Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

7Day News Journal vol.12-no.20

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 48

									                                                  7Day Daily owif;pm 0kdif;awmfom;rsm;u wifqufxm;aom txl;tcsyfykd 12rsufESmukd arwÅmvufaqmif xnhfoGif;ay;xm;ygonf




                   http://www.7daynewsjournal.com




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ukrÜPDrsm;odrf;onfh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   v,f,majrjyóem
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   wyfudpöxuf ykdcuf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   xGef;ckdif? &efrsKd;Ekdif
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         &efukef? Zlvkdif-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   v,f , majrjyóemrsm;xJ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   wGif wyfodrf;ajru ajz&Sif;&ef
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   vG,faomfvnf; ukrÜPDrsm;u
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   odrf;qnf;onf[k wkdifMum;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   onfh jyóemrsm;onf ykdkrdk½Iyf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   axG;aMumif; v,f,majrpHkprf;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   a&; aumfr&Sif0iftzGJU0iftcsdKU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   u ajymMum;onf/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        v,f , majrrsm; od r f ;


      tm;vHk;apmihfMunfhaeaom rsdK;apmihfOya'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   qnf;jcif;ESihf ywfoufNyD; jynf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   axmifpk vTwfawmfokdY tpD&ifcH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   pmwifoGif;&mwGif c½dkeDrsm;?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ukrÜPDrsm;u odrf;qnf;onfh
      atmifckdif? &Jaemif                                                                                                                                                                                          v,fajrrsm;twGufvnf; oD;
          f            f                f hJ    ¨            dk f      l JG
      arSmbND rdKUü ZGev 13 &ufu jyK vkycaom Ak'omoemawmfqi&m Mo0g'cH,ytNy;D wGif rsKd ;apmifOya'ESiywfoufí oabmxm;uGvrrsm; us,avmifpm xGuay:
                                                                                             h      fh              J JG I        f        G      f                                                                oefYwifoGif;rnf jzpfaMumif;
      vmcJhonf/ axmufcHolESihf uefYuGufolrsm;u ,if;Oya'ESihfywfoufí aMunmcsufrsm; quf wkdufxkwfjyefcJhMuonf/               aqmif;yg;tjynhftpkH-pm(3)okdY                                                           aumfr&SiftzJGU0ifrsm;u ajym
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   onf/                      pm(8)okdY
ZGef27&ufwGifusif;ychJaom trsKd;?bmom? omoem xdef;odrf;apmihfa&Smufa&;tzGJU Mo0g'cH,lyGJESihf OD;aqmifq&mawmfrsm;aqG;aEG;yGJuvnf; rsKd;apmihfOya'jy|mef;&ef oabmwlcJhonf      "mwfykH-a*sarmifarmif(tr&yl&)



