VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 39 POSTED ON: 7/28/2013
EXPLOSIVE DETECTION SYSTEMS (EDS) Based on GAMMA RESONANCE TECHNOLOGY (GRT) Scientific Innovations Inc. Inc. Joseph H. Brondo, Jr., CEO Joseph H. Brondo, Jr., CEO Brookhaven National Laboratory Lucian Wielopolski, PhD. Lucian Wielopolski, PhD. Advanced Energy Systems Innovations Anthony Favali, CEO Anthony Favali, CEO Joseph Sredniawski, VP. Joseph Sredniawski, VP. NSNRC: David Vardsky, PhD. David Vardsky, PhD. SCIENTIFIC June 2002 EDS-GRT Objectives A Joint Program by Scientific Innovations, Inc. Brookhaven National Laboratory Advanced Energy Systems, Inc. Rapid deployment of resonance technology for detection and imaging of concealed explosives, chemical warfare agents, and dirty and nuclear bombs in shipping containers EDS-GRT: Organization Scientific Innovations Inc. Liaison With the Industry Principal Patent Holder Brookhaven National Laboratory R&D Accelerator Electronics Targets System Integration Advanced Energy Systems Inc. Engineering, Production Nuclear Research Center Soreq, Israel Resonance Detectors, Software EDS-GRT System Configuration Patents by Scientific Innovations, Inc. An accelerator is used to produce protons at a specific energy such that unique resonant gamma rays are generated from impingement on a specific target. The emitted gamma rays pass through a volume of interest and interact resonantly with specific elements of interest so that images of the elemental density are developed from the variation in gamma detection counts. Fluorescence or scattered gammas resonant with the element are also detected simultaneously. Non resonant gamma rays are used to image total density. EDS-GRT: Explosives Name MW C H N O N (%) g/cm3 TNT 227.13 7 5 3 6 18.5 1.65 RDX 222.26 3 6 6 6 38.0 1.83 HMX 296.16 4 8 8 8 37.8 1.96 Tetryl 287.15 7 5 5 8 24.4 1.73 PETN 316.20 5 8 4 12 17.7 1.78 NG 227.09 3 5 3 9 18.5 1.59 EGDN 152.10 2 4 2 6 18.4 1.49 AN 80.05 - 4 2 3 35.0 1.59 TATP 222.23 9 18 - 6 - 1.2 DNB 168.11 6 4 2 4 16.7 1.58 Picric Acid 229.12 6 3 3 7 18.3 1.76 EDS-GRT: Explosives Where: About 80% of the TNT – 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene explosives contain RDX – Hexogen N, those that do not HMX – Octogen contain N contain Tetryl – Cl. PETN – Nitropenta NG – Nitroglycerin EGDN – Ethylene glycol dinitrate AN – Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3) TATP – DNB – 1,3-Dinitrobenzene Picric acid - EDS-GRT: Other Materials Name C% H% N% O% g/cm3 Wool 37.5 4.7 21.9 5.1 1.32 Silk 39.5 5.3 28.8 26.3 1.25 Nylon 63.7 9.7 12.4 14.2 1.14 Orlon 67.9 5.7 26.4 0 1.16 Melamin 43.6 5.5 50.9 0 1.48 Formaldehyde Polyurethane 52.2 7.9 12.2 27.8 1.50 Meats - - ~3 - 1.10 Plants - - ~1 - 1.05 EDS-GRT Advantages In a two dimensional plot simultaneous registration of the total density and the nitrogen density separates the explosives from other common materials. This two dimensional Matrix Provides for fully automatic identification of explosives Addition of other elements will provide for a multi- dimensional matrix EDS-GRT: Requirements An ideal EDS system will 1) Detect directly presence of an explosive. 2) Identify the type of explosive. 3) Localize the explosive. 4) Minimize false positives. 5) Operate reliably in the field. 6) Provide high throughput. 7) Would not induces residual activity. EXPLOSIVE DETECTION SYSTEMS (EDS) based on GAMMA RESONANCE TECHNOLOGY (GRT) Explosives and Chemical Warfare Agents Detection & Imaging Brookhaven National Laboratory Lucian Wielopolski, Ph.D. Scientific Innovations Inc. (SII) Joseph Brondo, CEO June 2002 June 2002 EDS-GRT Development Center EDS-GRT: Current Technologies BULK ANALYSIS Trace Analysis X-Ray Neutrons Other Nuclear Electromagnetic Thermal Associated Standard Gamma Neutron Alpha Nuclear Transmission Backscatter Analysis Particle Magnetic Time of Resonance Computed Flight NMR Tomography Gamma Pulsed Fast Transmission Dual