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Thinking _amp; Knowledge

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Thinking _amp; Knowledge Powered By Docstoc
					Review from yesterday

o What are the three different types of
  memory?
o How many items can short term memory
  hold?
o How can short term memory hold more
  than seven items?
    Can you remember the
    following?
J FKFB INAS AOP PI RSC IA
JFK FBI NASA OPP IRS CIA



    .
Thinking & Knowledge


HSP3M
Using knowledge

o We acquire knowledge through
  n Sensation
  n Perception
  n Learning

o We use this knowledge through thinking
  n Developing concepts
  n Reasoning
  n Problem solving
  n Decision making
Developing Concepts

o   A concept is a category of objects, ideas, or
    events
o   Used to group similar items together
o   Ex: babies learn that milk and juice come in a
    glass, but food comes on a plate
o   Without concepts, each item would be unique
o   Ex: the concept of “apple” means you can infer
    that the apple you’re about to eat will taste good
Concepts

o Concepts are arranged in a hierarchy
o Ex:
  n   “bicycle”, “boat”, “automobile” are each
      concepts on their own
  n   They can also be grouped together under
      the concept of “transportation”
Reasoning

o Using information to draw conclusions
o 3 types:
  n   Deductive Reasoning
  n   Inductive Reasoning
  n   Dialectical Reasoning
Deductive Reasoning

o Applying a general principle to a specific
  situation
   n   Premise: All humans need air to live
   n   Premise: I am a human
   n   Conclusion: I need air to live
Inductive Reasoning

o Applying something specific to a general
  situation
  n   Premise: I liked Kings of Leon’s last record
  n   Premise: This new record is from Kings of
      Leon
  n   Conclusion: I will like this new record
Dialectical Reasoning

o Thesis + Antithesis = Synthesis
o Basically, comparing two opposite ideas
  and drawing your own conclusion, which
  is somewhere in between
o When do we use this type of reasoning
Reasoning

o Which type is it?
o “Since all humans live on Earth, and I am
  a human, I must live on Earth”
Reasoning

o Which type is it?
o “Most people who use the SQ3R method
  (Survey, Question, Read, Recite,
  Respond) improve their reading
  comprehension. I will try the SQ3R
  method. I will probably do better on the
  upcoming test”
Reasoning

o Which type is it?
o “I know that you believe in learning
  through observation. Personally, I think
  that repeating ideas improves learning.
  But I am coming to see the value of your
  argument – perhaps learning through
  observation is strengthened through
  repetition”
Reasoning

o Which type is it?
o “Housecats are members of the feline
  group. This animal in my house is a cat.
  Therefore it is a feline.”
Problem Solving

o    The ability to deal with new situations
     n   Solving a math problem
     n   Figuring out how to drive somewhere you
         haven’t been to before
1.   Define the problem
2.   Develop a strategy to solve it
3.   Carry out the strategy
4.   Determine if the strategy is working
Problem Solving

o Examples of strategies:
  n Trial and error
       p   Try different approaches until you find one that
           works
  n   Rule of thumb
       p   Use a general rule based on
           experience/knowledge
  n   Insight
       p   A new idea or sudden understanding
  n   Hypothesis Testing
       p   Test a hypothesis and measure its success
Problem Solving

o Which problem solving strategy would be
  best for:
  n   Organizing a term paper
  n   Solving a math problem
  n   Making your money last until the end of the
      week
  n   Choosing the best route to your destination
Decision Making

o    Happens when we have a choice:
1.   Determine alternatives
2.   Evaluate alternative
3.   Make a decision
4.   Act
Decision Making

o Your iPod was stolen from your locker.
  You find out that the person who stole it
  is the star goalie on the school’s hockey
  team. The team has dominated NCSSAA
  play this year and has a real chance of
  winning OFSAA. If you report the theft,
  the goalie will be suspended from the
  team.
o Use the decision-making process to
  arrive at a decision
Homework

o Page 62 # 4
o Page 66 # 1-3, #7

				
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posted:7/27/2013
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