Properties of p-Block Elements
Group 3A: The Boron Group and Group
4A: The Carbon Group
By: Soseh Babayan
• The elements are always
Group 3A: The Boron
Group linked together with other
elements as well. That are
most likely found as oxides
in Earth’s crust.
• Contains: Metalloid(boron),
(Aluminum), and three rare
metals called: (Gallium,
Indium, and thallium.)
• A lot in in common as Borosilicate
Silicon(Group 4A) cooking pot
• Together, they combine
to form borosilicate.
(Used for cooking.)
• Source of Boron: Borax.
• Borax is usually used as a
• But Boric acid, is used as
a source of disinfectant
and as an eye wash.
• A plentiful Metal, and third
abundant metal in Earth’s
Recycling Crust. (Oxygen & Silicon.)
Removing Aluminum from
Aluminum 5% •
the ore, Bauxite, takes up
cans great energy to do so.
• Used as an abrasive, to
help strengthen ceramics,
and some fabrics.
• Gems: Ruby & Sapphires.
• Chromium: (Red color)
• Iron & Titanium: (Bright
Melts in hand !
• Easily melt in hand.
• Used in some thermometers: 30
deg C to 240 deg C.
• Gallium Arsenic produces:
electric current when it absorbs
• Scientists use it to make lasers Scientists use Blue
that emit blue light, instead of Gallium lasers
the usual red one.
• Because of it’s shorter wave
length: More storage room in
DVDs, increase speed on laser
printers as well.
• Fun fact: Devices that detect
cancer cells, could be cheaper by
using Blue-light lasers.
Group 4A: The Carbon Group
• Increases as the atomic
• Silicon and
• Tin & Lead=Metals.
Carbon is one of the most important
elements on this Earth.
• Substances that control what • A mineral is an element or inorganic
happens in cells contain carbon. compound that is found in nature as
• Carbon can form many different • Found mixed with other materials in
• Inorganic Compounds: Carbonates, • An ore is a material from which a
Cyanides, Carbides, sulfides, and mineral can be removed at a
oxides . reasonable cost.
• Geologists call these, Minerals. • Graphite is a really soft material.
• Diamond is one of the hardest.
• They are both solids made of carbon,
which makes them Allotropes.
• Allotropes are forms of an element in
the same physical state-soild, liquid,
or gas-that have different structures
• Every carbon atom in
graphite shares electrons
with three other carbon
atoms to form flat layers
that can slide over one
• A pencil is a good example
of layers of carbon atoms
when the atoms slide onto
• Diamond=each carbon
atom shares electrons with
four other carbon atoms to
form a 3D solid.
• Second most abundant element
in Earth’s crust.(The first being
• Used in computer chips and solar
• Silicon is usually combined with
oxygen in the compound silicon
• Silica can be found in the quartz
crystals, sand and glass.
• Rocks that contain quarts crystals,
tend to become white sand on
• If white sand melts, it becomes
• Silicon carbide is a industrial
abrasive. (Name commonly used:
Carborundum.) Used to sharpen
Lead & Tin
Lead =TOXIC! Used for some eating
utensils, pipes for pluming, additive
in gasoline, and off course in paint.
• Tin is a soft metal. It is used as a
coating to keep steel cans from
rusting throughout time.
• Bronze is a blend of both tin and
copper with copper predominating.
• Zinc is used to make this blend
• Lead has a low melting point. (Pure
• Fun Fact: ( A landlord can’t rent a
family with young children a house
until the lead paint is completely
removed for safety reasons.
Group: 3A Page: 86
• Can form ions with a 1 + • Lose 3 valence electrons to
charge. form ions with 3 + charge.
• Abundant in earth’s crust. • Remains liquid in a wide
• Always found combined
with other elements in
Group: 4A Page 86
• Can take both hard and
soft forms in a solid
• Lead except for
• Occurs most often
• combined with oxygen
• Carbonin most organic
• Can you name all the elements in Group 3A?
(Hint: there’s 5.)
• What are 2 of the ways Boron can be used as?
• What gives the gem, Ruby, it’s reddish color?
• Is Carbon a metal or a nonmetal?
• Lead is completely safe to sniff and casually
good with spaghetti? True/False?