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					 EXPLOSIVE DETECTION SYSTEMS (EDS)
              Based on
GAMMA RESONANCE TECHNOLOGY (GRT)


Scientific Innovations Inc.           Inc.
    Joseph H. Brondo, Jr., CEO
    Joseph H. Brondo, Jr., CEO
Brookhaven National Laboratory
   Lucian Wielopolski, PhD.
   Lucian Wielopolski, PhD.
Advanced Energy Systems
                                  Innovations
   Anthony Favali, CEO
   Anthony Favali, CEO
  Joseph Sredniawski, VP.
  Joseph Sredniawski, VP.
NSNRC: David Vardsky, PhD.
         David Vardsky, PhD.     SCIENTIFIC
                                      June 2002
        EDS-GRT Objectives
              A Joint Program by
           Scientific Innovations, Inc.
         Brookhaven National Laboratory
          Advanced Energy Systems, Inc.

Rapid deployment of resonance technology
  for detection and imaging of concealed
 explosives, chemical warfare agents, and
    dirty and nuclear bombs in shipping
                 containers
EDS-GRT: Organization
 Scientific Innovations
           Inc.                 Liaison With the Industry
                                 Principal Patent Holder


     Brookhaven National
         Laboratory                        R&D
                              Accelerator Electronics Targets
                                    System Integration
  Advanced Energy
    Systems Inc.                 Engineering, Production


    Nuclear Research Center
         Soreq, Israel        Resonance Detectors, Software
EDS-GRT System Configuration
    Patents by Scientific Innovations, Inc.


An accelerator is used to produce
protons at a specific energy such that
unique resonant gamma rays are
generated from impingement on a
specific target. The emitted gamma
rays pass through a volume of interest
and interact resonantly with specific
elements of interest so that images of
the elemental density are developed
from the variation in gamma detection
counts. Fluorescence or scattered
gammas resonant with the element are
also detected simultaneously. Non
resonant gamma rays are used to
image total density.
EDS-GRT: Explosives

       Name      MW       C   H    N   O    N (%)   g/cm3
       TNT      227.13    7   5    3   6    18.5    1.65
       RDX      222.26    3   6    6   6    38.0    1.83
       HMX      296.16    4   8    8   8    37.8    1.96
       Tetryl   287.15    7   5    5   8    24.4    1.73
       PETN     316.20    5   8    4   12   17.7    1.78
        NG      227.09    3   5    3   9    18.5    1.59
       EGDN     152.10    2   4    2   6    18.4    1.49
        AN       80.05    -   4    2   3    35.0    1.59
       TATP     222.23    9   18   -   6      -      1.2
       DNB      168.11    6   4    2   4    16.7    1.58
     Picric Acid 229.12   6   3    3   7    18.3    1.76
 EDS-GRT: Explosives
Where:
                                           About 80% of the
     TNT – 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene           explosives contain
     RDX – Hexogen                         N, those that do not
      HMX – Octogen                        contain N contain
      Tetryl –                             Cl.
       PETN – Nitropenta
       NG – Nitroglycerin
        EGDN – Ethylene glycol dinitrate
        AN – Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3)
         TATP –
         DNB – 1,3-Dinitrobenzene
          Picric acid -
EDS-GRT: Other Materials

            Name        C% H%        N%     O% g/cm3
            Wool        37.5   4.7   21.9   5.1    1.32
             Silk       39.5   5.3   28.8   26.3   1.25
            Nylon       63.7   9.7   12.4   14.2   1.14
            Orlon       67.9   5.7   26.4    0     1.16
          Melamin
                     43.6      5.5   50.9    0     1.48
        Formaldehyde
         Polyurethane   52.2   7.9   12.2   27.8   1.50
            Meats        -      -    ~3      -     1.10
            Plants       -      -    ~1      -     1.05
              EDS-GRT Advantages

 In a two dimensional plot
 simultaneous registration
of the total density and the
nitrogen density separates
 the explosives from other
    common materials.

This two dimensional Matrix
Provides for fully automatic
 identification of explosives

Addition of other elements
 will provide for a multi-
   dimensional matrix
EDS-GRT: Requirements
  An ideal EDS system will
     1) Detect directly presence of an explosive.
      2) Identify the type of explosive.
       3) Localize the explosive.
        4) Minimize false positives.
         5) Operate reliably in the field.
           6) Provide high throughput.
            7) Would not induces residual activity.
 EXPLOSIVE DETECTION SYSTEMS (EDS)
              based on
GAMMA RESONANCE TECHNOLOGY (GRT)

Explosives and Chemical Warfare Agents Detection & Imaging

Brookhaven National Laboratory
      Lucian Wielopolski, Ph.D.

