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					                CULTURE AND SAFETY




                                 CROET

       Safety and Health for the Limited-English-Speaking Workforce:
                         Challenges and Successes
                                 June 9, 2006

Revised 01/97
                                  OHSU
                     OR-OSHA Mission Statement
To advance and improve workplace safety and health for all workers in Oregon.
Consultative Services
  • Offers no-cost on-site safety and health assistance to help Oregon employers recognize and correct safety and health
    problems in their workplaces.
  • Provides consultations in the areas of safety, industrial hygiene, ergonomics, occupational safety and health
    programs, new-business assistance, the Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program (SHARP), and the
    Voluntary Protection Program (VPP).
Enforcement
  • Offers pre-job conferences for mobile employers in industries such as logging and construction.
  • Provides abatement assistance to employers who have received citations and provides compliance and technical
    assistance by phone.
  • Inspects places of employment for occupational safety and health rule violations and investigates workplace safety
    and health complaints and accidents.
Appeals, Informal Conferences
  • Provides the opportunity for employers to hold informal meetings with OR-OSHA on workplace safety and health
    concerns.
  • Discusses OR-OSHA’s requirements and clarifies workplace safety or health violations.
  • Discusses abatement dates and negotiates settlement agreements to resolve disputed citations.
Standards & Technical Resources
  • Develops, interprets, and provides technical advice on safety and health standards.
  • Provides copies of all OR-OSHA occupational safety and health standards.
  • Publishes booklets, pamphlets, and other materials to assist in the implementation of safety and health standards and
    programs.
  • Operates a Resource Center containing books, topical files, technical periodicals, a video and film lending library,
    and more than 200 databases.
Public Education & Conferences
  • Conducts conferences, seminars, workshops, and rule forums.
  • Presents many workshops that introduce managers, supervisors, safety committee members, and others to
    occupational safety and health requirements, technical programs, and safety and health management concepts.

 Additional Public Education Services
   § Safety for Small Business workshops
   § Interactive Internet courses
   § Professional Development Certificates
   § On-site training requests
   § Access workshop materials
   § Spanish training aids
   § Training and Education Grants
   § Continuing Education Units/Credit Hours
 For more information on Public Education services,
 please call (888) 292-5247 Option 2

Portland Field Office               (503) 229-5910
Salem Field Office                  (503) 378-3274                   Salem Central Office: (800) 922-2689 or
Eugene Field Office                 (541) 686-7562                                         (503) 378-3272
Medford Field Office                (541) 776-6030
Bend Field Office                   (541) 388-6066
Pendleton Field Office              (541) 276-9175
                                                                         Web Site:  www.orosha.org
                          This material is for training use only




The lesson plan


 CHALLENGE


 LANGUAGE


 LITERACY


 DIALECTS


 TRANSLATORS

 CULTURE


 OBSTACLES TO COMMUNICATION


 QUOTES

 EFFECTIVE TRAINING TEAM


 WORKER PARTICIPATION


 KNOW YOUR WORKERS




             Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce   3
                                This material is for training use only




The challenge

  OSHA rules require that
  workers be trained BEFORE
  they are exposed
  to hazardous work.



  And . . .


  OSHA rules require that workers be
  effectively supervised WHILE
  they are working.




  It takes about 5-6 years for someone learning a new language to
  reach professional-level, second-language proficiency.


  It takes about 5-10 years for someone learning a new culture to
  reach second-culture proficiency.


  The challenge . . .

  Bridging a 5-10 year language and culture gap BEFORE an
  accident happens.



                   Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce   4
                                      This material is for training use only




Language and literacy
                                 Language comprehension: Knowing what sounds
                                                            are in a language and what sounds are not.




             You know English if house signifies
             You know French if maison signifies
             You know Spanish if casa signifies



                         Did you know?
                         There are no “primitive” languages - all
                         languages are equally complex and equally
                         capable of expressing any idea in the universe.


