The Elements of Poetry

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					   Every aspect of a poem– including line,
    white space, and language – is
    purposeful and creates the overall effect
    of the poem.

   Poets say more with less words.
   The poet paints images with words for
    the reader.
   These images help the reader to
    visualize the poem.


                 Tools for Imagery



    Sensory                          Figurative
    Details                          Language
   Painting images with the five senses:
            Those Winter Sundays
             Robert Hayden

Sundays too my father got up early
and put his clothes on in the blueblack cold,
then with cracked hands that ached                  Let’s look at 
                                                     the sensory 
from labor in the weekday weather made                details in 
banked fires blaze.  No one ever thanked him.       beginning of 
                                                       “Those 
                                                       Winter 
I’d wake and hear the cold splintering, breaking.     Sundays”
When the rooms were warm, he’d call,
and slowly I would rise and dress,
fearing the chronic angers of that house,
   Painting images with comparisons.

   You should be familiar with these
    comparisons as metaphor, simile,
    personification, hyperbole, and more.
   Comparisons using like or
    as.

    › The river is peaceful,
      like a sleeping newborn.
    › The river is as peaceful
      as a sleeping newborn.
            Fog
        Carl Sandburg 
                 
The fog comes 
on little cat        How are 
                                 metaphors used 
            feet. 
               in the poem, 
 It sits looking 
over harbor         “Fog”
            and city 
on silent haunches 
and then 
           moves on.
              Direct comparisons that do
                  NOT use like or as .




“Oh, bright                                                                  “It is the
  angel,                                                                       East,
   speak                                                                        and
  again!”                                                                     Juliet is
                                                                             the sun!”

                            Romeo, “Romeo and Juliet”, William Shakespeare
              Comparison made by giving human traits 
                      to non-human things.




the clock’s hands                    the table’s legs
                             The Vacuum
                     The house is quiet now
                     The vacuum cleaner sulks in the corner 
   How does 
       closet,
Howard Nemerov 
  personify a        Its bag limp as a stopped lung, its mouth
 vacuum in the       Grinning into the floor, maybe at my 
beginning of this 
     poem?           Slovenly life, my dog-dead youth.


                     I’ve lived this way long enough,
                     But when my old woman died her soul
                     Went into that vacuum cleaner, and I can’t 
       bear
                     To see the bag swell like a belly, eating the 
   Comparisons using exaggeration, usually
    with humor
   Written words that are comparable to
    sounds

                     Wind Song
                   By Lilian Moore

     When the wind blows the quiet things speak.
      Some whisper, some clang, some creak.
             Grasses swish. Treetops sigh.
           Flags slap and snap at the sky.
   Any type of writing must have
    something to hold it together and give
    it shape.
   Form is the term used to describe the
    poem’s structure.

                 Tools for Structure



Techniques                             Forms
 A stanza in poetry is like a paragraph in
  prose.
 The author organizes the poem by
  grouping lines into 1 or more stanzas.
   Stanzas are named by the number of lines
    they contain:
    › 2 lines = couplet   3 lines = tercet
    › 4 lines = quatrain 5 lines = cinquain
    › 6 lines = sestet    8 lines = octave
   Rhythm is the beat of a poem.

   It is the pattern of stressed and
    unstressed syllables.

    › I pledge allegiance to the flag of the
      United States of America
   Exact rhyme words have the exact same
    ending sounds, like cat and hat


   Slant rhyme words sound similar, but
    aren’t exact, like one and down.
                        Practice…
There was an old man from Peru,         A
 da DUM da da DUM da da DUM
                                             Let’s look at the 
who dreamed he was eating his shoe.     A   following limerick 
                                             and see if we can 
da DUM da da DUM da da DUM                      identify the 
                                               rhythmic and 
He awoke in the night                   B     rhyming pattern
da da DUM da da DUM

with a terrible fright,                 B
da da DUM da da DUM

and found that it all was quite true.   A
da DUM da da DUM da da DUM
We Real Cool
by Gwendolyn Brooks

THE POOL PLAYERS.
SEVEN AT THE GOLDEN SHOVEL.

We real cool. We
Left school. We

Lurk late. We
Strike straight. We

Sing sin. We
Thin gin. We

Jazz June. We
Die soon.
   Repetition of initial consonant sounds in a
    poem is called alliteration.
    › Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers


   Repetition of other consonant sounds is
    called consonance.
    › All mammals named Sam are clammy


   Repetition of vowel sounds is called
    assonance.
    › Hear the mellow wedding bells
            Fog
        Carl Sandburg 
                 
The fog comes 
on little cat         How is 
                                 repetition used 
            feet. 
               in the poem, 
 It sits looking 
over harbor        “Fog”?
            and city 
on silent haunches 
and then 
           moves on.
1.   Read it once silently and again aloud. What do you
     think is happening in the poem? Jot down your first
     impressions.

2.   Read again slowly. What elements of poetry can you
     find (sensory detail, figurative language, structure
     techniques and form)? Mark your text! What new ideas
     are your getting about the poem’s meaning?

3.   Read it again with new awareness of the poet’s craft.
     What’s the big idea? What do you think he/she is trying
     to express about life? What questions do you have?
                 Fueled
  Fueled         by a million
By Marcie Hans   man-made
                 wings of fire-                       A
                 the rocket tore a tunnel         usin nalyze
                                                       g          t
                                                  step  the c his po
                 through the sky-                     s on lose          e
                                                                     rea m 
                                                            the         d
                 and everybody cheered,                  slid  previo ing 
                                                              e.        us 
                 Fueled
                 only by a thought from God-
                 the seedling
                 urged its way through the thickness of black
                 -
                 and as it pierced
                 the ceiling of the soil-
                 and launched itself
                 up into outer space-
                 no
                 one
                 even
                 clapped

				
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posted:7/29/2013
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