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					   CAPACITY BUILDING IN BALKAN COUNTRIES IN
 ORDER TO DEAL WITH CLIMATE CHANGE PROBLEM



The Greek Climate Change Action Plan

 contents, way to implement, monitor and
   outputs of application of mitigation
             measures set in
                            Brief history

Ø   1992:   United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change
Ø   1994:   Ratification of the UNFCCC by the Greek Parliament.
            Preparation of the 1st Greek Climate Change Action Plan and
            submission to the UNFCCC of the 1st National Communication.
            The Greek government taking into consideration both economic and
            social parameters, agreed that a realistic objective for Greece is the
            restriction of the overall increase of GHG emissions to 15 3%.
Ø   1997:   Submission to the UNFCCC of the 2nd Greek National
            Communication.
Ø   1997:   Kyoto Protocol
Ø   2001:   Preparation of the 2nd Greek Climate Change Action Plan and
    the     3rd National Communication.


    Greece is going to ratify Kyoto Protocol before June 2002
  Obligations of all EU countries for the
reduction of the emissions of 6 GHG in the
period 2008-2012 compared to 1990 levels
 Steps for developing the NAP and the NC

q Establishing a National Climate Committee
q Establishing a Project Steering Committee
q Creating a Climate Change Team
q Developing work plan
           National Climate Committee -
                 Responsibilities
q Overseeing of the National Policy and the implementation of the
  FCCC
q Overseeing of all the climate change related projects, programs and
  research activities
q Ensuring the consistence of the climate change policies and the
  national development priorities
q Ensuring the information of all the stakeholders
q Developing the negotiating positions and strategies for the Country
q Reviewing and finalizing the various components of the NC
                    Project Work plan

q Development of Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory
q Development of baseline scenario for Greenhouse Gas Emissions.
q Greenhouse Gas Abatement Analysis
q Vulnerability and adaptation assessment
q Preparation of National Communication
  Preparation of National Communication

q Preparation of the draft National Communication
q Circulation of the draft NC
q Finalisation of the draft NC
q Submission of the draft NC to national government
q Finalisation, translation and publication of the NC
q Submission of the initial NC to the UNFCC Secretariat
Total GHG emissions in Greece (in kt of
   CO2 eq) for the period 1990-1999
Comparison with other EU countries
     Energy projections: Basic assumptions
•   The ENPEP model has been used.
•   The study covers the period 1995-2020.
•   It is assumed that the population will increase with an average annual rate of
    0.34% during the period 2000-2020. The average household size is assumed to
    decrease by approximately 1% for the same time period .
•   Regarding GDP, the average annual rate of growth for the period 2000-2005 is
    estimated to be approximately 4.3%, while this growth rate falls to 3.4%
    during the years 2005-2010. In the period after 2010 the annual economic
    expansion growth is projected to be around 3%.
•   The following assumptions were adopted for the international fuel prices
    included in the analysis:
     – Solid fuel prices will remain at 1997 levels during the study period.
     – For oil prices the results obtained running the International Futures model for
       Greece have been used. According to these results, oil prices will increase slightly
       during the study period reaching a price of 21.06 $1997/bbl in 2020.
     – Natural gas prices will follow the fluctuations of oil prices.
•   The current energy taxation system is maintained.
•   The formulated Business as Usual Scenario takes into account the existing and
    already decided relevant policies and measures (e.g. liberalization of the
    electricity market, agreement between EU and ACEA for reduction of fuel
    consumption in new cars, etc.)
Energy projections: Baseline gross inland
          consumption (ktoe)
Energy projections: Final energy demand
Energy projections: Electric sector
Evolution of GHG emissions in Greece (kt
               CO2 eq)
Sectoral evolution of GHG emissions in
          Greece (kt CO2 eq)
            The Greek NAP – an overview

•   Major potential
     – Power generation sector
     – Building sector
     – Restructuring of the chemical industry


•   Emission abatement technical potential (up to 2010):
     – 17314 kt CO2 eq


•   Realistic estimation of GHG emissions abatement, taking into account
    more conservative implementation degrees as well as the synergies
    between the various interventions under consideration (up to 2010):
     –   11372 kt CO2 eq
                                Building sector
                        Measure                         Emissions (kt CO2 eq)

Improvement of the thermal behavior of the buildings            106

Maintenance / replacement of diesel heaters                     191
External shading, ventilation, etc.                              57
Use of high efficiency equipment (air conditioning,             1874
appliances, light bulbs)
Use of automated lighting systems                                23
Solar collectors (water heating, space-water heating)           1302
Roof top photovoltaic systems                                    8
District heating (biomass)                                      318
Use of NG for space heating and cooling                         188
                         TOTAL                                  4066
                            Transport sector
                     Measure                 Emissions (ktn CO2 eq)

Maintenance of private vehicles and LDT               76

Use of NG buses                                        2
Improvements of road signaling                        58
Development of the public transports                  461
Soft interventions in the transport sector
Promotion of biofuels                                 319
                     TOTAL                            916
                   Power generation sector

                Measure           Emissions (ktn CO2 eq)

Use of RES                                4027
• Wind energy                             1850
• Small hydro                             1033
• Central photovoltaic units               21
• Geothermal energy                        50
• Biomass
Use of Natural gas                        3350
Cogeneration with Natural Gas              222

