Six Common Verbs by hcj

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									Ancient Greek for Everyone:
A New Digital Resource for
     Beginning Greek
            as taught at
     Louisiana State University
             Fall 2012
         Wilfred E. Major
         Unit 2: part 2 –
    Six Common Greek Verbs
    Ancient Greek for Everyone
This class (Thursday, September 13, 2012)
AGE Unit 2: Six Common Greek Verbs
• You have learned the basics of building and parsing a
  Greek verb and seen the model (“paradigm” in
  Greek) of δείκνυμι.
• This section presents six very common Greek verbs,
  all of which are built like δείκνυμι. Following the
  general Greek principle of spelling words like they
  sound, these words do show some changes according
  to the way they were pronounced.
       Ancient Greek for Everyone
Six Common Greek Verbs
• The six verbs in this lesson are:
   –   εἰμί be
   –   φημί say
   –   δίδωμι give
   –   τίθημι put, make
   –   ἵστημι stand
   –   ἵημι throw
    Ancient Greek for Everyone
Building a Greek verb
• The most common verb in Greek is the verb “be.”
• In most languages, the verb “be” is very common
  but also tends to be irregular from constant use.
• Consider the present tense indicative of “be” in
  English:
Ancient Greek for Everyone
                             • I amare
                               We

                             • You are
                               Y’all are

                             • (S)he/it is
                               They are




               Building a Greek Verb
   The Present Indicative Active of “be” in English
      Ancient Greek for Everyone
Six Common Greek Verbs
• As always, a Greek verb builds out from its stem, which
  designates what action the verb describes:
                             εσ = “be”
• Recall the endings in the present indicative active that
  indicate person and number:

• -μι = I (1st person singular)       -μεν = we (1st person plural)
• -ς = you (2nd person singular)      -τε = y’all (2nd person plural)
• -σι = (s)he, it (3rd person sing)   -ασι = they (3rd person plural)
Ancient Greek for Everyone
                              ἐσμέν
                            • εἰμί
                                 – I amare
                                   We
                              ἐστέ
                            • εἶ
                                 – You are
                                   Y’all are
                              εἰσί
                            • ἐστί
                                 – (S)he/it is
                                   They are


        Present infinitive active: εἶναι


               Building a Greek Verb
  The Present Indicative Active of εἰμί (GPH p. 178)
        Ancient Greek for Everyone
The Trouble with Sigma
• Since the verb εἰμί has a stem ending in a -σ, contractions
  and irregularities in pronunciation (and spelling) result.
• In this case,
    –   ἐσμι  εἰμι
    –   ἐσς  εἰ
    –   ἐσντι  εἰσι (see next slide for details)
    –   ἐσναι  εἰναι
• Notice that, effectively, an -ε- replaces the σ (remember that
  ε + ε = ει). Greek does this in order to eliminate the sigma
  without shortening the word. This process, called
  “compensatory lengthening,” is a common way to eliminate
  sigma in words.
     Ancient Greek for Everyone
Building a Greek verb
• The most unusual form of εἰμί is the 3rd person singular
  present indicative active, ἐστι.
• The ending –τι is actually the original 3rd person singular
  present indicative active ending, but εἰμί was the only verb in
  Classical Greek which retained the old form.
• Like any word ending in –σι, however, it can add a –ν
  movable: ἐστίν.
• Similarly, the 3rd person plural present indicative active ending
  was originally –ντι, so εἰσι is the end result of simplifying
  *ἐσντι.
    Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Placing the accent:
   – Recall that, for most Greek words, the “recessive” rule
     determines the placement of the accent.
   – For the verb εἰμί, however, only the 2nd person singular
     present indicative active follows the rule: έἐ  εἶ.
   – In the present infinitive active, as often, the Greeks
     pronounced the ending –αι quickly enough that they
     considered it a short sound: έἰναι  εἶναι.
   – All the other forms were pronounced as suffixes to the
     words that preceded them. Such words are called “enclitic,”
     meaning they “lean on” the preceding word for their accent.
     Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Placing the accent:
  – “Enclitic” means a word “leans on” the preceding
    word for its accent.
  – If the preceding word has an acute two syllables back
    or a circumflex one syllable back, it adds an acute
    accent on its last syllable (as if the whole combination
    were again being accented recessively; all the enclitic
    forms of εἰμί have two syllables, the last one being
    short).
• Ἕλληνές ἐσμεν. (= Ἕλληνέσεσμεν)
   – “We are Greeks.”
• παῖδές ἐσμεν. (= πάὶδέσεσμεν )
   – “We are children.”
     Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Placing the accent:
   – “Enclitic” means a word “leans on” the preceding word
     for its accent.
   – Otherwise, the enclitic form carries its own accent (an
     acute on the final syllable).
• φίλοι ἐσμέν.
   – “We are friends.”
• ἀδελφοί ἐσμέν.
   – “We are brothers.”
• βασιλεῖς ἐσμέν.
   – “We are kings.”
   Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Placing the accent:
  – Sometimes a Greek will accent ἐστι recessively: ἔστι.
  – This can be to emphasize that something exists or serve as
    the equivalent of “there is…”
  – ἔστιν ἡ ἀλήθεια. “The Truth exists.”
  – οὐκ ἔστιν. “No there isn’t!”
   Ancient Greek for Everyone
Six Common Greek Verbs
• φημί say
  – Greeks have always liked to talk a lot, so it is no surprise
    that this is a very common verb. Normally, it indicates a
    direct quotation (effectively serving as a quotation mark).
  – The verb has the stem φη-.
  – The long stem vowel shortens in the plural forms.
  – So in the plural, the stem becomes φα-
Ancient Greek for Everyone
                              φαμέν
                            • φημί
                                 – I say
                                   We say
                              φατέ
                            • φῄς
                                 – You say
                                   Y’all say
                            • φησί ) φασί
                              (φαασι
                                 – (S)he/it says
                                   They say