 Literacy
                                                     U.S.A.              Russia        Mexico           Vietnam
 Primary enrollment                                    92%                 90%            99%            95%
                  Survival rate to 5th grade           100%                100%           100%           100%

 Secondary enrollment                                  88%                 83%            63%            62%
 Tertiary enrollment                                   83%                 69%            22%            10%

 Poverty
 (% of population on less than $2 a day)                  -                     8          26             33
 (poverty population in millions)                         -                    12          27             26

              “Literacy is the cornerstone of human development and economic growth.”
             UNESCO  (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)



                         Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce             5
                                 This material is for training use only




Dialects
                                                                   Dialects are the form or variety of a
                                                                   spoken language peculiar to a region,
                                                                   community, social group, or occupational
                                                                   group. Sometimes referred to as jargon or
                                                                   lingo.
 Southern
 U.S.
                                               Dealing with dialects...
 hoe cakes
 fly flapper                                   •          Encourage workers, supervisors and
                                                          managers to ask questions when they
                                                          hear a word they don’t understand
                                                          and before taking action.

 British


 amber
                                               •          Assume the worker has not
 hole in the wall                                         understood until the supervisor or
                                                          manager has demonstrated.



 Australian

                                               •          Develop training programs with the
 whinger
                                                          actual objects and tasks management
 rubber                                                   expects the workers to perform.



 Metaphors are fun and say a lot about your culture.  But they can be tricky.  
 It’s usually best to avoid them unless you spend the time to explain them:
                                   “Step up to the plate and grab the bull by the horns.”

                    Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce         6
                                   This material is for training use only




Translators

                                                                  Electronic translators do not work.

                               Please do not use electronic translators to communicate
                                                                     safety information.




  If electronic translators worked, the first
  and last sentence should be the same
  (or at least, very close in meaning):




  ENGLISH (SOURCE)             ª       TO GERMAN (TARGET)
  GERMAN (SOURCE)              ª       TO ENGLISH (TARGET)



  Johnny went to the store to buy milk on a cold, rainy day.


  Johnny ging zum Speicher, Milch an einem kalten, regnerischen Tag
  zu kaufen.


  Johnny went buying rainy day to the memory, milk at a cold.


                                                                             Translator: Google Language Tools




                      Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce               7
                                    This material is for training use only




Translators & Interpreters
                 Translators convert SOURCE language to TARGET
                 language in writing.




                 Interpreters convert SOURCE language to TARGET
                 orally.




Employers can and should verify translator’s and interpreter’s accuracy.




TIP
      If the instructor and
      the interpreter can’t
      sustain a fluent
      conversation
      for 2-3 minutes
      about the training
      topic before
      the training,
      the interpreter
      is not qualified.




                       Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce   8
                                   This material is for training use only




Translators & Interpreters

Translators and Interpreters can be:

      ¯Workers

      ¯Professionals (Yellow pages, Courts, Hospitals, and Language Associations
       have lists of them)

      ¯Translating services (Language banks)




Should you give preference to the native speaker of the TARGET language? YES!

Example:


Which is correct?    THE TREE BIG GREEN                                       THE BIG GREEN TREE


Even if someone doesn’t know the rule that in English, adjectives precedes nouns,
native speakers will know which is correct by the sound.



               American Translators Association: http://www.atanet.org/
                      Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce   9
                                This material is for training use only




Culture

 Culture is communication and communication is culture.
                                                                                                Edward T. Hall
                                                                                            The Silent Language




 Culture refers to a large group of people who over generations, have 
 accumulated certain:



 Knowledge                 Experience                                       Meanings

 Beliefs                   Values                                           Time concepts

 Religions                 Relationships                                    Spatial relations




 Culture summarized:
                                                  “It’s the way we do things 
                                                  around here!”




                   Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce                   10
                                  This material is for training use only




Obstacles to communication

 HIERARCHY 

 The ranking order in a society.  Also called the “pecking order.”

 Classified as Flat or Steep.


 Flat Hierarchy:
  w Good example is the U.S. Even the constitution says: “All men are
      created equal...”
  w Encourages people to explore, take risks.
  w People feel it’s O.K. to participate and debate.
  w People are informal with each other. Strangers talk to each other.



