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									        Net Ionic equations
§ A solution of Barium Chloride reacts with a
  solution of sodium sulfate
§ BaCl2 + Na2SO4 →
§ BaCl2 + Na2SO4 → BaSO4 + 2NaCl
§ Ba2+ + 2Cl1- + 2Na1+ + SO42- → BaSO4 + 2Na1+
  2Cl1-
§ Ba2+ + 2Cl1- + 2Na1+ + SO42- → BaSO4 + 2Na1+
  2Cl1-
§ Ba2+ + SO42- → BaSO4
 Using Stoichiometry in the Laboratory
Na2SO3(aq) + 2AgNO3(aq) ® Ag2SO3(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)
§ 20 ml        20 ml
§ 0.12 M      0.35 M

§ 1. How many grams of silver sulfite would be produced?
§ 2. What would be the molarity of the sodium nitrate?

§ 3.What volume of silver nitrate is needed to completely
  precipitate all of the sulfite ions.
            Patterns of Reactivity
Substance + Oxygen gas ® Oxide of element
       Active metals and oxygen:
          Li(s) + O2 ® Li2O(s)
         sulfides and oxygen:
      ZnS(s) + O2 ® ZnO + SO2(g)
      CS2(s) + O2 ® CO2(g) + SO2
         ammonia and oxygen:
                           D

       NH3 + O2 ® NO2 + H2O(g)
     Substances reacting with water
Metallic oxide reacting with water ® Base
        Li2O + HOH ® Li+ + OH-
     MgO (s) + HOH ® Mg(OH)2
  Metal hydrides reacting with water ®
           Base + Hydrogen
   LiH(s) + HOH ® Li+ + OH- + H2
  CaH2 (s) + HOH ® Ca + OH + H2
                        2+     -
 Nonmetal oxide reacting with water ® Acid
             (Keep ox # the same)
          SO2(g) + H2O ® H2SO3(aq)
           SO3 + H2O ® H+ + HSO4-
           N2O3 + H2O ® HNO2(aq)
           N2O5 + H2O ® H + NO3
                            +       1-

  Nonmetal halides reacting with water ®
weak acid + strong acid (Keep ox # the same)
  PCl5 (s) + H2O ® H3PO4(aq) + H+ + Cl-
  PBr3 (s) + H2O ® H3PO3(aq) + H+ + Br-
        Hydrocarbon and oxygen:
       CH3OH(s) + O2 ® CO2 + H2O

Substances reacting with nonmetal oxide ® salt

 Metal oxide and nonmetal oxide yields a salt
         CaO(s) + CO2 ® CaCO3(s)
          MgO(s) + SO2 ® MgSO3
    Base reacting with nonmetal oxide:
OH- +CO2(g) ®CO32- +H2O (base is aqueous)
 Ca(OH)2 (s) + SO2(g) ® CaSO3(s) + H2O

 NaOH(aq) + CO2(g) ® Na+ + HCO3- + H2O

Ca(OH)2 (aq) + SO2(g) ® Ca+ + HSO3- + H2O
 Metal sulfides reacting with water ®
              Base + gas
Fe2S3(s) + HOH ® Fe(OH)3(s) + H2S(g)
 Metal carbides reacting with water ®
         Base + hydrocarbon
 Na2C2(s) + H2O ® Na+ + OH- + C2H2

Salt of an amphoteric metal reacting with
            water ® complex
Al(NO3)3(s) + H2O ® Al(H2O)63+ + NO3-
    Substances reacting with an acid
metals reacting with acid ® salt + hydrogen
         Zn(s) + H+ ® Zn2+ + H2
Ca(s) + H+ ® Ca2+ + H2 (cold sulfuric acid)
 Cu(s) + H+ + HSO4- ® Cu2+ + SO2 + H2O
         (hot conc. sulfuric acid)
  Ag(s) + H+ + NO3- ® Ag+ + NO + H2O
         (dilute (6M) nitric acid)
   Ag(s) + H+ + NO3- ® Ag+ + NO2 + H2O
             (conc. nitric acid)
 metal oxide reacting with hydrogen gas ®
                salt + water
        Fe2O3(s) + H2 ® Fe + H2O

metal oxide reacting with acid ® salt + gas +
                   water
  FeO(s) + H + NO3 ® Fe + NO2 + H2O
             +       -     3+