        Present infinitive active: φάναι

                Building a Greek Verb
  The Present Indicative Active of φημί (GPH p. 169)
    Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Placing the accent:
  – As with the verb εἰμί, the present indicative active
    forms of φημί, except the 2nd person singular, are
    enclitic.
• ὡς οἱ Ἕλληνές φασιν, … (= Ἕλληνέσφασιν)
   – As the Greeks say, “...
• καί φησίν, …
   – And he says, “…
      Ancient Greek for Everyone
Six Common Greek Verbs
•   δίδωμι give
•   τίθημι put, make
•   ἵστημι stand
•   ἵημι throw
• The other four verbs in this lesson all have two
  features in common:
    – To mark the present tense, they double the initial sound
      of their stem.
    – Their stems all end in a long vowel, which shortens in
      the plural forms (as with φημί).
       Ancient Greek for Everyone
Six Common Greek Verbs
• The verb “give” has the stem δω-:
   –   The present tense doubles the initial sound of the stem.
   –   So in the present, the stem becomes διδω-
   –   The long stem vowel shortens in the plural forms.
   –   So in the plural, the stem becomes διδο-
Ancient Greek for Everyone
                               δίδομεν
                             • δίδωμι
                                  – I give
                                    We give
                               δίδοτε
                             • δίδως
                                  – You give
                                    Y’all give
                               διδόασι
                             • δίδωσι
                                  – (S)he/it gives
                                    They give


        Present infinitive active: διδόναι


                 Building a Greek Verb
  The Present Indicative Active of δίδωμι (GPH p. 123)
    Ancient Greek for Everyone
Six Common Greek Verbs
• The verb “put, make” has the stem θη-:
   – The present tense doubles the initial sound of the stem.
      • Greek does not allow aspirated consonants in consecutive syllables.
   – So in the present, the stem becomes (θιθη- ) τιθη-
   – The long stem vowel shortens in the plural forms.
   – So in the plural, the stem becomes τιθε-
Ancient Greek for Everyone
                               τίθεμεν
                             • τίθημι
                                  – I put, make
                                    We put, make
                               τίθετε
                             • τίθης
                                  – You put, make
                                    Y’all put, make
                               τιθέασι
                             • τίθησι
                                  – (S)he/it puts, makes
                                    They put, make


        Present infinitive active: τιθέναι


                Building a Greek Verb
  The Present Indicative Active of τίθημι (GPH p. 145)
    Ancient Greek for Everyone
Six Common Greek Verbs
• The verb “stand” has the stem στη-:
   – The present tense doubles the initial sound of the stem.
      • The Trouble with Sigma: The sigma here does not double.
   – So in the present, the stem becomes (σιστη- ) ἱστη-
   – The long stem vowel shortens in the plural forms.
   – So in the plural, the stem becomes ἱστα-
Ancient Greek for Everyone
                               ἵσταμεν
                             • ἵστημι
                                  – I stand
                                    We stand
                               ἵστατε
                             • ἵστης
                                  – You stand
                                    Y’all stand
                             • ἵστησι ) ἱστᾶσι
                               (ἱστάασι
                                  – (S)he/it stands
                                    They stand


        Present infinitive active: ἱστάναι


                Building a Greek Verb
  The Present Indicative Active of ἵστημι (GPH p. 134)
    Ancient Greek for Everyone
Five Common Greek Verbs
• The verb “throw” has the stem ἡ-:
   – The present tense doubles the initial sound of the stem.
      • Doubling the stem is a problem.
   – So in the present, the stem becomes ἱη-
   – The long stem vowel shortens in the plural forms.
   – So in the plural, the stem becomes ἱε-
Ancient Greek for Everyone
                              ἵεμεν
                            • ἵημι
                                 – I throw
                                   We throw
                              ἵετε
                            • ἵης
                                 – You throw
                                   Y’all throw
                            • ἵησι ) ἱᾶσι
                              (ἱέασι
                                 – (S)he/it throws
                                   They throw