 Steep Hierarchy
  w Asian and Latin countries have steep hierarchies.
  w People respect social classes. People born into a class usually die in
     that class.
  w Order and harmony is highly valued.
  w People are formal. Strangers don’t talk.



 TIP
 Employers must teach workers from other cultures that in the U.S., we have
 a flatter hierarchy.

  w Tell workers that they should EXPECT that someone ranked higher
    will ask their opinion: “What do you think?”

  w Tell workers that the boss EXPECTS them to take the initiative: “If it
    is broken, fix it.”


                     Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce   11
                                This material is for training use only




Obstacles to communication



   GENDER

   Many cultures regard certain behaviors as either masculine or 
   feminine.


   In many cultures, gender determines what you can and can’t do.

   In some cultures, it is acceptable for a man to stare at a women in public.

   In some cultures, it is incomprehensible that a woman may give a direct
   order to a man.


   TIP
   Employers must teach workers from other cultures how women in the U.S.
   workplace should be treated. A hostile work environment can occur if
   employers don’t deal with gender issues promptly and directly.


    w Tell workers that they should EXPECT that women in the workplace
      participate equally in making decisions and giving directions to men.

    w Tell workers that in the U.S., it is skill and ability that determines
      what a worker can and can’t do - not gender.

    w Explain to workers that in the U.S. there are laws that protect workers
      from gender discrimination or harassment.




                   Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce   12
                                 This material is for training use only




Obstacles to communication


  AGE

  Some cultures will not permit younger people to advance in society or
  career until they reach a certain age.

  TIP
  Employers must teach their workers that in the U.S., it is skill and 
  ability that determines what a worker can and can’t do.




  GOVERNMENT VERSUS FAMILY

  People who can rely on effective governments (U.S., England, Denmark)
  are more likely to follow their country’s laws.

  People from cultures with less effective governments rely on extended
  family relationships for goods and services. Government laws and rules
  take second place.

  TIP
  Employers must teach their workers that in the U.S., the laws and rules 
  must be followed.

                    Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce   13
                                      This material is for training use only




Obstacles to communication

 U.S.A                                                                   LATIN AMERICA

 Product-oriented                                                        People-oriented


 Hard working;                                                           Hard-working; values
 values time                                                             enjoying time


 Decision-making by lower and                                            Decision-making by
 middle management                                                       top management


 Direct communication:                                                   Indirect communication:
 Yes / No                                                                Preserves dignity of both -
                                                                         saying No difficult


 Pride in competitiveness                                                Pride in cooperation


 More willing to accept close                                            Feels that close supervision
 supervision                                                             shows lack of trust


 Shifts to informal as                                                   Prefers formality until a real
 soon as it’s possible                                                   relationship exists




  TIP
  We use translators and interpreters for written and verbal communication.
  We should also use interpreters for cultural communication.


                         Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce     14
                                            This material is for training use only




Quotes . . .
    What Are Immigrant Workers Saying About Safety? 

          †        We feel vulnerable because we don’t have papers to work 
                   legally so we don’t really have a right to complain about 
                   dangerous working conditions.



          †        If we ask for personal protective equipment, we’ll  be turned 
                   over to the INS or fired and then placed on “blacklist” which 
                   will be shared with other employers.



          †        When we learn to read English, we’ll finally be able to read 
                   the hazard warnings on the chemical containers.



          †        We would do our work more safely if we were trained how - 
                   even a brief safety meeting before starting the job and how to 
                   do it safely would help a lot.



          †        It would be good to have educational materials in our 
                   language.  Some of us can read in our language.



          †        Many of us worry all the time about getting injured on the job 
                   and we also worry what’s going to happen to us in the future 
                   from the chemicals we’re working with today.

