IJETTCS-2013-06-30-161 by editorijettcs


									    International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 2, Issue 3, May – June 2013                                             ISSN 2278-6856

        Performance Evaluation of proposed RBR
          algorithm with AODV algorithm for the
       determination of optimized energy techniques
                                      Lalit Kumar Saraswat1, Dr. Sachin Kumar2
                                             Research Scholar, Department of CSE,
                                          Bhagwant University, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India
                                                 Professor, Department of IT,
                                         AKG Engineering College, Ghaziabad,UP, India

                                                                  reserved, instead of routing the data to a path that
Abstract: The most important issue that needs to be solved        minimize consumed power.
for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is to save sensor node
energy as the sensor nodes are battery limited. In order to       2. RELATED WORK
maximize the lifetime of these nodes, most of the routing
algorithms in wireless sensor networks uses the energy               Efficient utilization of energy is very important for the
efficient route. But a single best route causes additional load   WSNs. The sensors are extremely energy bounded, hence
to a specific sensor node which reduces the lifetime of           the network formed by these sensors are also energy
wireless sensor network. This paper proposes an energy            constrained. The communication devices on these sensors
efficient routing algorithm and compares the proposed             are small and have limited power and sensing ranges. A
protocol with AODV protocol. The Simulation results
                                                                  routing protocol coordinates the activities of individual
demonstrate that proposed Resource Biased Routing (RBR)
algorithm significantly minimizes energy consumption of           nodes in the network in order to achieve global goals and
each node and balanced the energy for entire network as well      in an efficient manner. Hence lifetime of network depends
as extend the network lifetime.                                   on appropriate routing protocol.
Keywords: AODV, RBR, Wireless Sensor Networks,
Castalia Simulator                                                   There are four main types of routing protocols in
                                                                  wireless sensor network. They can be classified as data-
1. INTRODUCTION                                                   centric, hierarchical, location-based [1] and multipath: In
A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of light-                data-centric routing, the base station sends queries to
weight, low power, small size of sensor nodes. Sensor             certain areas and waits for data from the sensors located
nodes are constrained in energy and bandwidth. Routing            in the selected areas. The main data centric algorithms
of sensor data has been one of the challenging areas in           are SPIN [2] in which meta-data negotiation solves the
wireless sensor networks. Present research on routing in          problems of flooding, overlapping of sensing areas and
wireless sensor networks mainly focused on protocols that         resource blindness, Directed Diffusion [3][4] in which
are energy aware in order to maximize the lifetime of the         each node disseminate the date interest in receive. In
network, scalable for large number of sensor nodes and            Gradient-Based Routing, a packet is forwarded on a link
tolerant to battery exhaustion. There are various possible        with the largest gradient [5] and CADR is a protocol [6],
routes between any two nodes over which the data can              which is a general form of Directed Diffusion. In
flow. Any node in WSN can easily transmit their data              Hierarchical algorithms clusters are formed in order to
packet to a sink node, if it has enough battery power. If
                                                                  segregate the areas of monitoring environment as
any node is far from its neighbor node then large amount
                                                                  LEACH, PEGASIS. The main purpose of hierarchical
of energy is required to transmit the data to sink node.
                                                                  routing is to efficiently maintain the energy consumption
After every transmission, remaining energy of this node
decreases and after some transmission, this node will be          of sensor nodes by involving them in multi-hop
eliminated from the network because of empty battery and          communication within a specific cluster and by
overall lifetime of the network will decreases. Network           performing data aggregation and fusion in order to reduce
lifetime is defined as the time until the first node in the       the number of transmitted messages to the sink. Cluster
network dies. In order to maximize the network lifetime,          formation is based on the energy reserve of sensors and
data should be routed such that energy consumption is             sensor’s proximity to the cluster head [7] [8]. Location-
fair among the nodes in proportion to their energy                Based algorithm GAF [9]) is based on the use of routing
                                                                  protocols for sensor networks require location information

Volume 2, Issue 3 May – June 2013                                                                                  Page 395
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 2, Issue 3, May – June 2013                                             ISSN 2278-6856