            (conc. nitric acid)
Salt of a weak acid and strong acid ® salt
         of strong acid + weak acid
    Na2S(s) + H+ ® Na+ + Cl- + H2S
  SO22-
           + H ® H2SO3 ® H2O + SO2
             +


     C2H3O2- + H+ ® HC2H3O2
C2H3O2 + H + HSO4 ® HC2H3O2 + HSO4
       -      +      -                       -

        (equimolar sulfuric acid)
       Substances reacting with an Base
 salt of an amphoteric metal reacting with a
                  strong acid
           Al(OH)3 + H+ ® Al3+ + H2O
    Al and Zn hydroxides with a strong base
         Al(OH)3 + OH ® [Al(OH)6]
                       -             3-

         Zn(OH)2 + OH- ® [Zn(OH)4]2-
salt of a weak acid reacting with a strong base
     NH4Cl + OH- ® NH3(g) + H2O + Cl-
      HCO3- + OH- ® CO3-2 (g) + H2O
             Complex ions
    Zn2+ + NH3(excess) ® [Zn(NH3)4]2+

Zn(OH)2(s) + NH3(ex) ® [Zn(NH3)4]2+ + OH
-

    Ag+1 + NH3(excess) ® [Ag(NH3)2] +

Cu(OH)2 + NH3(ex) ® [Cu(NH3)4] + OH
                                 2+     -


    Fe+3         + NCS1- → FeNCS2+
    orange/brown          blood red
       Oxidation-Reduction
   Single Replacement (metals)
Al(s) + Cu (aq) ® Cu(s) + Al (aq)
              2+                3+


Zn(s) + Sn2+ (aq) ® Sn(s) + Zn2+ (aq)
H2(g) + CuO(s) ® Cu(s) + H2O (aq)
    Single Replacement (halogens)
F2(g) + Cl (aq) ® Cl2(g) + F (aq)
          -                 -
       Oxidation-Reduction
  Redox in an Acid Environment
Cr2O7 + Fe + H ® Cr + Fe + H2O
     2-        2+   +   3+   3+


  Cr2O7 + I + H ® Cr + I2 + H2O
          2-    -   +   3+


MnO4- + Cl- + H+ ® Mn2+ + Cl2 + H2O

 H2O2 + I- + H+ ® H2O + I2 + H2O
          Oxidation-Reduction
     Redox in a Basic Environment

H2O2 (aq) + MnO4- ® O2 + MnO2(s) + H2O
Oxidation-Reduction

Important Oxidizers          Formed in the Reaction

MnO4- in acidic solution             Mn2+
MnO2 in acidic solution              Mn2+
MnO4- in basic solution              MnO2
Cr2O72- in acidic solution           Cr3+
HNO3, concentrated                   NO2

HNO3, dilute                         NO
H2SO4, hot                           SO
                                     2
Oxidation-Reduction

Important Oxidizers      Formed in the Reaction

Metal-ic ions               Metal-ous ions
Free halogens               halide ions
Na2O2                       NaOH
HClO4                       Cl-
H2O2 (in acidic sol’n)      H2
H2O2 (in basic sol’n)       O -
                            OH
Oxidation-Reduction

Important Reducers              Formed in the Reaction

 Halide ions                      Free halogens
 Free metals                      Metal ions
 Sulfite ions (or SO2)            Sulfate ions
 Nitrite ions                     Nitrate ions
 Free Halogens (dil., basic)      Hypohalides (e.g. ClO-)
 Free Halogens (conc., basic)     Halate ions (e.g. ClO3-)
 Metal-ous                        Metal-ic
 H2O2                             O2

								
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