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Properties of p-Block Elements

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					Properties of p-Block Elements
  Group 3A: The Boron Group and Group
         4A: The Carbon Group
           By: Soseh Babayan
                  Per:4
                      • The elements are always
Group 3A: The Boron
      Group             linked together with other
                        elements as well. That are
                        most likely found as oxides
                        in Earth’s crust.
                      • Contains: Metalloid(boron),
                        (Aluminum), and three rare
                        metals called: (Gallium,
                        Indium, and thallium.)
                         Boron
• A lot in in common as                           Borosilicate
  Silicon(Group 4A)                               cooking pot
• Together, they combine
  to form borosilicate.
  (Used for cooking.)
• Source of Boron: Borax.
• Borax is usually used as a
  cleaning agent.
• But Boric acid, is used as
  a source of disinfectant
  and as an eye wash.
                                Cleaning agent
                               containing Borax
             Aluminum
                 •    A plentiful Metal, and third
                     abundant metal in Earth’s
Recycling            Crust. (Oxygen & Silicon.)
                      Removing Aluminum from
Aluminum    5%   •
                     the ore, Bauxite, takes up
cans                 great energy to do so.
                 •    Used as an abrasive, to
                     help strengthen ceramics,
                     and some fabrics.
                 •    Gems: Ruby & Sapphires.
                 •    Chromium: (Red color)
                 •    Iron & Titanium: (Bright
                     blue color)
                                               Melts in hand !
                            Gallium
•    Easily melt in hand.
•    Used in some thermometers: 30
    deg C to 240 deg C.
•    Gallium Arsenic produces:
    electric current when it absorbs
    light.
•    Scientists use it to make lasers   Scientists use Blue
    that emit blue light, instead of    Gallium lasers
    the usual red one.
•    Because of it’s shorter wave
    length: More storage room in
    DVDs, increase speed on laser
    printers as well.
•   Fun fact: Devices that detect
    cancer cells, could be cheaper by
    using Blue-light lasers.
      Group 4A: The Carbon Group
• Increases as the atomic
  number increases.
• Carbon=Nonmetal.
• Silicon and
  Germanium=Metalloids.
• Tin & Lead=Metals.
•
                                 Carbon
     Carbon is one of the most important
    elements on this Earth.
•    Substances that control what          •   A mineral is an element or inorganic
    happens in cells contain carbon.           compound that is found in nature as
                                               solid crystals.
•    Carbon can form many different        •   Found mixed with other materials in
    compounds.                                 ores.
•    Inorganic Compounds: Carbonates,      •   An ore is a material from which a
    Cyanides, Carbides, sulfides, and          mineral can be removed at a
    oxides .                                   reasonable cost.
•    Geologists call these, Minerals.      •   Graphite is a really soft material.
                                           •   Diamond is one of the hardest.
                                           •    They are both solids made of carbon,
                                               which makes them Allotropes.
                                           •   Allotropes are forms of an element in
                                               the same physical state-soild, liquid,
                                               or gas-that have different structures
                                               and properties.


               Carbides
            Oxides
Carbonate




Metallic
Sulfide
•  Every carbon atom in
  graphite shares electrons
  with three other carbon
  atoms to form flat layers
  that can slide over one
  another.
• A pencil is a good example
  of layers of carbon atoms
  when the atoms slide onto
  your paper.
• Diamond=each carbon
  atom shares electrons with
  four other carbon atoms to
  form a 3D solid.
                   Silicon
•    Second most abundant element
    in Earth’s crust.(The first being
    Oxygen.)
•    Used in computer chips and solar
    cells.
•    Silicon is usually combined with
    oxygen in the compound silicon
    dioxide, Silica.
•    Silica can be found in the quartz
    crystals, sand and glass.
•    Rocks that contain quarts crystals,
    tend to become white sand on
    beaches.
•    If white sand melts, it becomes
    glass.
•    Silicon carbide is a industrial
    abrasive. (Name commonly used:
    Carborundum.) Used to sharpen
    pencils.
•
                            Lead & Tin
    Lead =TOXIC! Used for some eating
    utensils, pipes for pluming, additive
    in gasoline, and off course in paint.
•    Tin is a soft metal. It is used as a
    coating to keep steel cans from
    rusting throughout time.
•    Bronze is a blend of both tin and
    copper with copper predominating.
•    Zinc is used to make this blend
    stronger.
•    Lead has a low melting point. (Pure
    Metal)
•    Fun Fact: ( A landlord can’t rent a
    family with young children a house
    until the lead paint is completely
    removed for safety reasons.
              Group: 3A Page: 86
                                              One:
                                             Some:
• Can form ions with a 1 +     •  Lose 3 valence electrons to
  charge.                        form ions with 3 + charge.
• Abundant in earth’s crust.   • Remains liquid in a wide
                                 temperature range.

                                              • All:
                                   •   Always found combined
                                       with other elements in
                                               nature.
Group: 4A Page 86
            Tin
         • Can take both hard and
           soft forms in a solid
           state
            Similar
         • Lead except for
         •
           toxicity
         • Occurs most often
            Silicon
         • combined with oxygen
         • Carbonin most organic
         • Found
           compounds.
                Quiz 
• Can you name all the elements in Group 3A?
  (Hint: there’s 5.)
• What are 2 of the ways Boron can be used as?
• What gives the gem, Ruby, it’s reddish color?
• Is Carbon a metal or a nonmetal?
• Lead is completely safe to sniff and casually
  good with spaghetti? True/False?

				
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