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AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON EFFECT OF GGBS AND GLASS FIBRE IN HIGH PERF

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AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON EFFECT OF GGBS AND GLASS  FIBRE IN HIGH PERF Powered By Docstoc
					   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
International Journal of Civil Engineering OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND
                            TECHNOLOGY July-August
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, (IJCIET) (2013), © IAEME


ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online)                                                     IJCIET
Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), pp. 29-35
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI)                  © IAEME
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      AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON EFFECT OF GGBS AND
            GLASS FIBRE IN HIGH PERFOMANCE CONCRETE

                                         Dr. P.Muthupriya
   Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Sri Krishna College of Technology,
                                 Coimbatore -641042, India.



ABSTRACT

        The present paper focuses on investigating characteristics of M75 concrete with partial
replacement of cement with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS) and glass fibre. High
Performance Concrete (HPC) is a concrete meeting special combinations of performance and
uniformity requirements that cannot be always achieved routinely by using conventional constituents
and normal mixing. This leads to examine the admixtures to improve the performance of the
concrete. Considering cost of construction also drawn the attention of investigators to explore new
replacements of ingredients of concrete. Ten mixes were studied with GGBS & Glass Fibre using a
water binder ratio of 0.26 and super plasticizer CONPLAST SP-430. The cubes and cylinders were
tested for both compressive and tensile strengths GGBS can enhance the durability aspects of HPC
compared to control mix. Among the mixes the mix with replacement level as 7.5% GGBS and 0.3%
glass fibre is better with respect to strength and durability. Concrete is a mixture of cement, fine
aggregate, coarse aggregate and water. It is found that by the partial replacement of cement with
GGBS and glass fibre helped in improving the strength of the concrete substantially compared to
normal mix concrete.

Keywords: High Performance Concrete (HPC), Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag(GGBS),
Glass Fibre.

1. INTRODUCTION

       Concrete has been the major instrument for providing stable and reliable infrastructure since
the days of the Greek and roman civilization. Concrete is a mixture of cement, water, and aggregates,
with or without admixtures. Only for special applications the concrete grade can be increased to 60
Mpa and above. These special applications of high performance concrete (HPC) cannot be achieved
by Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). It is achieved not only by reducing water cement ratio but also
by replacement of cement with some mineral admixture like Silica fume, Ground Granulated Blast
Furnace Slag (GGBS), Metakaolin and Fly ash etc with chemical admixtures.

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME

        In HPC, materials and admixtures are carefully selected and proportioned to form high early
strengths, high ultimate strengths and high durability beyond conventional concrete. The admixtures
like fly ash, silica fume, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), are added both for strength
and durability and enhance its marketability as an environmentally friendly product. The proportions
in which fundamental components are mixed, and the admixtures that are used, constitute the main
difference between conventional concrete and HPC. A high-range water-reducing admixture may
provide a required low water/cement ratio, as low as 0.30.
        Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS) is a non-metallic product, consisting of
silicates and alumino silicates of calcium and other bases, developed in a molten condition
simultaneously with iron in a blast furnace. From structural point of view, GGBS replacement
enhances lower heat of hydration, higher durability and higher resistance to sulphate and chloride
attack when compared with normal ordinary concrete. On the other hand, it also contributes to
environmental protection because it minimizes the use of cement during the production of concrete.
Adding GGBS to concrete will result in a small increase in elastic modulus for a given compressive
strength, although the differences are not large enough to be of significance in design. This paper
presents the study of compressive strength and split tensile strength of M30 conventional concrete by
replacing the 0%, 5%,7.5% and 10% replacement of GGBS and 0.1% ,0.2% and 0.3% glass fibre
replacement. Tests were conducted on concrete cubes and cylinders to study compressive and split
tensile strengths. The results are compared with the normal mix.

2. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

2.1 Materials used
      Ordinary Portland cement, 43 Grade conforming to IS:8112-1989[4].The specific gravity of
cement was 3.15.

Fine aggregate
        Locally available river sand conforming to Grading zone II of IS: 383 1970[5].Its specific
gravity was 2.6.
Coarse aggregate
        Locally available crushed blue granite stones conforming to graded aggregate of nominal size
12.5 mm as per IS: 383 – 1970
Ground Granulated Blast Slag(GGBS)
        Ground granulated blast furnace slag obtained from Agni Steel, Salem . Ground granulated
blast-furnace slag is the granular material formed when molten iron blast furnace slag is rapidly
chilled (quenched) by immersion in water. It is a granular product with very limited crystal
formation, is highly cementitious in nature and, ground to cement fineness, and hydrates like port
land cement.Properties of ggbs is as shown below

                      Calcium Oxide(CaO)                            40-52
                      Silicon Dioxide(SiO2)                         10-19
                                                                  10-40
                         Iron Oxide(FeO)
                                                        (70-80% FeO2,20-30%Fe2O3)
                    Manganese Oxide(MnO)                             5-8
                    Magnesium Oxide(MgO)                            5-10
                    Aluminium Oxide(Al2O3)                           1-3
                  Phosphorous Pent Oxide(P2O5)                      0.5-1
                           Sulphur(S)                               <0.1
                          Metallic Fe                              0.5-10

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME

Super Plasticizer
       A commercially available sulphonated naphthalene formaldehyde based super plasticizer
(CONPLAST SP 430) was used as chemical admixture to enhance the workability of the concrete.
Glass fiber (GF)
       CEM FILL Anti crack glass fibres of aspect ratio 875:1 is used.

