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Thought & Language
                   INTRODUCTION

• Cognitive Approach
      • method of studying how we process, store, and
        use information and how this information, in turn,
        influences what we notice, perceive, learn,
        remember, believe, and feel
   – Thinking
      • sometimes referred to as reasoning, involves
        mental processes that are used to form concepts,
        solve problems, and engage in creative activities
          INTRODUCTION (CONT.)

– Language
   • Special form of communication in which we learn
     and use complex rules to form and manipulate
     symbols (words and gestures) that are used to
     generate an endless number of meaningful
     sentences
                FORMING CONCEPTS

• Concept
   – a way to group or classify objects, events, animals, or
     people based on some features, traits, or
     characteristics that they all share in common
• Exemplar model
   – form a concept of an object, event, animal, or person
     by defining or making a mental list of the essential
     characteristics of a particular thing
               FORMING CONCEPTS

• Prototype theory
   – form a concept by creating a mental image that is
     based on the average characteristics of an object
• Functions of concepts
   – organize information
   – group things into categories and thus better organize
     and store information in memory
   – avoid relearning
   – can be used to classify and categorize things, you can
     easily classify new things without having to relearn
     what that thing is
                 SOLVING PROBLEMS

• Problem solving
   – involves searching for some rule, plan, or strategy
     that results in our reaching a certain goal that is
     currently out of reach
• Different ways of thinking
   – Algorithms
       • are a fixed set of rules that, if followed correctly,
         will eventually lead to a solution
           SOLVING PROBLEMS (CONT.)

• Different ways of thinking
   – Heuristics
       • rules of thumb, or clever and creative mental
         shortcuts, that reduce the number of operations
         and allow one to solve problems more easily and
         quickly
   – Availability heuristic
       • says that we rely on information that is more
         prominent or easily recalled and overlook other
         information that is available but less prominent or
         notable
          SOLVING PROBLEMS (CONT.)

• Different ways of thinking
   – Artificial intelligence
       • means of programming machines (computers,
         robots) to imitate human thinking and problem-
         solving abilities
       SOLVING PROBLEMS (CONT.)
Three strategies for solving problems
– Changing one’s mental set
   • functional fixedness
   • refers to a mental set that is characterized by the
     inability to see an object as having a function
     different from its usual one
– Using analogies
   • a strategy for finding a similarity between the new
     situation and an old, familiar situation
– Forming subgoals
   • a strategy that involves breaking down the overall
     problem into separate parts that, when completed
     in order, will result in a solution
             THINKING CREATIVELY


• How is creativity defined?
   – Creative thinking
      • combination of flexibility in thinking and
        reorganization of understanding to produce
        innovative ideas and new or novel solutions
   – Creative individual
      • someone who regularly solves problems, fashions
        products, or defines new questions that make an
        impact on his or her society
         THINKING CREATIVELY (CONT.)


• How is creativity defined?
   – Psychometric approach
      • uses objective problem-solving tasks to measure
        creativity, focuses on the distinction between two
        kinds of thinking—convergent and divergent
   – Convergent thinking
      • means beginning with a problem and coming up
        with a single correct solution
   – Divergent thinking
      • means beginning with a problem and coming up
        with many different solutions
         THINKING CREATIVELY (CONT.)


• How is creativity defined?
   – Case study approach
      • analyzes creative persons in great depth and thus
        provides insight into their development,
        personality, motivation, and problems
   – Cognitive approach
      • tries to build a bridge between the objective
        measures of the psychometric approach and the
        subjective descriptions provided by case studies
      • cognitive approach identifies and measures
        cognitive mechanisms that are used during
        creative thinking
            LANGUAGE: BASIC RULES


• Language
   – special form of communication that involves learning
     complex rules to make and combine symbols (words
     or gestures) into an endless number of meaningful
     sentences
• Word
   – arbitrary pairing between a sound or symbol and a
     meaning
• Grammar
   – a set of rules for combining words into phrases and
     sentences to express an infinite number of thoughts
     that can be understood by others
      LANGUAGE: BASIC RULES (CONT.)


