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```									        Net Ionic equations
§ A solution of Barium Chloride reacts with a
solution of sodium sulfate
§ BaCl2 + Na2SO4 →
§ BaCl2 + Na2SO4 → BaSO4 + 2NaCl
§ Ba2+ + 2Cl1- + 2Na1+ + SO42- → BaSO4 + 2Na1+
2Cl1-
§ Ba2+ + 2Cl1- + 2Na1+ + SO42- → BaSO4 + 2Na1+
2Cl1-
§ Ba2+ + SO42- → BaSO4
Using Stoichiometry in the Laboratory
Na2SO3(aq) + 2AgNO3(aq) ® Ag2SO3(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)
§ 20 ml        20 ml
§ 0.12 M      0.35 M

§ 1. How many grams of silver sulfite would be produced?
§ 2. What would be the molarity of the sodium nitrate?

§ 3.What volume of silver nitrate is needed to completely
precipitate all of the sulfite ions.
Patterns of Reactivity
Substance + Oxygen gas ® Oxide of element
Active metals and oxygen:
Li(s) + O2 ® Li2O(s)
sulfides and oxygen:
ZnS(s) + O2 ® ZnO + SO2(g)
CS2(s) + O2 ® CO2(g) + SO2
ammonia and oxygen:
D

NH3 + O2 ® NO2 + H2O(g)
Substances reacting with water
Metallic oxide reacting with water ® Base
Li2O + HOH ® Li+ + OH-
MgO (s) + HOH ® Mg(OH)2
Metal hydrides reacting with water ®
Base + Hydrogen
LiH(s) + HOH ® Li+ + OH- + H2
CaH2 (s) + HOH ® Ca + OH + H2
2+     -
Nonmetal oxide reacting with water ® Acid
(Keep ox # the same)
SO2(g) + H2O ® H2SO3(aq)
SO3 + H2O ® H+ + HSO4-
N2O3 + H2O ® HNO2(aq)
N2O5 + H2O ® H + NO3
+       1-

Nonmetal halides reacting with water ®
weak acid + strong acid (Keep ox # the same)
PCl5 (s) + H2O ® H3PO4(aq) + H+ + Cl-
PBr3 (s) + H2O ® H3PO3(aq) + H+ + Br-
Hydrocarbon and oxygen:
CH3OH(s) + O2 ® CO2 + H2O

Substances reacting with nonmetal oxide ® salt

Metal oxide and nonmetal oxide yields a salt
CaO(s) + CO2 ® CaCO3(s)
MgO(s) + SO2 ® MgSO3
Base reacting with nonmetal oxide:
OH- +CO2(g) ®CO32- +H2O (base is aqueous)
Ca(OH)2 (s) + SO2(g) ® CaSO3(s) + H2O

NaOH(aq) + CO2(g) ® Na+ + HCO3- + H2O

Ca(OH)2 (aq) + SO2(g) ® Ca+ + HSO3- + H2O
Metal sulfides reacting with water ®
Base + gas
Fe2S3(s) + HOH ® Fe(OH)3(s) + H2S(g)
Metal carbides reacting with water ®
Base + hydrocarbon
Na2C2(s) + H2O ® Na+ + OH- + C2H2

Salt of an amphoteric metal reacting with
water ® complex
Al(NO3)3(s) + H2O ® Al(H2O)63+ + NO3-
Substances reacting with an acid
metals reacting with acid ® salt + hydrogen
Zn(s) + H+ ® Zn2+ + H2
Ca(s) + H+ ® Ca2+ + H2 (cold sulfuric acid)
Cu(s) + H+ + HSO4- ® Cu2+ + SO2 + H2O
(hot conc. sulfuric acid)
Ag(s) + H+ + NO3- ® Ag+ + NO + H2O
(dilute (6M) nitric acid)
Ag(s) + H+ + NO3- ® Ag+ + NO2 + H2O
(conc. nitric acid)
metal oxide reacting with hydrogen gas ®
salt + water
Fe2O3(s) + H2 ® Fe + H2O

metal oxide reacting with acid ® salt + gas +
water
FeO(s) + H + NO3 ® Fe + NO2 + H2O
+       -     3+

(conc. nitric acid)
Salt of a weak acid and strong acid ® salt
of strong acid + weak acid
Na2S(s) + H+ ® Na+ + Cl- + H2S
SO22-
+ H ® H2SO3 ® H2O + SO2
+

C2H3O2- + H+ ® HC2H3O2
C2H3O2 + H + HSO4 ® HC2H3O2 + HSO4
-      +      -                       -

(equimolar sulfuric acid)
Substances reacting with an Base
salt of an amphoteric metal reacting with a
strong acid
Al(OH)3 + H+ ® Al3+ + H2O
Al and Zn hydroxides with a strong base
Al(OH)3 + OH ® [Al(OH)6]
-             3-

Zn(OH)2 + OH- ® [Zn(OH)4]2-
salt of a weak acid reacting with a strong base
NH4Cl + OH- ® NH3(g) + H2O + Cl-
HCO3- + OH- ® CO3-2 (g) + H2O
Complex ions
Zn2+ + NH3(excess) ® [Zn(NH3)4]2+

Zn(OH)2(s) + NH3(ex) ® [Zn(NH3)4]2+ + OH
-

Ag+1 + NH3(excess) ® [Ag(NH3)2] +

Cu(OH)2 + NH3(ex) ® [Cu(NH3)4] + OH
2+     -

Fe+3         + NCS1- → FeNCS2+
orange/brown          blood red
Oxidation-Reduction
Single Replacement (metals)
Al(s) + Cu (aq) ® Cu(s) + Al (aq)
2+                3+

Zn(s) + Sn2+ (aq) ® Sn(s) + Zn2+ (aq)
H2(g) + CuO(s) ® Cu(s) + H2O (aq)
Single Replacement (halogens)
F2(g) + Cl (aq) ® Cl2(g) + F (aq)
-                 -
Oxidation-Reduction
Redox in an Acid Environment
Cr2O7 + Fe + H ® Cr + Fe + H2O
2-        2+   +   3+   3+

Cr2O7 + I + H ® Cr + I2 + H2O
2-    -   +   3+

MnO4- + Cl- + H+ ® Mn2+ + Cl2 + H2O

H2O2 + I- + H+ ® H2O + I2 + H2O
Oxidation-Reduction
Redox in a Basic Environment

H2O2 (aq) + MnO4- ® O2 + MnO2(s) + H2O
Oxidation-Reduction

Important Oxidizers          Formed in the Reaction

MnO4- in acidic solution             Mn2+
MnO2 in acidic solution              Mn2+
MnO4- in basic solution              MnO2
Cr2O72- in acidic solution           Cr3+
HNO3, concentrated                   NO2

HNO3, dilute                         NO
H2SO4, hot                           SO
2
Oxidation-Reduction

Important Oxidizers      Formed in the Reaction

Metal-ic ions               Metal-ous ions
Free halogens               halide ions
Na2O2                       NaOH
HClO4                       Cl-
H2O2 (in acidic sol’n)      H2
H2O2 (in basic sol’n)       O -
OH
Oxidation-Reduction

Important Reducers              Formed in the Reaction

Halide ions                      Free halogens
Free metals                      Metal ions
Sulfite ions (or SO2)            Sulfate ions
Nitrite ions                     Nitrate ions
Free Halogens (dil., basic)      Hypohalides (e.g. ClO-)
Free Halogens (conc., basic)     Halate ions (e.g. ClO3-)
Metal-ous                        Metal-ic
H2O2                             O2

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