2.2Mix Proportion and Mix details
       In this investigations ACI Mix Design is adopted for Proportioning of Concrete Mix M75. By
Weight Basis (ACI 211.4R-93)This code presents a generally applicable method for selecting
mixture proportion for high strength concrete and optimizing this mixture proportion on basis of trial
batches.

              Adopted Mix Proportion         1: 1.03: 1.973: 0.26

2.3Test Specimens and Test procedure
        The concrete cubes of 150mm size, cylinders of size 150mm diameter and 300mm length
were used as test specimens to determine the compressive strength of concrete and split tensile
strength of concrete for the both cases i.e. normal concrete and modified concrete. The ingredients of
concrete were thoroughly mixed till uniform consistency was achieved. The cubes and cylinders
were properly compacted.All the mixes were prepared by mixing the concrete in laboratory mixer
along with water and super plasticizer

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Compressive Strength Test Results
       The compressive strength of concrete was determined at the age of 28 days. The specimens
were cast and tested as per IS: 516-1959.

                              Table 1. Compressive Strength Results

                        Mix       % of GGBS        % of GF      28 Days MPa

                         M1             5              0.1          73.19
                         M2            7.5             0.1          73.25
                         M3            10              0.1          73.89
                         M4             5              0.2          74.1
                         M5            7.5             0.2          74.6
                         M6            10              0.2          74.86
                         M7             5              0.3          76.8
                         M8            7.5             0.3          76.96
                         M9            10              0.3          76.82
                         M0             -               -           76.28




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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME


                                  78                                                            28 days compressive strength
   compressive strength (N/mm²)

                                  77
                                                                                     77.2
                                  76
                                                                0.1% of glass          77
                                  75                            fibre                76.8
                                  74
                                                                0.2% of glass        76.6
                                  73                                                                                    28 days
                                                                fibre                76.4
                                  72                                                                                    compressive
                                                                0.3% of glass        76.2                               strength
                                  71
                                                                fibre                  76
                                       5     7.5      10
                                                                                     75.8
                                           GGBS (%)                                                M0           M8


Fig 1 .Compressive Strength of various mixes                                         Fig 2 .Comparison of compressive Strength
                                                                                       of control mix and optimum mix Split
                                                                                            Tensile Strength Test Results


        The splitting tensile strength of concrete cylinder was determined based on 516-1959. The
load shall be applied nominal rate within the range 1.2 N/ (mm2/min) to
2.4 N/ (mm2/min). Load is applied until the specimen fails, along the vertical diameter.


                                                           Table 2. Split Tensile Strength Results

                                                      Mix             % of           % of GF            28 Days
                                                                     GGBS                                MPa
                                                       M1               5               0.1              6.16
                                                       M2              7.5              0.1              6.23
                                                       M3              10               0.1              6.26
                                                       M4               5               0.2               6.3
                                                       M5              7.5              0.2              6.34
                                                       M6              10               0.2              6.36
                                                       M7               5               0.3               6.4
                                                      M8               7.5              0.3              6.52
                                                       M9              10               0.3              6.46
                                                       M0               -                   -             6.5




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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME


                                   6.7                                                          28 days split tensile strength
   Split Tensile Strength(N/mm²)

                                   6.6
                                                                                      6.625
                                   6.5
                                   6.4                           0.1% of glass           6.62
                                   6.3                           fibre                6.615
                                   6.2                           0.2% of glass           6.61
                                   6.1                           fibre                6.605                             28 days split
                                     6                                                                                  tensile strength
                                                                 0.3% of glass            6.6
                                   5.9                           fibre                6.595
                                         5     7.5      10
                                                                                         6.59
                                             GGBS (%)                                             M0          M8


 Fig 3 .Split Tensile Strength of various mixes                                       Fig 4 .Comparison of Split Tensile Strength
                                                                                           of control mix and optimum mix


Flexural Strength Test Results
      The flexural strength of concrete prism was determined based on IS: 516 –1959. Place the
specimen in the machine in such a manner that the load is applied to the upper most surface as cast in
the mould along two lines spaced 13.3cm a part


                                                             Table 3. Flexural Strength Results

                                                     Mix       % of              % of GF         28 Days MPa
                                                               GGBS
                                                     M1           5                0.1                 6.19
                                                     M2          7.5               0.1                 6.25
                                                     M3          10                0.1                 6.3

                                                     M4           5                0.2                 6.32
                                                     M5          7.5               0.2                 6.41
                                                     M6          10                0.2                 6.44
                                                     M7           5                0.3                 6.46
                                                     M8          7.5               0.3                 6.62
                                                     M9          10                0.3                 6.59
                                                     M0           -                 -                  6.60




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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME



                                 6.6                                                    28 days flexural strength
     Flexural Strength (N/mm²)