Energy Neutron Analysis Nuclear Neutron Diffraction Backscatter Quadrupole Resonance Gamma NQR Backscatter Pulsed Fast Resonance Thermal Technology Neutron Analysis EDS-GRT: Basic Principles Gamma Resonance occurs when the energy of a gamma beam is precisely tuned to coincide with a nuclear excitation level in a nucleus of an element of interest. GRT can be implemented in either absorption (transmission) or scattering mode. EDS-GRT: Basic Configurations A low energy proton beam Target Protons hits a dedicated target and Accelerator produces resonance gamma rays. These interact resonantly with N or Cl Scattering encountered in the explosive. Detectors Monitoring the transmitted Object and the scattered beams, with the transmission and Transmitted Scattered scattering detectors, Beam Beam respectively, allows analysis and imaging of the elements of interest. Transmission Detectors EDS-GRT: Transmission Setup measures simultaneously the resonantt and non resonant gamma ray flux and can differentiate between the two. The ratio of the two identifies the explosive At 9.17 MeV gamma ray resonance attenuation is about four times higher than the non resonant radiation. EDS-GRT Resonance Principle Gamma resonance radiation from accelerator based nuclear reactions Accelerator Proton Beam Beam Production Target SII Patents Patent 5,040,200 Patent 5,293,414 Object Patent 6,215,851 Detector Array Resonant Gamma Fan EDS-GRT Accomplishments DC Tandem Accelerator Design Specifications • Energy tunable up to ~ 1.9 MeV U • Beam current, ~2 mA, up to ~ 10 mA • Total Emittance ~0.1 pi mm mrad U • Beam spread < 25 keV U EDS-GRT Accomplishments 1 Operational High Intensity 2 Partial Installation of the Resonance Source at Northrop Resonance Source at BNL Grumman Prior to Transfer Site For R&D and Testing of to BNL Resonance Technology. 3 Specialized Resonance Detectors for Nitrogen, Used in Proof-of-Principle Demonstration, Were Developed. EDS-GRT Accomplishments Two Projection images Nahal Soreq group through an aircraft container experimental set-up at loaded with mixed cargo Los Alamos inspecting containing six explosives. LD-3 air cargo container The nitrogen image clearly identifies the explosives. EDS-GRT Proof-of-Principle Proof-of-Principle Demonstrated by Soreq Group Using Resonance Detectors: Test Set Up Using Explosive Simulants (nitrogenous material) And Other Objects Total Density Image Nitrogen Density Image Highlights Explosive Simulants And Makes Lead Brick Transparent EDS-GRT Proof-of-Principle Tissue N ~ 2.7% Explosive N ~ 19% - 30%. Gammagram Nitrogram Nahal Soreq Group Experiment at McMaster University EDS-GRT-Targets • Single Element Targets • Multi-element (layered) Targets • Multi-element (segmented) Targets Element Ep Eγ Target σabs Reaction Detected (MeV) (barns) (MeV) 14 13 13 N C 1.75 2.6 9.17 C(p,γ)14N 40 39 39 Ca K 2.04 5.0 10.32 K(p,γ)40Ca 35 34 34 Cl S 1.89 1.0 8.21 S(p,γ)35Cl 16 19 19 O F 2.6 2.4 6.92 F(p,α,γ)16O 12 15 C N 2.6 1.1 4.43 15 N(p,α,γ)12C Comparison of Accelerators Parameter Electrostatic RF Power Source res. circuit tube solid state Output (mA) 10 10* 10* Beam energy spread (+/-keV) 6 25 25 Est. Accel. Dev. cost ($M) 6** 5 6.5 Est. Prod. Cost ($M) 1.5 3.0 4.0 Power conv. eff. (%) 0.5 0.4 0.55 Beam power eff. (%) 0.9 0.30 0.30 Overall accel. eff. (%) 0.45 0.12 0.165 Wall power (kW) 39 146 106 2 Footprint (ft ) 212 240 200 Technology cutting edge exists exists * Potential to 100 mA with increased input power ** Includes cost of HVPS/LVPS development to date EDS-GRT Applications Stadiums & Border Control Olympic Events Airline Security Embassies Railroad Security RT-EDIS Shipping Ports Bridges/Tunnels Building & Power Plant Security Monument Security Force Protection Postal Security EDS-GRT LD-3 Container Inspection EDS-GRT Airport Luggage A configuration of a system in an airport feeding simultaneously two inspection stations for bags. EDS-GRT Future Plans To