists are on intermediate level (can
    report and sign out negative and unsatisfactory
    cervical cytology specimens, can undertake
    rescreening and offer a differential diagnosis on
    abnormal specimens).
   Denmark, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands,
    Sweden, UK and Portugal also have some
    Cytotechnologists that are on an advanced level
    (can report and sign out normal and abnormal
    cervical cytology specimens), while only few in all
    the countries are on a basic level (cannot report
    negative or unsatisfactory cervical cytology
    specimens).
BASIC EDUCATION

   The basic educational standard required before
    entry into cytology training is mostly
    medical/laboratory technologist, but also
    biomedical scientist.
   Academic level and duration of the given basic
    education is mostly college (in seven countries: AUT,
    BEL, DEN, SLO, SUI, ESP, partly UK) in duration of 3
    years with bachelor degree after completing
    education.
   In eight countries (BEL, FIN, FRA, NOR, SWE, POR
    partly CRO and UK), academic level of the basic
    education is university in duration from 2- 4 years
    with master or bachelor degree.
   Three countries (partly CRO, GER, NED) have a high
    school in duration of 4 years as an academic level
    of the basic education.
   Cytology, cell biology, molecular biology and/or
    biochemistry subjects are included in the basic
    education with exception of Portugal where these
    subjects are not included and cytology is not
    included in Belgium and France.
TRAINING IN CYTOLOGY

   The training in cytology is mostly (in seven countries:
    CRO, FRA, NED, SLO, SWE, SUI, ESP) given as a
    separate course/education.
   In five countries (FIN, GER, NOR, UK, POR) it is
    possible to have training/education as a part of
    general program of in-house training in the
    laboratory and as a separate course/education.
    In three countries (AUT, BEL, DEN), education is
    given as a part of general program of in-house
    training in the laboratory.
   Duration of the training in cytology as a part of
    general programme of in-house training in the
    laboratory varies from 3 months up to 2 years.
   In most of the countries, gynaecology cytology is
    joint with non-gynaecology cytology in the
    education. In five countries (AUT, GER, UK, POR,
    SLO) gynaecology cytology is separated from non-
    gynaecology cytology in the education.
 Duration of gynaecology cytology education is
  from 30 up to 120 credit points, or 90 up to 165
  hours.
 Duration of non-gynaecological cytology (only

  few answers) is from 20 up to 180 credit points,
  or from 3 months up to 369 hours.
 Duration of joint education is from 30 up to 120

  credit points, or from 100 up to 640 hours.
   Possibility of joining just one part of education (only
    education for gynaecology cytology) is accessible in
    seven countries (AUT, BEL, FIN, GER, NOR, UK, POR),
    not possible in seven countries (CRO, FRA, NED, SLO,
    SWE, SUI, ESP).
   Subjects included in the curriculum are mostly
    gynaecology and non-gynaecology cytology,
    staining methods, molecular techniques and also lot
    of variations from anatomy, pathology, histology,
    quality assurance etc.
   Academic level that instructors/training officers at
    the workplace possess varies from senior
    cytotechnologists, staff with master or bachelor
    degree, with IAC exam certificate, cytopathologists,
    pathologists....
   Required number of slides screened with supervision
    before the Cytotechnologists trainees can sign out
    cervical specimens is from 770 up to 7000 slides,
    but mostly around 1000.
   Approximate number of persons training to be
    Cytotechnologist varies from three up to 25 each
    year (Spain from 800 -1200 ?)
   Who decides the training requirements for
    Cytotechnologists in the country ?
   In six countries, it is professional society, in three
    Ministry of education, government in two and
    nobody in four countries!
ACCREDITATION AND CERTIFICATION

   Cytology training programme is accredited from
    academic institution on university level in five
    countries (AUT, FRA, NOR, SWE, POR) , on college
    level in one country (ESP), on high school in one
    country (NED).
   In the other countries, cytology training programme
    is accredited from other institutions: professional
    society, Ministry of health or education and
    institution that carry out the above mentioned
    education, in one country education is without
    accreditation.
   Training programme is recognized nationally in
    almost all of the countries, exception is Belgium,
    Finland and Sweden where training programme is
    not recognized.
Students who complete training programme are awarded a:

                                        CERTIFICATE OF
DIPLOMA             DEGREE
                                        COMPETENCE
France              Croatia             Austria

The Netherlands     Finland             Belgium

Norway              Sweden              Denmark (QUATE exam)

Spain                                   Germany

Switzerland                             Portugal

United Kingdom                          Slovenia
CONTINUING EDUCATION AND
QUALITY ASSURANCE
   Arrangements/strategies for continuing education in
    cytology: almost all have annual meetings and
    courses that are usually not mandatory, but
    mandatory for all staff reporting cervical cytology
    in UK and Norway.
   Congresses are also represented in most of the
    countries, but not mandatory.
   From the other options accessible are slide seminars,
    one-day meetings and workshops.
Approximate number of cytotechnologist who has taken and
passed the exam of the:
  COUNTRY            IAC                QUATE
  Austria (300)      22                 32
  Belgium (±300)     few                few
  Croatia (225)      0                  0
  Denmark (175)      19                 Approx. 130
  Finland (±200)     40-50              0
  France (±800)      17                 0
  Germany (2600)     15%                Very few
  Netherlands (600) No data             No data
  Norway (130)       20                 20
  Portugal (2000)    60                 20
  Slovenia (35)      0                  1
  Spain --           10-15
  Sweden (220)       18                 5
  Switzerland --     No data            No data
  United Kingdom (±1300)
                   No data              No data
   On the question “Is the Eurocytology Website
    learning platform widely used in their countries ?” -
    all participants answered with NO!
   Eurocytology Website learning platform is not
    widely used in their countries.
Is there an organised external quality assurance (EQA) scheme
running in your region or country and how frequently does it run?


AUSTRIA BELGIUM     CROATIA DENMARK FINLAND FRANCE                GERMANY      THE NETHERLANDS

                                                        NO
NO       NO         NO        NO            YES                   YES          YES

                                            1 x /year             1 x /year    every 1-3 year



NORWAY        PORTUGAL   SLOVENIA SPAIN             SWEDEN       SWITZERLAND         UNITED KINGDOM

              NO                                                 YES
NO                       YES (IMC)    YES           YES                              YES

                                                                 1x every 2 years
                         4 x / year   4 × /year     1 x / year                       1×/year
OPTIMAL EDUCATION?

   Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland, and
    Portugal believe they have the optimal or close to
    optimal education of Cytotechnologists.
   All the others answered that they do not have the
    optimal education of Cytotechnologists in their
    country and thinks that the optimal education will be
    on the university level.
   Every participant have the opinion that diploma
    certified or accredited by EFCS would or probably
    would enhance the acknowledgement of
    Cytotechnologists in Europe.
CONCLUSION

   The results of this survey is a summary of an existing
    and accessible education and training of
    Cytotechnologists.
   What is common and what is different in 18
    European countries, as well as suggestion for
    guidelines on which future training and education
    should be developed based on needs and
    deficiencies of the existing.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:1
posted:7/30/2013
language:English
pages:32