                                 6.5
                                                                                6.525
                                 6.4
                                                           0.1% of glass         6.52
                                 6.3
                                                           fibre                6.515
                                 6.2
                                                           0.2% of glass         6.51
                                 6.1                       fibre                6.505                        28 days flexural
                                  6                                                                          strength
                                                           0.3% of glass          6.5
                                 5.9                       fibre
                                                                                6.495
                                       5     7.5      10
                                                                                 6.49
                                           GGBS (%)                                      M0       M8


   Fig 5 .Flexural Strength of various mixes                                     Fig 6 .Comparison of Flexural Strength
                                                                                    of control mix and optimum mix

        The optimum percentage levels of 7.5% GGBS and 0.3% Glass fibre replacement to the
weight of the cement is taken with the HPC M75 mix ratio of 1:1.03:1.973:0.26 which gave the
better results. In order to increase the workability, Superplasticizer is used. The Compressive
strength of 76.96 N/mm2 is achieved in the HPC mix due to the presence of GGBS which exhibits
more filler effect. Figure no. 1, 3, and 5 represents the compressive strength, split tensile strength and
flexural strength of various mixes with different replacement level of GGBS and glass fibre at the
age of 28 days. The compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete is increase as the
percentage of ggbs increases with 0.3% of glass fibre when compared to control mix. Presence of
GGBS results in denser micro structure of the concrete matrix which enhances the durability
properties. GGBS has a higher proportion of the strength-enhancing calcium silicate hydrates (CSH)
than concrete made with Portland cement only. As there was an appreciable increase in the
workability of concrete with increasing percent replacement of cement with GGBS, therefore wlc
ratio can be reduced keeping the slump constant, which will result in an increase in compressive
strength. The Split tensile strength of 6.52 N/mm2 and Flexural strength of 6.62 N/mm2 is achieved
by the usage of Superplasticizer and properties of Glass fibre in the HPC mix.

5. CONCLUSION

         Based on the present and experimental investigation studies the following conclusions can be
drawn
1. It is observed that the GGBS based HPC can have higher strengths
2. From the above experimental results it is proved that, GGBS can be used as alternative material
for the cement. Based on the results the compressive and split tensile strengths are increased as the
percentage of ggbs increased.
3. Higher strength development is due to filler effect of GGBS and properties of glass fibers
4. GGBS can be used as one of the alternative material for the cement.
5. From the experimental results 7. 5% of cement can be replaced with GGBS.
6. The addition of super plasticizer also tends to reduce strength of concrete remarkably due to the
chemical action between the super plasticizer and GGBS.



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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME

6. REFERENCES

 [1] ACI 211.4R-93 ‘Guide for selecting proportions for High – Strength concrete with Portland
      cement and Flyash.’
 [2] Bakir, P.G. (2003). “Seismic Resistance and Mechanical Behaviour of Exterior Beam-Column
      Joints with Crossed Inclined Bars”, Structural Engineering & Mechanics, Vol.16, No. 4, pp.
      493–517.
 [3] BIS 1959 IS 516-1959 (reaffirmed 1997), “Methods of Tests for Strength of Concrete, Bureau
      of Indian Standards”, New Delhi .
 [4] BIS 1970 IS 383-1970 (reaffirmed 1997), “Specification for Coarse and Fine Aggregates from
      Natural Source for Concrete”, New Delhi.
 [5] BIS 1989 IS 8112-1989 (reaffirmed 1999), “Specification for 43 grade Ordinary Portland
      Cement”, New Delhi.
 [6] Gambhir.M.L, (2005) ‘Concrete Technology’ Tata McGraw Hill Pub.Co.Ltd.New Delhi.
 [7] MurugesannA.and Dr.G.S.Thirugnanam[2009] “Ductile Behavior of Steel Fibre Reinforced
      Concrete beam-column joints subjected to Cyclic loading”, National Conference on Advances
      and Innovations in civil Engineering.
 [8] Misra. V. N., 1984, Indian Concrete Journal, August, vol. 58(8), pp 219 – 223.
 [9] SP 34: 1987, Indian Standard Handbook on Concrete Reinforcement and Detailing, (Bureau of
      Indian Standards), New Delhi, India.
 [10] Vejmalkova et al.,,"High Performance Concrete Containing Lower Slag Content: A Complex
      View Of Mechanical and Durability Properties", Materials and Design, Vol .23,(2009),pp.
      2237-2245.
 [11] Vinod P, Lalumangal and Jeenu G, “Durability Studies on High Strength High Performance
      Concrete”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4,
      Issue 1, 2013, pp. 16 - 25, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.
 [12] P.J.Patel, Mukesh A. Patel and Dr. H.S. Patel, “Effect of Coarse Aggregate Characteristics on
      Strength Properties of High Performance Concrete using Mineral and Chemical Admixtures”,
      International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013,
      pp. 89 - 95, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.
 [13] M.Vijaya Sekhar Reddy, Dr.I.V. Ramana Reddy and N.Krishna Murthy, “Experimental
      Evaluation of the Durability Properties of High Performance Concrete using Admixtures”,
      International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET),
      Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 96 - 104, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499.




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