for sensor nodes. Location information is needed in order        data. A minimum Energy threshold level (Eth) will be required
to calculate the distance between two particular nodes so        to be maintained at each sensor nodes, and if due to any reason
that energy consumption can be determined. Location              the energy threshold value will drop below Eth, the node will
information can be used in routing data in an energy             die.
efficient manner. Multipath algorithms are based on              In the route formation phase, the source node sends the
classic on-demand single path routing methods [10] [11],         data to the base station by the formation of route using the
such as AODV and DSR. They differ from each other on             proposed RBR routing algorithm. The energy consumed by
how to forward multiple route requests and how to select         a specific sensor node depends upon the amount of data
                                                                 transfer by that node. If there is a high volume of data, the
multiple routes.
                                                                 energy depleted on that node is high and if the amount of
                                                                 data transfer through that node is low then there is low
3. ASSUMPTIONS                                                   degradation of energy through that node. Initially the
The proposed system model has the following                      source node determines the size of data that is to be
assumptions.                                                     transfer to the base station. The size of data will depends
1. Each node performs sensing task periodically and              upon the number of data packets transferred. After that it
   always has some data to send to the base station.             calculates the amount of energy required by each
2. All nodes are stationary and energy constrained.              intermediate node depending upon the data size. The
3. Geographic Location of each node is known.                    amount of energy required will vary during each iteration
4. There is no energy hole in the network.                       as the total number of data packet will vary.
5. Base station is externally powered and has high storage       The current remaining energy level of a sensor node after
   and computation capability                                    relaying one packet of m bits can be calculated by
6. All the nodes use multi-hop routing method to forward         deducting the initial or previous energy value from the
   the data to the closest relay node.                           value of the energy dissipated by the sensor node. Source`
7. Relay nodes carry the sensory data to the base station.       ID is the node ID of the sensor node who wants to transfer
8. There is only one transmission range fixed for all the        data. Base Station ID is the node ID of the sensor node where
   nodes.                                                        the data will be received. Erq (m) is the amount of energy
                                                                 required by each intermediate node for transferring data
4. PROPOSED ROUTING ALGORITHM                                    of size m. Eth is the minimum energy threshold level
                                                                 required by each intermediate node to live. Present Node
The proposed system consists of a network model                  ID is the ID of the current Node and the Next Node ID is
consisting of source node S, a number of intermediate            the ID of the next hop. As soon as the next hop is selected,
nodes and a destination base station D .All the                  its ID will be written in the Next Node ID field of the route
intermediate nodes have limited energy. Each sensor node         formation packet .The source will write its ID in the source
consists of a set of 3 parameters representing (Available        ID field and in the present Node ID field, just as information
Energy Indicator, Hop Count Indicator, and Node Usage            for the node that detected the event, after which the source ID
Indicator). The Node Usages indicator (NUI) specifies            field will be fixed, but the present Node ID field will change
how many times a specific sensor node has been used              according to the present node. The Hop Count of the next
during the routing purpose. Available Energy indicator           node will be written in the Hop Count Indicator Field.
(AEI) specifies the remaining available energy at the
node. Hop Count Indicator (HCI) specifies the distance of        Steps to create energy efficient optimal path
a specific sensor node from the base station in terms of
Hops. The base station is initialized with the hop value         1. First of all, find all the neighbor nodes having AEI >= (Erq
“0” while all other sensor nodes are initialized with                 (m) + Eth ) using SNI table of the sensor nodes. If
infinite hop value. The base station is also has unlimited            there is no node having AEI> (Erq (m) + Eth ), then
energy available as it is externally powered. All the other           drop the data packet as the transfer of packet is not
nodes have an initial energy level Einitial(in Joule). All the        possible, else add all such sensor nodes having AEI>=
sensor nodes in the proposed network are assigned with a              (Erq (m) + Eth ) to the present Neighbor list and go to
unique ID and all the nodes are participating in the                  step 2.
network and forward the given data.                              2. Now from all the neighbor nodes, find the node having
The proposed Routing algorithm is used for selecting the              highest value of AEI and consider it as next hop node.
neighbor nodes to which the data is to be forwarded.                  However if there are more than one nodes having the
According to the proposed algorithm, ideally a sensor node is         same highest value of AEI, then go to step 3.
selected as next hop in which the available energy level         3. Find the node having lowest value of HCI and consider
indicator is high, having low value of hop count indicator as         it as next hop node. If there are more than one node
well as having the low value of node usage indicator. Each            having same highest value of AEI and same lowest
node maintains a Sensor Node Information (SNI) table for the          value of HCI, then go to step 4.
routing function to perform. The SNI table consists of entries    4. Find the node in which the value of NUI is lowest and
of all the neighbor nodes through which the node can transfer         use it as next hop node.

Volume 2, Issue 3 May – June 2013                                                                                  Page 396
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 2, Issue 3, May – June 2013                                             ISSN 2278-6856