ta&;,lrIrsm;tvGef tdrfjcHajr                                                                                                                                                                                       rkd;acgifaeaom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   tv,fykdif;a'orsm;
owif;tzJGU                                     ajruGufukdjyefa&mif;vkdY&w,f/                 pm;vS,f vTJpmjzihf a&mif;csaom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ZlvkdifaemufqkH;ywf rkd;&GmEkdif
&S m ;&S m ;yg;yg;jynf w G i f ; tcG e f r S   emrnf a jymif ; zk d Y v k y f & if tcG e f   ajruGufrsm;ta&mif;t0,fjzpf
tqifhjrifh0efxrf;rsm;tm; tdrf                  aqmif&NyD}}[k tdrfNcHajra&mif;                aeNyD; aps;yifwufoGm;aMumif;                                                                                          pm(2)okdY
NcH ajra&mif;0,frIrsm;wGif ywf                 0,f&mwGif vkdufygaqmif&Guf                    tusdK;aqmifrsm;uajymonf/
oufrIrsm;&dSaeojzifh ta&;,lcJh                 ay;aeaom a&SUaewpfOD;uajym                          ]] Special Power ukixm;wJh
                                                                                                                         d f                                                                                       aemfa0;tajcpkduf
NyD;aemuf tdrfNcHajraps;uGufwGif               onf/                                          ay 40_60 ajruGufukd NyD;cJhwJh                                                                                        taysmfpD;oabFm
txl;udk,fpm;vS,fvJTpm (Spe-                          tdrf NcHajra&mif;cs&mwGif               oHk;&ufavmufu usyfodef; 150
cial Power )jzihf a&mif;csrIrsm;               rlvtrnfaygufyi&iu 0,f,lkd f S f               eJY ta&mif;t0,fjzpfw,f/ tck                                                      "mwfykH-a*sarmifarmif(tr&yl&)        15ESpftwGif;yxrqkH;
ydkrkdrsm;jym;vmonf/                           oltwGuf trnfajymif;jcif;ESihf                 tJ'DajruGufukd odef;200 ausmf                                                                                         tBudrfvma&mufrnf
        ]] Special Power (txl;uk,f    d        ajryHkul;,lEkdif&eftwGuf ukd,f                ac:aeNyD}}[k Excellence tdrfNcH          ajymif;tvJaMumifh ta&mif;t           0,f&mwGiftcsKd UrSmvlig;OD;?ajcmuf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   pm(34)okdY
pm;vS,fvJTpm)u oufwrf;u                        wdkifvkdufvHraqmif&GufEkdifygu                ajr tusdK;aqmifukrÜPDrS tkyf                    S                     d
                                                                                                                                      0,fEifh aps;EIe;f tay: ,cktcsef      OD; vufvJTa&mif;csonftxd
                                                                                                                                            k f    I S
                                                                                                                                      xd ½ducwfrr&dao;aMumif; ref;         tcGef½Hk;wGifpmcsKyfcsKyfqdkjcif;r&dS
wpfESpf&dSw,f/ udk,fwdkifaer,hf                txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fvJTpma&;ay;                   csKyfrI'g½dkufwm ukdarmifarmif                                                                                                       dJ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   tjrefvrf;ay:&S&wyfzUJG 0ifrsm;tm;
             f
vlr[kwbJ jyefa&mif;r,hf vlawG                  NyD;a&mif;0,favh&dSMuonf/                     BuD;uajymonf/                            ajr&mZm tdrfNcHajrtusdK;aqmif        bJ t&yfuwdjzihfom pmcsKyfqkd
usawmh trnfrajymif;awmhbJ                               Yd
                                                     okaomf vuf&wif &efuefSd G         k           okdYaomfrEÅav;tdrfNcHajr           rS OD;ausmf0if;uajymonf/             a&mif;csaeMuaMumif; OD;ausmf            a&S;OD;olemjyKoifwef;ay;rnf
Special Power eJYyJ0,fxm;wJh                   tdrfNcHajraps;uGufü txl;ukd,f                 aps;uG u f r S m tcG e f 0 ef x rf ; t          rEÅav;ü tdrfNcHajra&mif;      0if;uajymonf/              pm(8)okdY    pm(10)okdY
2