Construct Deployable Inspection Systems Capable To Interrogate Small (postage parcel) And Large (ship containers) Bulk Materials, Using High Resolution Medium Intensity And Low Resolution High Intensity Accelerators, Respectively. EDS-GRT High Throughput Configuration n A single accelerator module can drive multiple detection modules simultaneously to give high throughputs. This requires a special gamma production target (Patent 6,215,430 and Patent 5,784,430) EDS-GRT: Large Cargo Screening Detectors Stacked Using four ramps Containers Resonance may interrogate Gamma Beam simultaneously 40 foot container in about 3 to 4 minutes, stacked containers Target 36’ 8’ will double the 21’ capacity. 18’ (Extrapolated from experiments) EDS-GRT Time Shared Configuration • Singleaccelerator serves multiple detection stations Each detection station can process 1600 bags/hr, 24 LD-3 containers/hr, 4 conveyors simultaneously High speed mail hubs, checked luggage, containers EDS-GRT Truck Inspection Force Protection, Borders, Power Plants, Bridges and Tunnels EDS-GRT Advantages • High Detection Probability (>90%) • Low False Alarm Rate (<5%) •High Throughput (1600 bags/hr, 24LD-3/hr, ~3min/truck)/station • Specific Explosive Signature (Chemical elements) • Fully Automated Decision Making • Single Source Can Feed Multiple Inspection Stations (in parallel or in time share modes) • Suitable for Inspection of Postal Parcels Up To Large Vehicles or Shipping Containers • No Residual Activity • Elemental 3-D Imaging Capability EDS-GRT False Alarm versus scan time Data Based Upon 10 mA of Proton Current and 90% Detection Probability HE @ 450g Sensitivity 100 cm (suitcase) 145 cm (small carousel) 252 cm dia container (LD-3) EDS-GRT: Public safety • Accelerator produces low energy x-rays. • Target produces only gamma radiation, no neutrons. • Shielded highly collimated beam. • Dose to image N in human body 0.026 mrem. • Dose to stowaway will be considerable lower. • Gamma flux is two to three orders of magnitude lower than for VACIS or CT systems. EDS-GRT Path Forward 1. Complete BNL Development and Test Facility (1y) • Complete Facility • Target Development • Detectors Development • System Integration and Testing 2. Setup a Low Rate Production Facility (1-2y) • Set Up Low Rate Production Facility • Production Engineering Design • Production of a Small and Large Cargo Inspection Systems • Field evaluation 3. Establish a High Rate Production Facility (2-3y) EDS-GRT: R&D Project Manager Scientific Innovations BNL Accelerator Target Detectors System BNL BNL BNL Integration BNL Software Nahal Soreq Resonance BNL/Nahal AES Detectors Soreq Nahal Soreq AES Position Sensitive Detectors SII SII – Scientific Innovations Inc. TRIUMF AES – Advanced Energy Systems Inc. Nahal Soreq – Nuclear Research Center New Detectors Cl, Ca, LSO EDS-GRT: Time Schedule Test facility can be ready within a year. Tandem Accelerator (TA) LC System Targets Integration LC System Detectors Testing & Evaluation System Engineering TA Infrastructure Documentation 0 3 6 9 12 Month SUMMARY • There is a need for new technology to meet future needs of national security. • Proof-of-principle of GRT for explosive detection and imaging has been demonstrated. • Gamma Resonance Technology is a viable method for detection of explosives and other elements in small and large shipping containers. • Life cycle of a unit is 10 to 15 years. SUMMARY 4. The proposed EDS-GRT fills deficiencies of current x-ray scanners and other systems in use. 5. Extensive expertise at BNL in nuclear physics, particle accelerators, γ ray detectors and systems integration provide high probability for success. 6. A test facility ready for systems testing and prototype certification can be delivered within a year. 7. A field deployable system can be developed within two years.
Pages to are hidden for
"Slide 1 - Scientific Innovations_ Inc. _SII_"Please download to view full document