EC Social Agenda and ECE work

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					Developing woman’s entrepreneurship in
           the UNECE region

    Dr. Ewa Ruminska - Zimny, Warsaw School of Economics
    Workshop on Enhancing Women’s Entrepreneurship in SEE
                   Sarajevo 1 October 2009
      Women’s economic potential

l Entrepreneurship is part of women’s economic potential –
a key factor behind economic growth in UNECE region
lWomen are a major source of new labour in ageing
lIncreasingly well educated they bring new ideas and
management styles in developing products and services
lMobilizingthis potential is even more important now to
overcome economic crisis
Major source of new labour (EU-27)
Women’s share in labour force (age 15 +)

    Source: UNECE Gender Statistics Databases, 2005-2006
       Innovation and competitiveness
l Women have over 50% share in total tertiary education in
  most UNECE member countries and up to 62 % (Albania,
l Inclusion of women in teams designing new cars pushed
  up sales at Ford (1999) –now a standard human resource
l More women in company management, better
  resistance to the financial crisis based on research in
  France CAC40 : PNB-Paribas (39% women -20% drop
  in shares versus Credit Agricole 1% women -50 % drop):
  value of gender diversity in management
Female Share of Researchers

  Source: UNECE Gender Statistics Database
 Diversity and growth of women entrepreneurs
Employers and own-account workers, % employed selected countries

Source: UNECE Gender Statistics Databases
Untapped potential: education vs. job level 2005

      Source: Worldbank Edstats, ILO Laborsta
        Gender specific barriers

l Financing:  lack of wealth or property
  ownership (biased privatization, traditional
  norms), smaller size of women’s businesses
l Information and training: less time due to
  family responsibilities and resources
l Markets and networks: limited access to
  traditional business networks (“old boys”)
             Policy response

l Some   interest at policy level, good initiatives
  driven by WBA, local authorities and
  international organizations
l Rationale based on job creation/poverty for
  women’s empowerment (microcredit and start-
  ups -handicraft, hairdresser)
l Missing “growth” rationale and systemic
  solutions to boost women’s entrepreneurship at
  national level
               Policies matter

l US  and Canada --Gender- sensitive legislation
  and institutional framework (role of WBAs)
l US – Equal Credit Opportunity Act (1974),
  Office for women’s businesses at SME Federal
  Administration, Federal Acquisition
  Streamlining Act (1994), support centers etc.
l In 1997-2004 number of women run
  businesses grew by 42%, now about 40 % all
  business in US
       Role of international players

l Setting norms, standards and commitments
  such as EU (equal opportunities in Lisbon
  Strategy or in accession process)
l United Nations: Beijing, MDGs and Financing
  for Development
l Regional dimension: UNECE, Regional
  Coordination Council, IFIs

l Using women’s potential is vital for growth (gender
  equalty as economic versus human rights concept)
l Support to women entrepreneurs as part of gender –
  sensitive economic policy addressing systemic barriers;
  opportunities of the crisis
l   Role of government and new actors – market
    institutions (chambers of commerce but also banks
    and financial institutions, Patent Offices, Stock
l   Muliti-stakeholder partnerships at national, regional
    and global levels
Thank you

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