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					Developing Powerful Teaching:
What It Will Really Take to
   Leave No Child Behind
Challenges of 21st Century Teaching

   · GreaterNeed for Education in Society
   and Economy

   ·Higher Standards for Learning

   · More Diverse Students with Greater
   Educational Needs

   ·Greater Expectations of Schools for
   Ensuring Success
How Can We Develop
Powerful Teaching?
What Do Effective and Equitable
   Teachers Know and Do?
Two Theories of Reform Compete
      for Policy Attention

  Bureaucratic Accountability
  -- Control Teaching via Tests & Texts
  -- Standardize Practice
  -- Emphasize “Doing Things Right”
  Professional Accountability
  -- Develop Expert Practice
  -- Support Student Learning
  -- Emphasize “Doing the Right Things”
What Matters Most

The experience of high-performing school
  systems around the world suggests that 3
  things matter most:
1) Getting the right people to become
2) Developing them into effective
  instructors, and
3) Ensuring that the system is able to deliver
  the best possible instruction for every
                 ---Barber & Mourshed
The U.S. invests less in teaching
     than other countries

Preparation is uneven and underfunded
Salaries are unequal and noncompetitive
Well-prepared teachers are unequally
Learning & collaboration time is scarce
Strong systems for recruiting and
preparing teachers and leaders are rare
To Get Effective Teaching,
      We Need to…
 Overhaul teacher & administrator
 Create a steady supply of well-prepared
 teachers & leaders to all schools
 Develop, recognize, and share teacher
 knowledge and skill to create widespread
 Build productive school environments
 Teacher Effectiveness has Many
Student learning gains are related to teachers’:
  Strong academic background
  Quality preparation prior to entry
  Certification in the field taught
  Experience (> 3 years)
  National Board Certification

Together, these factors predict more of the
  difference in student learning than race & parent
  education combined (Clotfelter et al., 2008).
Policies should strengthen & equalize these features.
       Teaching Effectiveness
      Depends on Many Factors
Teacher knowledge, skills, dispositions, and behaviors
that support the learning process.
Hanushek et al. estimate the individual teacher
effects component of measured student achievement
is about 7% of the total.
Student availability for learning – Prior learning
opportunities, health, supportive home context,
attendance, developed abilities
Resources for learning – Curriculum quality, materials,
class sizes, specialist supports, etc.
Coherence and continuity – The extent to which
content & skills are well organized and reinforced
across grades and classes
 Current policies won’t get
        us there…
Unequal funding, salaries, and working
Sink or swim entry
Crash and burn-out induction
Hit and run professional development
Merit pay without competitive, equitable
Firing teachers without building a stable
supply of excellent teachers
Focusing on personnel without changing schools
The Teaching Gap Creates Most of the
          Achievement Gap

  The least experienced and prepared teachers often teach the
  least advantaged students
  High attrition rates for less-prepared and supported teachers
  create a revolving door and wasted resources for PD
  Each teacher replacement costs $15,000 - $20,000
  Students taught by underqualified teachers have significantly
  lower achievement in reading and mathematics.
  These effects are magnified in poorly staffed schools.
  Other reforms cannot work when the teaching force is
  underprepared and unstable.
Effects of Teacher
  Value-Added Gains of Students Whose
   Teachers Graduated from Different
   Teacher Education Programs in NYC

                                          Strong Gains in ELA and Math
         Strong Gains in ELA, not math


       Weak Gains in ELA and Math
                                         Strong Gains in Math, not ELA
 Program Features Influencing
    Teacher Effectiveness
Quality of student teaching
Courses in content and content
Focus on learning and applying
specific tools in the classroom
Study of local district curriculum
Portfolio or capstone project tying
theory to practice
Action Steps: Expand High-
Quality Pathways to Teaching
Evaluate all preparation and induction
programs based on results of
-- teacher performance assessments (TPA)
-- graduates’ contributions to student learning
-- retention rates in teaching
Use results in program approval / accreditation
Study successful programs & create incentives for
other programs to adopt these features
Expand successful programs and eliminate those
that don’t improve
 Action Steps: Improve Induction,
Evaluation, and Professional Learning

Ensure that induction includes coaching
and collaborative planning
Organize mentoring around a serious
teacher performance assessment
Involve mentors, principals, and teacher
educators as assessors
Introduce performance-based licensure
for school leaders based on
understanding teaching
Action Steps: An Extreme Makeover
       for Teacher Evaluation
Combine Evidence of Practice, Performance,
and Outcomes in an Integrated Evaluation
System that looks at:
  Teaching practice in relation to standards,
  curriculum goals, and student needs

  Contributions to colleagues and the school,

  Evidence about student learning / growth at
  the classroom and school level in relation to
  teaching practices, curriculum goals, and
  student needs.
Evaluating for Improvement

 Evaluate and accredit teaching programs
 based on teacher performance, placement
 and retention, and teaching outcomes
 Evaluate teachers based on standards of
 practice and many kinds of evidence about
 student learning with skilled evaluators who
 provide expert feedback
 Evaluate principals and schools based on
 how well they provide the necessary
 supports for good teaching
   The Status of Professional
Development in the United States
§ Effective professional development is better
  understood but still relatively rare in the U.S.
§ Most teachers (>90%) participate in 1 to 2
  day workshops and conferences.
§ Well under half get sustained PD, get
  mentoring or coaching, or observe other
§ Only 17% of U.S. teachers reported a great
  deal of cooperative effort among staff
  members in 2004. This percentage shrank
  to 15% in 2008.
  What Research Tells Us

Well-designed professional
development can improve practice and
increase student achievement.
  A review of high-quality experimental
  studies found that among programs
  offering extended PD (49 hours on
  average over 6 to 12 months), student
  achievement increased by 21 percentile
  points. (Yoon et al., 2007)
One-shot workshops do not have
    Professional Learning
Opportunities in High-Achieving
       Nations Abroad
High-achieving nations in Europe and Asia:
  § Provide beginners with intensive
  § Offer extensive, sustained learning
    opportunities (15-25 hours per week, plus
    100 hours /year) embedded in practice
  § Go well beyond workshops:
    ØTeachers engage regularly in Lesson Study,
     Action Research, and Peer Observation and
     Coaching to evaluate and improve practice.
US Teachers Spend Much More
Time Instructing and Much Less
Time Planning
 Student Assessment Systems
Abroad Also Support Effective
 Assessments measure
 – and encourage - the
 full range of
 knowledge and skills
 represented in
 Teacher scoring
 supports professional
 PD focuses on student
 learning through action
 research and
So What are we Doing about
  While there is strong consensus that
  teaching quality is the key, the U.S. has
  been falling further behind in both
  international achievement and access to
  high-quality teacher learning.
  What’s ahead will depend on new policy
  in Race to the Top, ESEA, and the
  Common Core Standards movement
What We Need In Order to
Achieve Teaching Quality &
Student performance assessments that shape
productive learning and teaching
Teacher & principal performance assessments to
improve preparation, licensure, and accreditation
High-quality preparation for all educators
Teacher and Leadership Development Academies
Sustained, practice-based collegial learning
opportunities for teachers & leaders
Educator careers that reward, develop, and share
We will have succeeded if, as a
result of these efforts…
 Those who can, do.
  Those who understand

 Those who can, teach.
 Those who can’t, go into a less
 significant line of work.

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