Excerpts from Voices From the Margin, Immigrant Workers’ Perceptions of Health and Safety in the Workplaces.
UCLA Labor Occupational Safety and Health Program. www.losh.ucla.edu

                               Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce    15
                                This material is for training use only




Form an effective training team

  To be effective, newly hired workers must learn many things 
  quickly.  They must learn how to do the job, they must learn how to 
  act safely, and they must learn the workplace’s unique culture.
  It is important for owners who hire Hispanic workers with limited 
  English skills to know that because of this language barrier, these 
  workers need more help than native English speaking workers in 
  learning how to do the job, how to act safely, and how to be 
  consistent with the owner’s beliefs and values.


  Form an effective training team consisting of the following key 
  people: 


        Language Leader – The person 
        with the best bilingual skills.



        Social Leader – The person the group 
        recognizes as their leader.



        Technical Leader – The person 
        with the best skills and knowledge to get the job 
        done.


                   Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce   16
                       This material is for training use only




Form an effective training team
                                                                                Training 
                                                                                 Team




                                                                                   Workers




          Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce       17
                                     This material is for training use only




Initiate worker participation

Have a Conversation About Cultural Attitudes Toward Safety
Asking someone’s opinion makes them feel valued. Here are safety questions to ask
that will make the workers the experts and will teach you about them!


ü   What rights do workers have in your country regarding a safe work 
    environment?

ü   During the time you have been working in the United States, do you pay

           a)  more attention       b)  less attention       c)  same attention

    to safety than you had to pay in your country?

ü   Which safety rules here are different from those in your country?  What 
    safety rules are the same?

ü   Are there safety committees in your country?  If so, how often do they meet?

ü   In the companies you worked for in your country, were safety inspections 
    conducted?

ü   From your work experience, what happened in case of a serious injury in 
    your country?

ü   Did you use personal protective equipment in your country?  Was it 
    voluntary or mandatory?

ü   What are some of the reasons that people don’t follow workplace safety rules 
    even though they know them?  (U.S. or in your country)



                        Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce   18
                                    This material is for training use only




Know your workers
                                                                                                      RUSSIA
 Population: 
 142,893,540


 Ethnic groups:
 Russian 79.8%,
 Tatar 3.8%
 Ukrainian 2%
 Bashkir 1.2%
 Chuvash 1.1%                                                                Top trading partner:
 other or unspecified 12.1%                                                    Netherlands (9%)
                                                                                            (!)

 Languages:
 Russian, many minority languages


 National holiday:
 Russia Day, 12 June (1990)


 Legal system: 
 based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts


 Executive branch: 
 chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN
 head of government: Premier Mikhail Yefimovich FRADKOV



                                                                SOURCE: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/
                       Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce              19
                                   This material is for training use only




Know your workers
                                                                                                 VIETNAM
 Population: 
 84,402,966



 Ethnic groups:
 Kinh (Viet) 86.2%
 Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.7%, Muong 1.5%
 Khome 1.4%, Hoa 1.1%, Nun 1.1%
 Hmong 1%, others 4.1%



 Languages:
 Vietnamese (official),
 English (increasingly favored as a second language),
 some French, Chinese, and Khmer



 National holiday:                                                          Top trading partner:
 Independence Day, 2 September (1945)
                                                                                     U.S. (20%)

 Legal system: 
 based on communist legal theory and French civil law system



 Executive branch: 
 chief of state: President Tran Duc LUONG
 head of government: Prime Minister Phan Van KHAI

                                                               SOURCE: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/
                      Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce              20
                                    This material is for training use only




Know your workers
                                                                                                      MEXICO
 Population: 
 107,449,525



 Ethnic groups:
 mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%,
 Amerindian 30%,
 white 9%,
 other 1%                                                                    Top trading partner:
                                                                                      U.S. (87%)

 Languages:
 Spanish, various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional indigenous languages



 National holiday: 
 Independence Day, 16 September (1810) (Not Cinco de Mayo)



 Legal system: 
 mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system; judicial review of
 legislative acts; accepts compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction,
 with reservations



 Executive branch: 
 chief of state: President Vicente FOX Quesada
 head of government: President Vicente FOX Quesada
 note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
                                                                SOURCE: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/
                       Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce              21
                                  This material is for training use only




Know your workers
 HISPANIC NAMES - Which is the last name?