                TOTAL                     7599
                 Industrial sector

          Measure             Emissions (ktn CO2 eq)


Use of natural gas                     163

Use of solar energy                    340

Use of biomass                         46

Various energy conservation            238
measures
          TOTAL                        787
            Non – energy sectors

          Measure           Emissions (ktn CO2 eq)


Manure management                    62

Ecological cultivations              43

Flaring landfill gas                 98

Restructuring of chemical           3744
industry
           TOTAL                    3947
Evolution of GHG emissions in Greece and
            the Kyoto Protocol
    Criteria for evaluation of measures (1)

GHG and Other Environmental Considerations
• GHG reduction potential (Tons of carbon equivalent)
• Other environmental considerations
    – Percentage change in emissions of other gases/particulates
    – Biodiversity, soil conservation, watershed management, indoor air
      quality, etc.
      Criteria for evaluation of measures (2)

Economic and Social Considerations
• Cost-effectiveness
     – Average and marginal costs
•   Project-level considerations
     – Capital and operating costs, opportunity costs, incremental costs
•   Macro-economic considerations
     – GDP, jobs created or lost, effects on inflation or interest rates, implications
       for long-term development, foreign exchange and trade, other economic
       benefits or drawbacks
•   Equity considerations
     – Differential impacts on countries, income groups or future generations
     Criteria for evaluation of measures (3)

Administrative, Institutional and Political Considerations
• Administrative burden
     – Institutional capabilities to undertake necessary information collection,
       monitoring, enforcement, permitting, etc.
•   Political considerations
     – Capacity to pass through political and bureaucratic processes and sustain
       political support
     – Consistency with other public policies
•   Replicability
     – Adaptability to different geographical and socio-economic-cultural
       settings
Economic evaluation: Building sector
Economic evaluation: Transport sector
Economic evaluation: Industrial sector
Economic evaluation: Power generation sector
Economic evaluation: Non-energy sectors
                       Policy measures

•   Energy or carbon taxes and subsidies
•   Tradable permit systems
•   Standards (e.g. energy efficiency standards)
•   Law 2244/94 - promotion of RES
•   Energy efficiency standards and energy labeling
•   Operational program of Energy
    Operational Program for Development (1)


•   Support for the investments in cogeneration, RES and energy
    conservation
     –   Dissemination of information actions
     –   Infrastructure development
     –   Financial incentives for private energy investments
     –   Special support status
          • Voluntary agreements
          • Third Party Financing
Total budget foreseen: 1071 million Euros
    Operational Program for Development (2)


•   Support to private investments
•   Access to Natural Gas
     – Connection of the Greek pipeline with the Italian and the Turkish
•   Reinforcement of the flexibility and the reliability of the Natural Gas
    system
     – Upgrading of the LNG station in Revithousa
     – Upgrading of the network
     – Construction of reservoirs
    Operational Program for Development (3)


•   Development of energy infrastructure for RES and small islands
•   Operation of the free energy market
•   Penetration of NG in the households, the tertiary sector, new industrial
    consumers and transport
        Law for the development (2601/98)

•   Subsidies for investments and programs in the field of electricity
    production by RES by electricity production industries and other types
    of enterprises
•   Support to investments of RES exploitation and energy conservation
                                   First National Plan – Emissions evolution
                                     Target (2000)
           “Limit the increase of emission to +15% ± 3% compared to 1990”
                                              Estimated        Realistic potential     Estimation for 2000
                                            Potential (1994)           (1994)                (1999)

                                               [ kt CO2]       [%]         [ kt CO2]        [ kt CO2]
Natural Gas Penetration                           6,012        74%           4,455            3,937
Electricity Production                            4,200                      3,113            3,191
Industry                                           720                        533              590
Domestic – Tertiary Sector                        1,092                       809              154
Transport                                           0                           0                2
IMPROVEMENTS IN POWER PLANTS                       370         100%           370              226
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES                         3,267         70%           2,287            2,622
Wind Energy                                      1,000                        700             775
Small Hydro                                       221                         155             273
Solar Energy                                      976                         683             928
     Conventional Systems                         939                         657             925
        New Technologies                           37                          26               3
Geothermal Energy                                                              42              14
                                                   60
Biomass                                                                       637             632
         District Heating                         910
                                                                               42              81
   Electricity Production                          60
                                                                              525             508
                  Biofuels                        750                          70               0
                   Wastes                         100                           0              43
Research and Development                          100                          70             n.a.
INDUSTRY                                         1,368         67%            912              28 +
Cogeneration                                       80                          53              15 +
Improvements on auxiliary processes               430                         287              13 +
Interventions in energy intensive sectors         808                         539              n.a.
Environmental – Energy Audits                      50                          33                0
DOMESTIC – TERTIARY SECTOR                       1,103         67%            735           ? (440 +)
Lighting                                          470                         313                +
Cogeneration                                       51                          34                +
Central Heating                                   343                         229              n.a.
Street Lighting                                   239                         159                +
TRANSPORT                                        1,263         67%            841                ?
Fuel related measures                              56                          37                -
Vehicle related measures                          300                         200              n.a.
Transportation Management                         470                         313              n.a.
Public Transport                                  437                         291              n.a.
TOTAL                                           13,383                       9,600     6,813 +440= 7,253

				
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posted:7/26/2013
language:English
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