Scientific Innovations Inc. (SII)
        Joseph Brondo, CEO


June 2002
June 2002
                                    EDS-GRT Development Center
   EDS-GRT: Current Technologies
                                           BULK ANALYSIS               Trace Analysis



               X-Ray                 Neutrons                 Other Nuclear     Electromagnetic


                              Thermal         Associated
  Standard                                                      Gamma
                              Neutron           Alpha                               Nuclear
Transmission                                                   Backscatter
                              Analysis         Particle                            Magnetic
                                               Time of                             Resonance
                Computed                        Flight                               NMR
               Tomography                                        Gamma
                             Pulsed Fast
                                                               Transmission
 Dual Energy                  Neutron
                              Analysis                                             Nuclear
                                                 Neutron
               Diffraction                      Backscatter                       Quadrupole
                                                                                  Resonance
                                                                Gamma
                                                                                    NQR
Backscatter                  Pulsed Fast                       Resonance
                              Thermal                          Technology
                              Neutron
                              Analysis
EDS-GRT: Basic Principles

  Gamma Resonance occurs when the energy of a
      gamma beam is precisely tuned to coincide
      with a nuclear excitation level in a nucleus
      of an element of interest.

  GRT can be implemented in either absorption
       (transmission) or scattering mode.
  EDS-GRT: Basic Configurations
A low energy proton beam                                Target
                                              Protons
hits a dedicated target and     Accelerator
produces resonance gamma
rays. These interact
resonantly with N or Cl            Scattering
encountered in the explosive.      Detectors

Monitoring the transmitted          Object
and the scattered beams,
with the transmission and        Transmitted                      Scattered
scattering detectors,               Beam                            Beam
respectively, allows analysis
and imaging of the elements
of interest.
                                              Transmission Detectors
 EDS-GRT: Transmission


Setup measures simultaneously the
resonantt and non resonant gamma
ray flux and can differentiate
between the two. The ratio of the
two identifies the explosive


At 9.17 MeV gamma ray resonance
attenuation is about four times
higher than the non resonant
radiation.
EDS-GRT Resonance Principle
        Gamma resonance radiation from
        accelerator based nuclear reactions
                    Accelerator

                                  Proton Beam
Beam Production Target                     SII Patents
                                           Patent 5,040,200
                                           Patent 5,293,414
                  Object                   Patent 6,215,851

       Detector Array             Resonant Gamma Fan
EDS-GRT Accomplishments

            DC Tandem Accelerator Design Specifications

  •   Energy tunable up to         ~ 1.9 MeV              U
  •   Beam current, ~2 mA, up to   ~ 10 mA
  •   Total Emittance              ~0.1 pi mm mrad        U
  •   Beam spread                  < 25 keV               U
EDS-GRT Accomplishments




    1 Operational High Intensity      2 Partial Installation of the
    Resonance Source at Northrop      Resonance Source at BNL
    Grumman Prior to Transfer         Site For R&D and Testing of
    to BNL                            Resonance Technology.

       3 Specialized Resonance Detectors for Nitrogen, Used in
       Proof-of-Principle Demonstration, Were Developed.
EDS-GRT Accomplishments




                                 Two Projection images
     Nahal Soreq group
                             through an aircraft container
   experimental set-up at
                                loaded with mixed cargo
   Los Alamos inspecting
                               containing six explosives.
  LD-3 air cargo container
                              The nitrogen image clearly
                                identifies the explosives.
EDS-GRT Proof-of-Principle
    Proof-of-Principle Demonstrated by Soreq Group Using
                     Resonance Detectors:

 Test Set Up Using Explosive
 Simulants (nitrogenous
 material) And Other Objects




    Total Density Image

   Nitrogen Density Image
   Highlights Explosive
   Simulants And Makes
   Lead Brick Transparent
EDS-GRT Proof-of-Principle

    Tissue N ~ 2.7%
    Explosive N ~
    19% - 30%.



   Gammagram


     Nitrogram

                 Nahal Soreq Group Experiment
                 at McMaster University
EDS-GRT-Targets
            • Single Element Targets
               • Multi-element (layered) Targets
               • Multi-element (segmented) Targets

 Element                  Ep                Eγ
             Target              σabs                  Reaction
 Detected               (MeV)   (barns)   (MeV)
   14          13                                  13
        N          C    1.75      2.6     9.17         C(p,γ)14N
  40          39                                  39
    Ca          K       2.04      5.0     10.32        K(p,γ)40Ca
   35          34                                 34
       Cl           S   1.89      1.0     8.21         S(p,γ)35Cl
   16          19                                 19
        O           F    2.6      2.4     6.92     F(p,α,γ)16O
   12          15
        C          N     2.6      1.1     4.43    15
                                                       N(p,α,γ)12C
  Comparison of Accelerators
Parameter                 Electrostatic            RF

Power Source              res. circuit    tube      solid state
Output (mA)                        10     10*       10*
Beam energy spread (+/-keV)        6      25        25
Est. Accel. Dev. cost ($M)         6**    5         6.5
Est. Prod. Cost ($M)               1.5    3.0       4.0
Power conv. eff. (%)               0.5    0.4       0.55
Beam power eff. (%)                0.9    0.30      0.30
Overall accel. eff. (%)            0.45   0.12      0.165
Wall power (kW)                    39     146       106
             2
Footprint (ft )                    212    240       200
Technology                cutting edge    exists    exists


 * Potential to 100 mA with increased input power
** Includes cost of HVPS/LVPS development to date
  EDS-GRT Applications
                               Stadiums &
   Border Control             Olympic Events              Airline Security

