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					NATIONAL WATER RESOURCE STRATEGY

 SOUTH AFRICA’S WATER SITUATION AND
  STRATEGIES TO BALANCE SUPPLY AND
              DEMAND

          LOWER ORANGE WMA
WMA 14: Lower Orange - Rainfall and Evaporation
WMA 14: Lower Orange - Base Map
WMA 14: Lower Orange - Land Use
WMA 14: Lower Orange - Sectoral Water Requirements (2000)
                      Contribution




                 0%
                       10 %
                                 20 %
                                                                      30 %




  Agriculture


      Mining


Manufacturing


   Electricity


 Construction
                                                           National




       Trade


    Transport
                                        Lower Orange WMA




     Finance


 Government
                                                                             Sectoral contributions to the economy (1997)




  Community


       Other
WMA 14: Lower Orange - Water Availability (2000)
WMA 14: Lower Orange - Water Reconciliation (2000)
WMA 14: Lower Orange - Population scenarios
WMA 14: Lower Orange - Water Reconciliation (future)
            WMA 14: Lower Orange - Groundwater

• Groundwater utilisation important - constitutes only
  source of water over much of the WMA
• Mainly used for rural domestic supplies, stock watering
  and water supplies to inland towns in the WMA
• Recharge of groundwater limited - only small quantities
  can be abstracted on a sustainable basis
• Orange Tributaries sub-area: about 60% of available
  water supplied from groundwater
• Groundwater constitutes important source of water for
  rural water supplies
• Current utilisation of groundwater approximately in
  balance with sustainable yield
• No significant potential for further development exists
            WMA 14: Lower Orange - Water quality

• In natural state quality of water in Orange River good,
  although of high turbidity during flood flows
• Water from the tributary streams tends to be of high
  salinity
• Both flow regime and water quality has been severely
  impacted upon by extensive upstream developments
• Salinity has increased due to transfers out of high
  quality water in Lesotho and Upper Orange WMA - also
  high salinity irrigation return flows along Orange River
• Much of groundwater in coastal area of poor quality
             WMA 14: Lower Orange - Key issues

• Arid climate of the region and limited potential of water
  resources which naturally occur in the WMA
• Both surface and groundwater fully developed and
  utilised
• Virtual total dependence of Lower Orange WMA on
  water released from Upper Orange WMA and dominant
  influence of water utilisation in upstream WMAs on
  water resource management in Lower Orange WMA
• Concerns about water quality in Orange River as result
  of upstream activities (transfers and urban, industrial,
  mining and irrigation return flows) and possible future
  developments
• Water quality is also impacted upon by irrigation within
  the water management area.
            WMA 14: Lower Orange - Key issues (2)
• Insufficient measurement, monitoring and control of
  irrigation water
• Irrigation water use efficiency subject to improvement
• Inefficient management of releases from Vanderkloof
  Dam and lack of control structures to facilitate it
• Sharing of releases from Vanderkloof Dam with Namibia
• Joint responsibility by South Africa with respect to
  management of the estuary
• Need for poverty relief and availability of water for
  settlement of emerging irrigation farmers
• Implementation of efficient flood management
• Appropriate measures to manage impacts of
  “soomwalle” on downstream users.
                    WMA 14: Lower Orange
        Water resources under control of the Minister

• Transfer of water (yield) from the Upper Orange WMA
• Water for 4 000 ha new irrigation - included in future
  scenarios (about 60 million m3/a)
• Abstraction of water by Namibia as well as all water
  related negotiations and agreements with Namibia
• Flood management in the Orange/Vaal catchment
• Authorisation of any new control infrastructure on the
  Orange River because of potential impacts on Namibia
  and the management of the Orange River mouth - along
  much of the lower Orange River, infrastructure across
  the river will also involve Namibian territory

				
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