        Present infinitive active: ἱέναι


               Building a Greek Verb
  The Present Indicative Active of ἵημι (not in GPH)
    Ancient Greek for Everyone
Unit 2 Vocabulary:
• δίδωμι give
   – ἀποδίδωμι give back
   – παραδίδωμι hand over, deliver
• εἰμί be
   – πάρειμι be present
• ἵημι throw
   – ἀφίημι let go, allow, forgive
    Ancient Greek for Everyone
Unit 2 Vocabulary:
• ἵστημι stand
   – ἀνίστημι raise, appoint
   – καθίστημι set down, establish
   – παρίστημι present
• τίθημι put, make
   – ἐπιτίθημι put on
   – προστίθημι add to
• φημί say
      Ancient Greek for Everyone
Unit 2 Vocabulary: Classical
•   ἀποδίδωμι give back
•   ἀπόλλυμι kill, destroy
•   ἀφίημι let go, allow
•   δείκνυμι show
•   δίδωμι give
•   εἰμί be
•   ἐπιτίθημι put on
•   ἵημι throw
•   ἵστημι stand
      Ancient Greek for Everyone
Unit 2 Vocabulary: Classical
•   καθίστημι set down, establish
•   μίγνυμι mix
•   παραδίδωμι hand over, deliver
•   πάρειμι be present
•   προστίθημι add to
•   τίθημι put, make
•   φημί say
      Ancient Greek for Everyone
Unit 2 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament)
•   ἀνίστημι raise, appoint
•   ἀπόλλυμι kill, destroy
•   ἀφίημι forgive, allow
•   δίδωμι give
•   εἰμί be
•   ἐπιτίθημι put on
      Ancient Greek for Everyone
Unit 2 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament)
•   ἵστημι stand
•   παραδίδωμι hand over, deliver
•   παρίστημι present
•   τίθημι put, make
•   φημί say
    Ancient Greek for Everyone
Building a Greek verb
• Some of the verbs in the vocabulary have prefixes:
   – ἀνίστημι (ἀνα + ἵστημι) raise, appoint
   – ἀποδίδωμι (ἀπο + δίδωμι) give back
   – ἀφίημι (ἀπο + ἵημι) let go, allow, forgive
   – ἐπιτίθημι (ἐπι + τίθημι) put on
   – καθίστημι (κατα + ἵστημι) set down, establish
   – παραδίδωμι (παρα + δίδωμι) hand over, deliver
   – πάρειμι (παρα + εἰμί) be present
   – παρίστημι (παρα + ἵστημι) present
   – προστίθημι (προς + τίθημι) add το
     Ancient Greek for Everyone
Unit 2 Vocabulary: No!
• οὐ, οὐκ, οὐχ no, not
• οὔ by itself is accented and says, “No!”
• Normally οὐ bears no accent and negates an indicative verb.
   – οὐ δείκνυμι. I do not show.
• Before a word starting with a vowel, it adds a -κ to make
  pronunciation easier.
   – οὐκ ἀφίημι. I do not forgive.
• Before a word starting with a vowel and aspiration, the -κ
  becomes -χ:
   – οὐχ ἵημι. I do not throw.
     Ancient Greek for Everyone
Unit 2 Vocabulary: No!
• οὐ, οὐκ, οὐχ no, not
• Verbs in the infinitive mood use a different word to express
  “not”: μή
   – δίδωμι ὑμεῖς παρεῖναι. I give (= allow) y’all to be present.
   – οὐ δίδωμι ὑμεῖς παρεῖναι. I do not allow y’all to be present.
   – δίδωμι ὑμεῖς μὴ παρεῖναι. I allow y’all not to be present.
   Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Quiz #11 (Tuesday, September 18, 2012)
  – Vocabulary quiz
  – Given the English definition of a verb from the vocabulary
    lists (both Classical and NT), write out the vocabulary entry.
  – For example, given “show,” write δείκνυμι.
  – There will be five entries to write out on the quiz.
   Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Next class (Tuesday, September 18, 2012)
  – practice with these six verbs
     • The practice sheet provides all the forms of these three
       verbs. We will draw forms at random from a hat, and
       you need to (1) say the word out loud (2) parse the form
       (3) translate it into English and (4) choose the correct
       form of the “not” for the verb form that you have drawn.
   Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Quiz #12 (Wednesday, September 19, 2012)
  – Parsing and translation quiz:
  – Given a form of one of the six verbs in this lesson,
  1. Parse the form (person, number, tense, mood, voice)
  2. Translate the form into English.

								
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