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The Use of Social Media Applications in Emergency Management

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 17

									                                                       Stefan Raue
                                       School of Computing Science
                                             University of Glasgow




The changing Role of Social
Media in Emergencies
Communications & Resilience Workshop
Falkirk, 28th February 2012
                                              Definitions
                                   Social Media Applications

Social Media Applications:

“[..] a group of Internet-based
applications that build on the
ideological and technological
foundations of Web 2.0, and that
                   2.0
allow the creation and exchange
of User Generated Content.”
                  Content.
(Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010)
                                                 Definition
              Social Media Applications - Examples


Category:             Blog

Definition:           …is “a personal website or web page
(Oxford Dictionary)   on which an individual records
                      opinions, links to other sites, etc. on a
                      regular basis.“


Random Facts:         • More than 180 million blogs on the
                        Internet
                      • 270,000 words are written on Blogger
                        every minute (2009)

Other Platforms:
                                               Definition
              Social Media Applications - Examples


Category:             Microblog

Definition:           …is a website that allows “the posting
(Oxford Dictionary)   of very short entries or updates [..],
                      typically via a mobile phone.”


Random Facts:         • more than 500 million registered
                        users on Twitter
                      • more than 250 million tweets a day
                      • more than 2800 tweets a second

Other Platforms:
                                            Definition
              Social Media Applications - Examples


Category:          Video and Photo Sharing Platform

Definition:        …also called content communities.
                   They allow users to share visual
                   content with the wider online
                   community on the Internet.

Random Facts:      • more than 2 billion videos watched
                     on Youtube every day
                   • more than 6 billion photos on Flickr
                   • more than 6,000 images uploaded to
                     Flickr every minute

Other Platforms:
                                               Definition
              Social Media Applications - Examples


Category:             Social Network

Definition:           …is a “network of social interactions
(Oxford Dictionary)   and personal relationships.” It is a
                      “dedicated   website     or   other
                      application which enables users to
                      communicate with each other by
                      posting information, comments,
                      messages, images, etc..”

Random Facts:         • more than 845 million Facebook
                        users (~425m active every day)
                      • ~90 billion images uploaded to
                        Facebook every year (250m / day)

Other Platforms:
                                                                Social Media
                        Levels of SMA Integration & Public Engagement


                                                                                   IVE
                                                                               A CT
                                                                           O
                                                                         PR


                                                   IVE
                                               ACT

                                                                       PROACTIVE PUBLIC




                                                                                         BENEFIT
                                                                        ENGAGEMENT
                 IVE
            PASS
                                      ACTIVE         MONITORING WITH
                                       PUBLIC        OPERATIONAL USE
                                     ENGAGEMENT
                    PASSIVE MONITORING
     INFORMATION
    DISSEMINATION

￿      ❶                ❷              ❸                 ❹                 ❺

                            LEVEL OF SOCIAL MEDIA INTEGRATION
                                        Social Media Integration
                Information Dissemination – Megaphone approach



Benefits:        • control over the channels (when / what / how / which)

                 • speed of information dissemination

                 • size of audience

                 • increased visibility of existing content / organisation



Applications:    • warning and informing the public

                 • campaigning and risk communication
                                       Social Media Integration
                 Passive Monitoring - Get to know your audience



Benefits:       • understand public’s perception / opinion

                • identify key stakeholders / influencers in communities, for
                  specific topics, etc.



Applications:   • evaluation of own performance (e.g. popularity)

                • evaluation of campaigns (e.g. acceptance, range of
                  influence)

                • static monitoring for specific events to gather information
                                         Social Media Integration
                Active Public Engagement – Listen & Answer & Ask



Benefits:         • shape public perception / opinion

                  • be more accessible to the public

                  • reduce load on other channels (e.g. hotlines)



Applications:     • provide direct advice to your audience in non-critical events

                  • ask / request information (e.g. missing people, eyewitness)

                  • counter rumours and misinformation

                  • ensure communities on a personalised level
                                          Social Media Integration
            Active SMA Monitoring – Listen & Understand & Apply



Benefits:        • near real-time monitoring of incidents / events

                 • improve situational awareness

                 • information on demand from trusted sources


Applications:    • detect events of interest that might not yet have been
                   reported or are still to come (e.g. illicit street party, riot
                   inciting messages)

                 • understand actions / plans / movements of groups of people

                 • post-event investigation (e.g. suspect identification)
                                       Social Media Integration
                            Full Integration of SMAs into Operations



Benefits:       • receive information that is validated from trusted sources

                • receive information that is in the required format

                • link information received into other operational systems


Applications:   • alternative emergency call system

                • update on situations from public or volunteer organisations
                  (e.g. on flood levels, snow depth, wildfires, )

                • update the public in real-time about your operations (e.g.
                  dispatched vehicles, stock levels of sandbags, shelters)
What are the challenges?
                                                                    Social Media
                                    SMA Integration – Benefit, Cost & Risk

     • manage the expectations of the
       audience                                                                        IVE
                                                                                   A CT
                                                                               O
                                                                             PR




                                                                                             BENEFIT & COST & RISK
     • make the objectives of your
       social media presence clear to
       the audience                                IVE
                                               ACT

                                                                           PROACTIVE PUBLIC
                                                                            ENGAGEMENT
                 IVE
            PASS
                                                          MONITORING
                                      ACTIVE
                                                             FOR
                                       PUBLIC
                                     ENGAGEMENT          OPERATIONAL USE
                    PASSIVE MONITORING
     INFORMATION
    DISSEMINATION

￿     ❶                 ❷            ❸                     ❹                 ❺

                            LEVEL OF SOCIAL MEDIA INTEGRATION
Special thanks to @FredCavazza for making this graphic available under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
 Social Media Challenges
Start small. Fail early. Learn often.
                                   Stefan Raue & Prof. Chris Johnson
                                       School of Computing Science
                                               University of Glasgow




Thank you for your attention.
Any questions?
Stefan Raue
School of Computing Science
College of Science & Engineering
University of Glasgow
stefan.raue@glasgow.ac.uk

								
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