• Four rules of language
   – Phonology
      • specifies how we make the meaningful sounds that
        are used by a particular language
      • phonemes
      • basic sounds of consonants and vowels
   – Morphology
      • system that we use to group phonemes into
        meaningful combinations of sound and words
      • morpheme
      • smallest meaningful combination of sounds in a
        language
       LANGUAGE: BASIC RULES (CONT.)


• Four rules of language
   3. Syntax, or grammar
       • set of rules that specifies how we combine words
         to form meaningful phrases and sentences
   4. Semantics
       • specifies the meaning of words or phrases when
         they appear in various sentences or contexts
      LANGUAGE: BASIC RULES (CONT.)


• Understanding language
   – Chomsky’s theory of language
      • Norm Chomsky
      • says that all languages share a common universal
        grammar and that children inherit a mental
        program to learn this universal grammar
LANGUAGE: BASIC RULES (CONT.)
       LANGUAGE: BASIC RULES (CONT.)


• Understanding language
   – Mental grammar
      • allows us to combine nouns, verbs, and objects in
        an endless variety of meaningful sentences
      • innate brain program
      • makes learning the general rules of grammar
        relatively easy
       LANGUAGE: BASIC RULES (CONT.)


• Different structure, same meaning
   – Surface structure
       • refers to the actual wording of a sentence, as it is
         spoken
   – Deep structure
       • refers to an underlying meaning that is not spoken
         but is present in the mind of the listener
   – Transformational rules
       • procedures by which we convert our ideas from
         surface structures into deep structures and from
         deep structures back into surface ones
       LANGUAGE: BASIC RULES (CONT.)


• Different structure, same meaning
   – Chomsky’s theory of language
       • all languages share a common universal grammar
         and that children inherit a mental program to learn
         this universal grammar
              ACQUIRING LANGUAGE


• Language stages
   – refers to all infants going through four different
     periods or stages—babbling, single words, two-word
     combinations, and sentences
   – babbling
       • begins about 6 months, is the first stage in
         acquiring language
   2. single word
       • second stage in acquiring language, which occurs
         at about 1 year of age
        ACQUIRING LANGUAGE (CONT.)


• Language stages
   2. single word (cont.)
   – parentese (motherese)
   – way of speaking to young children in which the adult
     speaks in a slower and higher than normal voice,
     emphasizes and stretches out each word, uses very
     simple sentences, and repeats words and phrases
   3. two-word combinations
   – represents the third stage in acquiring language,
     occurs at about 2 years of age
         ACQUIRING LANGUAGE (CONT.)


• Language stages
   4. sentences
   – represents the fourth stage of acquiring language,
     occurs at about 4 years of age
• Telegraphic speech
   – distinctive pattern of speaking in which the child omits
     articles (the), prepositions (in, out), and parts of verbs
        ACQUIRING LANGUAGE (CONT.)


• Language stages
• Basic rules of grammar
  – rules for combining nouns, verbs, adjectives, and
     other parts of speech to form meaningful sentences
• Overgeneralization
  – Applying a grammatical rule to cases where it should
     not be used
        ACQUIRING LANGUAGE (CONT.)


• What are innate factors?
  – genetically programmed physiological and
    neurological features that facilitate our making
    speech sounds and acquiring language skills
  – Innate physiological factors
     • special adapted vocal apparatus (larynx and
        pharynx) that allows us to make sounds and form
        words
  – Innate neurological features
     • left hemisphere of the brain is prewired to acquire
        and use language, whether spoken or signed
        ACQUIRING LANGUAGE (CONT.)


• What are innate factors?
  – Innate developmental factors
     • critical language period
     • time from infancy to adolescence when language
        is easiest to learn
     • more difficult to learn anytime after adolescence
        ACQUIRING LANGUAGE (CONT.)


• What are environmental factors?
  – refer to interactions children have with parents,
     peers, teachers, and others who provide feedback
     that rewards and encourages language development,
     as well as provides opportunities for children to
     observe, imitate, and practice language skills
• Social cognitive learning
  – emphasizes the acquisition of language skills through
     social interactions, which give children a chance to
     observe, imitate, and practice the sounds, words,
     and sentences they hear from their parents or
     caregivers
      DECISIONS, THOUGHT & LANGUAGE


• Words and Thoughts
  – Theory of Linguistic Relativity
     • States that the differences among languages
       result in similar differences in how people think
       and perceive the world

				
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posted:7/25/2013
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