 Embassies                                                   Railroad Security

                                RT-EDIS
Shipping Ports                                              Bridges/Tunnels


                                                      Building &
Power Plant Security                               Monument Security


                 Force Protection
                                        Postal Security
EDS-GRT LD-3 Container Inspection
EDS-GRT Airport Luggage
  A configuration of a system in an airport feeding
  simultaneously two inspection stations for bags.
EDS-GRT Future Plans

  To Construct Deployable
  Inspection Systems Capable
  To Interrogate Small (postage
  parcel) And Large (ship
  containers) Bulk Materials,
  Using High Resolution
  Medium Intensity And Low
  Resolution High Intensity
  Accelerators, Respectively.
EDS-GRT High Throughput Configuration




n   A single accelerator module can drive multiple
    detection modules simultaneously to give high
    throughputs. This requires a special gamma production
    target (Patent 6,215,430 and Patent 5,784,430)
  EDS-GRT: Large Cargo Screening
                                                  Detectors
                         Stacked
Using four ramps        Containers
                                              Resonance
may interrogate                                Gamma
                                                Beam
simultaneously 40
foot container in
about 3 to 4 minutes,
stacked containers                   Target
                                                   36’
                                                                 8’
will double the                                           21’
capacity.                                                       18’
(Extrapolated from
experiments)
EDS-GRT Time Shared Configuration



    • Singleaccelerator
     serves multiple
     detection stations
   Each detection station
   can process 1600 bags/hr,
   24 LD-3 containers/hr,
   4 conveyors simultaneously


High speed mail hubs, checked luggage, containers
         EDS-GRT Truck Inspection




Force Protection, Borders, Power Plants, Bridges and Tunnels
EDS-GRT Advantages
• High Detection Probability (>90%)
 • Low False Alarm Rate (<5%)
   •High Throughput (1600 bags/hr, 24LD-3/hr,
         ~3min/truck)/station
    • Specific Explosive Signature (Chemical elements)
      • Fully Automated Decision Making
        • Single Source Can Feed Multiple Inspection
                Stations (in parallel or in time share modes)
            • Suitable for Inspection of Postal Parcels Up To
                   Large Vehicles or Shipping Containers
                • No Residual Activity
                   • Elemental 3-D Imaging Capability
EDS-GRT False Alarm versus scan time
Data Based Upon 10 mA of Proton Current and 90% Detection Probability
                       HE @ 450g Sensitivity




                100 cm (suitcase)


                           145 cm (small carousel)

                                           252 cm dia container (LD-3)
EDS-GRT: Public safety


 • Accelerator produces low energy x-rays.
 • Target produces only gamma radiation, no neutrons.
 • Shielded highly collimated beam.
 • Dose to image N in human body 0.026 mrem.
 • Dose to stowaway will be considerable lower.
 • Gamma flux is two to three orders of magnitude
         lower than for VACIS or CT systems.
EDS-GRT Path Forward

    1. Complete BNL Development and Test Facility (1y)
        • Complete Facility
            • Target Development
                 • Detectors Development
                      • System Integration and Testing

    2. Setup a Low Rate Production Facility (1-2y)
        • Set Up Low Rate Production Facility
            • Production Engineering Design
                  • Production of a Small and Large Cargo Inspection
                           Systems
                       • Field evaluation

    3. Establish a High Rate Production Facility (2-3y)
EDS-GRT: R&D
                                   Project Manager
  Scientific Innovations
                                         BNL




 Accelerator             Target           Detectors                  System
    BNL                   BNL               BNL                 Integration BNL

                         Software                                  Nahal Soreq
                                            Resonance
                        BNL/Nahal
     AES                                    Detectors
                          Soreq
                                           Nahal Soreq
                                                                     AES
                                           Position Sensitive
                                               Detectors             SII
SII – Scientific Innovations Inc.              TRIUMF
AES – Advanced Energy Systems Inc.
Nahal Soreq – Nuclear Research Center
                                            New Detectors
                                             Cl, Ca, LSO
EDS-GRT: Time Schedule
            Test facility can be ready within a year.
        Tandem Accelerator (TA)
                                      LC System
        Targets                       Integration
                                                        LC System
        Detectors                                       Testing &
                                                        Evaluation
        System Engineering

        TA Infrastructure

        Documentation



    0               3             6                 9                12 Month
                     SUMMARY
•   There is a need for new technology to meet future
    needs of national security.

•   Proof-of-principle of GRT for explosive detection
    and imaging has been demonstrated.

•   Gamma Resonance Technology is a viable method
    for detection of explosives and other elements in
    small and large shipping containers.

•   Life cycle of a unit is 10 to 15 years.
                 SUMMARY
4. The proposed EDS-GRT fills deficiencies of
   current x-ray scanners and other systems in use.

5. Extensive expertise at BNL in nuclear physics,
   particle accelerators, γ ray detectors and systems
   integration provide high probability for success.

6. A test facility ready for systems testing and
   prototype certification can be delivered within a
   year.

7. A field deployable system can be developed within
   two years.

				
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