some historical places of Pakistan by saraviqar


									Historical places in Pakistan
The Tomb Of Mirza Isa Tarkhan (Thatta c.1838)

Thatta, which was once the capital os sindh and a centre of Islamic arts, is about four miles from the river Indus. It is believed that this was the place where the Alexander the Great rested his legions after their long march. Once splendid, rich and populous, it was known as El Dorado of east. Today, mere vestiges of its former glory remain. Thatta has a very rich heritage of Muslim architecture from the 16th and 17th century. One of the most beautiful examples of architecture in Thatta is the tomb of Isa khan Tarkhan. Isa khan, a Yurk and the governor of Thatta from 1627-1644, had his tomb constructed during his life time. It was ready for him when he died in 1644 at an age of ninety two years. After the partial completion of that Tomb Isa khan cut off the hands of most talented craftsmen, so that beauty and magnificence of his tomb could not be replicated. The tomb is an exquisite specimen of architecture, stone carving, surface traceries and colored fillings. In some of the pavilions, spandrels carved in attractive design have been inserted. These give appearance of an arched opening. Upon its dome, which is ornamented with enameled tiles of beautiful green, purple and blue are inscribed numerous passages from the Quran and epitaphs in Persian are scattered over various parts. Constructed from sandstone brought from Kathiawar, the mausoleum and the surrounding courtyard cover about 4,900 square feet.

Tomb Of Haji Mangho Pir (Karachi c. 1850) Located over 7 miles to north of Karachi, the sacred tomb of Pir Haji Mango (a saint whose original name was Kamaldin) with its resident population of crocodiles and the adjacent sulphur springs offer opportunities to the pilgrims for cleansing both the spirit and the flesh. No evidence has been found as how crocodiles of a species not normally found in or around the Indus River were marooned in such a hilly oasis. Their very presence an enigma seen by some as miracle has attracted visitors and pilgrims from Karachi and all over the country to the shrine for over 150 years. Pir Haji Mangho who is a saint, esteemed by both Hindus and Muslims. The tomb of Haji Mangho Pir is a neat white building of a square from surrounded by a broad terrace with cupola and slender minarets at the corners. Erected on the summit of a rocky crag of lime stone it is said to be about 2,000 years old. The interior of the Mosque contains a tomb surmounted by a canopy of carved woodwork supported on slender pillars. This is kept in excellent order as are the building and terrace which are also built of stones.

Multan Fort (Multan c. 1849) The Multan fort was built on a detached , rather high mound of earth separated from the city by the bed of an old branch of the river Ravi. There is no Fort now as it was destroyed in British Garrison which was stationed there for a long time but the entire site is known as Fort. Nobody knows when Multan Fort came into being but it was there and it was being admired and desired by the kings and emperors throughout the centuries. It was considered to one of the supreme forts of subcontinent from the defense as well as architectural point of view. When it was intact its circuit was 6,800 feet that is about one and a half mile. It had 46 bastions including two flanking towers at each of the four gates named as the De, the Sikki, the Hareri, and the Khizri gate. The fort was ravaged by British to

avenge the murder of Mr. Agnew in 1948. Major Scott of Bombay Engineers was given the responsibility of making the fort defensible again by clearing out the exploded ditches. Packing and

stockading the breaches, and mounting guns. At present it is survived by some parts of the old ramparts and bastions besides the shrines of Hazrat Bahauddin Zakaria and Shah Rukn-e-Alam an obelisk in memory of Agnew and a Hindu temple. The famous Qasim Bagh and a stadium are located within the walls of the fort. The highest point of Fort gives a panoramic view of the Multan city.

The Tomb Of Shah Rukn-e-Alam The tomb of the famous Saint of Multan, Sheikh Ruln Al-Din Rukn-e-Alam, is described as one of the most impressive memorials ever erected. It was constructed, according to a popular belief, by Ghiyas-al-Din Tuglaq (1340-1350) for himself and later donated by his successor Firoze Shah Tuglaq for the re-internment of Sha Rukn-e-Alam. The tomb was built on an octagon plan, 90 ft in diameter with walls which are 414 ft high and 13.3 ft thick. Built of fine burn bricks and supported by timber framing, the tomb stands on a high artificial mound and is visible from about 45 kilometers. It has three storeys and is most famous for its vivid blue glazed tile work and craftsmanship. Most of its

patterns are geometric, and a living testimony to creative genius of their designers. The building is

also decorated with some floral and calligraphic patterns. Conservation of this tomb commenced in late 1971 by the Auqaf Department of Punjab Government and was completed in six years. The foundations and the lower sections of the walls were rebuilt; destroyed tiles were replaced, damaged woodwork repaired and the site landscaped. This project required the establishment of a training programme for the Pakistani craftsmen in traditional craft of glazed tile work, woodcarving and terra cotta. Indigenous craftsmen who had inherited the knowledge of these crafts trained a total of 33 novices, now active in other conservation efforts as well as in new construction. This restoration effort was the recipient of the Agha Khan Award for Architecture, 1983.

The Kabul Gate (Peshawar c.1891) Peshawar known as the land of 'Phatans' is the liveliest city of Pakistan. Peshawar derives its name from Sanskrit word 'Pushpapura' meaning the city of flowers. It is the heart of north western province (frontier province) and lies at the edge of the historic Khyber Pass. The city is well known for its historic and cultural values. Peshawar has seen many invaders and travelers passing it by, from and around the world. Being an important border city the bazaars of Peshawar are most attractive. Peshawar city has sixteen gates the most significant of which is the Kabul gate which leads into the 'Qissa Khawani (story teller)' bazaar. The pre-partition Peshawar was enclosed within a city wall with sixteen gates, of which the 'Kabul Gate' was the most famous. Later on as the population of the city grew, it expanded beyond the boundary walls. In mid fifties the 'Kabul Gate' was re-erected as a memorial to dir Herbert Edwards. It leads out to the Khyber pass and on to the Kabul.

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