    JUAN          CARLOS                         RAMIREZ                          ORTEGA

    FIRST            MIDDLE                         FATHER’S                         MOTHER’S
    NAME              NAME                            LAST                            MAIDEN
                                                     NAME                              NAME

 If you ask me my name and we have not met, my culture compels me to tell you
 my FULL name: Juan Carlos Ramirez Ortega.
 Why?        __________________________________________________
             __________________________________________________
 Now that we’ve met, you don’t have to use my mother’s maiden name.
 Call me: Mr. Ramirez, Juan Ramirez, or Juan (Before using “Juan” it’s polite if
 you ask, “may I call you Juan?”).


 AND LAST...
 Consider posting a large map on the wall and provide push-pins to identify
 places of origin. (Lots of fun!)




                     Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce   22
                                               This material is for training use only




       Programa en Español de Seguridad e Higiene en el 
                   Trabajo de OR-OSHA

               OR-OSHA Occupational Safety and Health 
                       Program in Spanish 


                                                                                    Estos instructivos están 
               These modules are 
                                                                                      diseñados para ser 
             designed to be taught in 
                                                                                     enseñados en 30 a 60 
                30 to 60 minutes.
                                                                                            minutos.




          Obtain these bilingual training                                                Obtenga estos instructivos
                 modules and the                                                               bilingües y el
         Spanish-English / English-Spanish                                          Diccionario Español-Inglés / Inglés-
          Occupational Safety and Health                                            Español de Seguridad e Higiene en 
           Dictionary (30,000 words) at                                               el Trabajo (30,000 palabras) en

          www.orosha.org                                                                 www.orosha.org

Please send comments to tomas.schwabe@state.or.us         Favor de enviar comentarios a tomas.schwabe@state.or.us

Nota:  Este material educativo o cualquier otro material utilizado para adiestrar a patrones y empleados de los requisitos de
cumplimiento de los reglamentos de la OR-OSHA por conducto de la simplificación de los reglamentos, no se considerará
substituto de cualquiera de las previsiones de la Ley de Seguridad en el Trabajo de Oregon, o por cualquiera de las normas
     dictaminadas por la OR-OSHA. Este material educativo fue producido por el Programa PESO de la OR-OSHA.


Note: This educational material or any other material used to inform employers and workers of compliance requirements of
OR-OSHA standards through simplification of the regulations should not be considered a substitute for any provisions of the
Oregon Safe Employment Act or for any standards issued by OR-OSHA. This educational material was produced by the OR
                                                 -OSHA PESO Program.

                                  Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce              23
         Programa en Español de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo de OR-OSHA
             OR-OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Program in Spanish 



TOPICS INCLUDE                             TEMAS INCLUYEN
Accident Investigation                     Investigación de Accidentes
Cultures, Languages, and Safety            Culturas, Idiomas, y la Seguridad
Excavations                                Excavaciones
Fall Protection                            Protección Contra Caídas
Hazard Communication                       Comunicación de Riesgo
Hazard Identification                      Localización de Riesgos
Hazardous Energy Control                   Control de Energía Peligrosa
Industrial Vehicles                        Vehículos Industriales
Machine Safeguarding                       Resguardos de Máquinas
Manual Material Handling                   Manipulación Manual de Cargas
Occupational Health                        Higiene Laboral
Portable Ladders                           Escaleras Portátiles
Safety Committees                          Comites de Seguridad
Scaffolds                                  Andamios




         LA LLAVE AL ACCESO




  En cumplimiento con el Acta de Americanos Incapacitados (ADA), esta
   publicación esta disponible en formatos alternos comunicándose con la
  Sección de Relaciones Públicas de OR-OSHA, (503) 378-3272 (V/TTY).

    In Compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), this
        publication is available in alternative formats by calling the
       OR-OSHA Public Relations Section, (503) 378-3272 (V/TTY).

				
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