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Unit 5_ Classical reading

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					Ancient Greek for Everyone:
A New Digital Resource for
     Beginning Greek
           as taught at
   Louisiana State University
            Fall 2012
       Wilfred E. Major
   Unit 5: Classical readings
   Ancient Greek for Everyone
• This class (Wednesday, October 17, 2012)
  – Unit 5 Classical reading.
  – Be able to:
     • read the sentences aloud
     • parse each verb, noun and pronoun
     • translate the sentences into English.
     Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Aristotle, discussing the limits of inductive reasoning, says
  that it:

   οὐ γὰρ τί ἐστι δείκνυσιν, ἀλλ’ ὅτι ἢ ἔστιν ἢ οὐκ ἔστιν.
                          Aristotle Posterior Analytics 92b1
        Ancient Greek for Everyone
   • One night during the Trojan War, Hector finds the dead body
     of his Thracian ally Rhesus. Trojan soldiers tell Hector of their
     willingness to do what he commands next:

      Ἕκτορ, πάρεστι· φῶς γὰρ ἡμέρας τόδε.
                                 Euripides Rhesus 985




Ἕκτορ Hector                                     ἡμέρας (fem. gen. sg.) day
     Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Sophocles won his first victory in 468 BC.
• He wrote more than 120 plays.
   – He won more than twenty times (a record).
   – He never came in less than second.
• He competed for the last time in 406 BC.
     Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Theatrical career
   – Seven plays survive complete
      • Ajax, Antigone, Women of Trachis, Oedipus Tyrannos, Electra,
        Philoctetes, Oedipus at Colonus
      • part of a satyr-play Trackers has been recovered plus a number
        of shorter fragments
   – He wrote about theater (σκηνογραφία) but this work
     does not survive.
      • He is credited with introducing a third actor and reducing the
        chorus to twelve members.
   – The younger playwright Ion published memoirs of
     conversations with Sophocles.
      Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Political life:
   – served as a treasurer (Ἑλληνοτομίας) for the Delian
     League, 443-442 BC.
   – elected general (στρατηγός), perhaps 441/0 BC.
       • the position seems to have been honorary
   – chosen a commissioner (πρόβουλος) following the crisis of
     413 BC
• Religious life:
   – served as priest of the hero Halon
   – housed the cult of Asclepius while a temple was being built
   – worshipped as the hero Dexion after his death
     Ancient Greek for Everyone
• A messenger reports to Deianira, wife of Hercules, about the
  hero’s exploits. He was held up among the Lydians:

   ὥς φησ’ αὐτός, …
                                    Sophocles Trachiniae 249




                           φησ’ = φησί
         Ancient Greek for Everyone
   • Ajax was a Greek warrior in the Trojan War, second only to
     Achilles. Following the war, however, he commits suicide,
     after which his wife (and former prisoner of war) says of his
     enemies:

       Αἴας γὰρ αὐτοῖς οὐκέτ’ ἐστίν…
                                               Sophocles Ajax 972




Αἴας Αἴαντος ὁ Ajax                              οὐκέτ’ = οὐκέτι no longer
        Ancient Greek for Everyone
   • Later, Ajax’s men call for attendance to his funeral:

      …ἀλλ’ ἄγε πᾶς, φίλος ὅστις ἀνὴρ
      φησὶ παρεῖναι…
                                  Sophocles Ajax 1413-4




ἄγε Come!                                       πᾶς (mas. nom. sg.) each
ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός ὁ man                              φίλος (mas. nom. sg.) friend
          Ancient Greek for Everyone
    • Oedipus, old, blind and in exile, comes to the Athenian suburb
      of Colonus (Sophocles’ home), along with his daughter
      Antigone, where his other daughter, Ismene, joins them. A
      chorus of locals says to him:

        …Οἰδίπους, (you deserve pity) ,
        αὐτός τε παῖδές θ’ αἵδ’·.
                        Sophocles Oedipus at Colonus 461-2




αἵδ’. = αἵδε                                                     θ’ = τε
        Ancient Greek for Everyone
   • Oedipus’ uncle (and brother-in-law) later claims that he will
     now be welcome in his home city of Thebes. Oedipus scoffs at
     the idea and says he has learned what is really happening in
     Thebes from:

       Φοίβου τε καὐτοῦ Ζηνός, ὃς κείνου πατήρ.
                           Sophocles Oedipus at Colonus 793




Ζεύς, Ζηνός ὁ Zeus
καὐτοῦ = καὶ αὐτοῦ                  πατήρ, πατρός ὁ father
κείνου = ἐκείνου                    Φοίβου (mas. gen. sg.) Phoebus (Apollo)
        Ancient Greek for Everyone
   • Antigone tells Oedipus that Polynices (their brother/son/uncle)
     has just arrived.

         …πάρεστι δεῦρο Πολυνείκης ὅδε.
      Πολυνείκης
      οἴμοι, …
                    Sophocles Oedipus at Colonus 1253




                                     οἴμοι (a cry of pain)
δεῦρο here                           Πολυνείκης (mas. nom. sg.) Polynices
        Ancient Greek for Everyone
   • As he prepares to invade Thebes and attack his brother,
     Polynices responds to his mother’s request that the brothers
     meet and try one last time to settle their differences. He says:

      μῆτερ, πάρειμι …
                                  Euripides Phoenician Women 446




μῆτερ mother
           Ancient Greek for Everyone
    • The priestess of Apollo at Delphi gives tokens to the orphan
      Ion, so that he can find his mother:

        ὦ παῖ, καὶ τάδ’ ἀποδίδωμί σοι,
                                     Euripides Ion 1358




σοι (dat. sg.) you                     ὦ “O!” (used when calling out a name)
     Ancient Greek for Everyone
Although tragedy was the most prestigious form of drama for
   the Athenians, it was not the only one.
After a trilogy of tragedies,
a satyr-play followed,
a satirical play whose
constant set of characters
was a troop of satyrs
(goat-men hybrids).




           vase painting of Silenus,
              father of the satyrs
         Ancient Greek for Everyone
   • In Euripides’ satyrical version of Odysseus’ encounter with the
     Cyclops (originally from Odyssey book 9), Silenus takes the
     bowl of wine and the Cyclops asks:

       ἰδού.
       τί δῆτα τὸν κρατῆρ’ ὄπισθ’ ἐμοῦ τίθης;
                                    Euripides Cyclops 545




δῆτα (emphasizes preceding word)   κρατῆρ’ = κρατῆρα
ἐμοῦ (gen. sg.) me                         < κρατήρ –ρος ὁ bowl (for wine)
ἰδού Look! Hey!                    ὄπισθ’ = ὄπισθε behind
   Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Quiz #28 (Tuesday, October 23, 2012)
  – Parsing quiz: You will be given one or more sentences
    from the Classical reading, with some nouns and verbs
    underlined. Parse the underlined words.
   Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Next class (Tuesday, October 23, 2012)
  – Unit 5 Biblical reading.
  – Be able to:
     • read the sentences aloud
     • parse each verb, noun and pronoun
     • translate the sentences into English.
   Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Quiz #29 (Wednesday, October 24, 2012)
  – Parsing quiz: You will be given one or more sentences
    from the Biblical reading, with some nouns and verbs
    underlined. Parse the underlined words.

				
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