 5. If there are more than one node having same highest          6. SIMULATION RESULTS
     value of AEI and same lowest value of HCI and same
                                                                 In this section, the performance of proposed algorithm is
     lowest value of NUI, then go to step 6.
                                                                 analyzed and compared with AODV routing protocol.
 6. Consider any neighbor node as next hop node
                                                                 6.1 Remaining Node Energy
 7. Repeat from step 1 to step 6 till all the data packets
     either reaches to the base station or data packet finally
                                                            The remaining node energy of all sensors (10 nodes) at
     being dropped due to not satisfying the condition given
                                                            the end of simulation has been plotted in figure 1. The
     in step 1 by all the neighbor nodes.
                                                            graph shows that proposed algorithm has distributed
Each node will re-calculate the value of AEI after the data
                                                            overall energy over the entire network in a more balanced
transfer. Similarly the value of NUI will be increased by
                                                            way. From the results, the remaining battery capacity of
one each time a specific node will be used for data transfer.
                                                            nodes in AODV decreases very early. This is because the
The same algorithm will be used for all the source nodes
                                                            sensor nodes near the sink nodes consume a large amount
interested to send data to the base station. The uniform
                                                            of battery power to forward data packets from a sensor
energy level degradation among all sensor nodes causes an
                                                            node which is located far from the sink node. Therefore,
enhancement in the lifetime of the sensor nodes.
                                                            the sensor nodes far from the sink nodes cannot find the
                                                            route to the sink node. If the route is not found, each
5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION                                   sensor node tries to find it again. As results, many sensor
We have evaluated the performance of the proposed nodes consume a large amount of battery power to find
algorithm using simulation and compared its performance the route to the base station nodes.
with AODV protocol [12]. The AODV protocol is one of
the reactive routing protocols that can construct the route
when data transmission is required. In this protocol, a
source node broadcasts the route request (RREQ) packet to
the entire network, and all the nodes rebroadcast the
received RREQ packet immediately. Therefore, we use the
AODV protocol as the basic protocol             Simulation
experiments were used to analyze the performance of RBR
algorithm using the Castalia Simulator [13], which is a
widely used network simulator for WSNs based on
OMNET++ [14].The various Simulation Parameters are as

Parameter                    Value

Simulation Area              100 m * 100 m                         Figure 1: Comparison of RBR algorithm with AODV
                                                                 protocol for 10 Nodes
Total Sensor Nodes           10 to 50

                                                                            Node   Node   Node   Node   Node   Node   Node    Node   Node   Node
Simulation Time              100 sec                             Protocol
                                                                             1      2      3      4      5      6      7       8      9     10
                                                                  RBR        67     56     85     48     62     67     51      44     74    60

Remote Site                  Base Station                        AODV        46     74     73     35     28     51     30      58     36    39

Transmission Range           10 m
                                                                   Table 1: Remaining Energy of different nodes for RBR
Packet Size                  2KB                                 algorithm and AODV protocol

Average Packet Rate          0.5 Packets/sec                     6.2 Energy Consumption

Node initial Energy          100 Joule                           The graph for energy consumption vs. number of nodes of
                                                                 two routing algorithms is shown in Figure 2. The total
                                                                 energy consumption of two routing algorithms increases
Energy Threshold Level       0.5 Joule
                                                                 as number of nodes or increases. However, proposed
                                                                 algorithm performs better than AODV protocol.
                                                                 Energy consumption of the network is the sum of energy
                                                                 consumption of all the nodes in the network..

Volume 2, Issue 3 May – June 2013                                                                                            Page 397
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 2, Issue 3, May – June 2013                                             ISSN 2278-6856

Energy consumption (Joules) = Σ (Initial energy –             Figure 3 : Packet delivery ratio in RBR algorithm and
Residual Energy)                                              AODV for different number of nodes

                                                                           10      20       30        40        50
                                                                 RBR      0.991   0.983    0.954    0.911     0.883
                                                                AODV      0.972   0.965    0.927    0.896     0.855

                                                              Table 3: Packet delivery ratio in RBR algorithm and

                                                              7. CONCLUSIONS
                                                    The proposed RBR algorithm balance the energy
                                                    consumption rates among the nodes in proportion to their
                                                    energy reserved. The performance of proposed RBR
Figure 2: Energy consumption comparison for RBR and algorithm is compared with AODV algorithm. The
AODV for different number of nodes                  performance of these protocols is compared on the basis of
                                                    packet delivery ratio, energy consumption and remaining
  Node                                              node energy.
             10       20     30      40        50
  Count                                             We have determined the performance of RBR algorithm for
   RBR      0.025    0.031  0.041   0.049     0.056 different number of nodes and concluded that a routing
  AODV      0.032    0.036  0.048   0.057     0.067 protocol with more routing overhead would consume more
                                                    energy than the routing protocol with less routing overhead
                                                    means AODV routing algorithm has higher energy
                                                    consumption than proposed RBR algorithm because of
Table 2: Energy Consumption for RBR and AODV for
                                                    higher routing overhead. Finally we can say that packet
                                                    delivery ratio in proposed routing algorithm is more than
different number of nodes
                                                    that using AODV routing, and energy consumption of
                                                    nodes is also balanced in the proposed RBR algorithm.
6.3 Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR)

Packet Delivery Ratio is the proportion to the total amount   REFERENCES
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Volume 2, Issue 3 May – June 2013                                                                           Page 398
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 2, Issue 3, May – June 2013                                             ISSN 2278-6856

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Volume 2, Issue 3 May – June 2013                                                   Page 399

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