Home                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013




qufoG,fa&;ESifh bPfvkyfief;wGif &if;ESD;jr§KyfESH&ef NAdwdefESifhjyifopf pdwf0ifpm;
at;olpH                                             jcm;&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrIawG ydk&vm                 onf/ jyifopf&dSpD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;                                                                                                                  dS hJ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   jyefvnfa&muf&conf/ or®w
           &efukef? Zlvkdif-21                      rSmjzpfygw,f/ tvkyftudkift                        &Sif 40 ausmfESifhawGUqHkcJhonfh                                                                                             \ ,ckc&D;pOfrSm pD;yGm;a&;
or®wOD;ode;f pde\ Oa&myESpf
                       f                            cGifhtvrf;awGvnf; ydkrsm;vm                       teuf qufoG,fa&;ESifh enf;                                                                                                    vkyfudkif&ef pnf;½Hk;jcif;ouf
EdkifiHc&D;pOftNyD;wGif jyifopf                     rSmjzpfvdkY pD;yGm;a&;jyKjyifajymif;              ynm ukrÜPD Orange? blrd                                                                                                      ouf c &D ; pOf o mjzpf a Mumif ;
ESifh NAdwdefEkdifiHrS ukrÜPDrsm;u                  vJrI&JU&v'fu atmufajcjynf                         aA'xd e f ; od r f ; a&;qk d i f & m                                                                                         jyifopfvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJUjzpf
bPfvkyfief;ESifh aiGaMu;qdkif                       olawGqD jrefjrefqefqefa&muf                             Ü
                                                                                                      ukrPD CCG Vitras? vQyppf pGr;ff                                                                                              onfh tifzdkjrefrmtzGJUrS rpöpf
&m? qufoG,fa&; ponfhu@                              oG m ;awmh r S m yg}}[k or® w \                   tm;xkwfvkyfrIESifh o,f,lydkY                                                                                                 pvufpwif;azmfcsmu AP
rsm;wGif &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrIrsm;jyK                 Oa&myc&D;pOfwGif vdkufygoGm;                      aqmifa&;vkyfief;oHk; pGrf;tif                                                                                                owif;XmeodkY ajymMum;xm;
vkyf&ef pdwf0ifpm;aeNyD; jrefrm                     ol OD;&JxG#fu ajymMum;onf/                        enf;ynmukrÜPD Alstom wkdY                                                                                                    onf/
Ekiiwi;f tvkytuditcGit
  d f H G             f k f          hf                    ]]NAwerm bPfvyief;&Sif
                                                                    d d f S             k f           ESifh or®wOD;odef;pdefu oD;jcm;                                                                                                      or®wc&D;pOftwGif; ESpf
                            d f
vrf;rsm; zefw;D ay;Ekiaom &if;                      rsm;toif;tygt0if bPfvyf                     k     xyfrHawGUqHkcJh&m ,if;ukrÜPD           pdwf0ifpm;aeaMumif; OD;0if;               oifaxmufulypönf;rsm; jznfh                  EkdifiHrS EdkifiHa&;todkif;t0dkif;
ESD;jr§KyfESHrIrsm;jzpf&ef or®wOD;                              d f
                                                    ief;qki&meJY aiGaMu;ydi;f qki&m    k d f          rsm;rSm jrefrmEkdifiHwGif;odkY         &Sdefu ajymMum;onf/                                           S f dk f H
                                                                                                                                                                                       qnf;ay;&efEihf ESpEiiv;kH wGif              rsm;uom EkdifiHwGif;y#dyu©rsm;
odef;pdefu wkdufwGef;ajymMum;                       vkyfief;&Sifrsm;taeeJY jrefrm                     rMumrDvma&muf&if;ESD;jr§KyfESH               xkdYtjyif axmufyHhulnD              jrefrmausmif;om;rsm;udk ynm                         Y     hf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ESihf vltcGita&;? jyKjyifajymif;
aMumif; or®wc&D;pOfwivuf         G f dk               d f H S
                                                    Ekiirm yl;aygif;aqmif&uvwhJ          G f dk       zG,f&SdaeNyD; Orange ukrÜPD            ay;a&;tpDtpOfwGifvnf; NAd                 awmf o if y d k r d k a c:,l a y;&ef              I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   vJrrsm;tay: pd;k &drrrsm;&ScNhJ y;D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               f I    d
ygcJholrsm;u ajymMum;onf/                           taetxm;&Sdygw,f/tvm;                              url jrefrmEkdifiHwGif; &if;ESD;        wdefEkdifiHu jrefrmEkdifiH&Sd q&m         or® w OD ; od e f ; pd e f u awmif ;        or®wESifh awGUqHkcJhaompD;yGm;
         ]]olwkdYvmNyD; &if;ESD;jr§KyfESH           wl y J jref r mEk d i f i H & J U aiG a Mu;eJ Y   jr§KyfESH&ef ydkrdkpdwf0ifpm;aMumif;   twwfoifoyausmif;rS tajc
                                                                                                                                                            d HÜ                       qdkcJhaMumif; OD;&JxG#fu ajym               a&;todkif;t0dkif;url jrefrm
     h                   d f H S
wJtcgrSm jrefrmEkiirm tvkyf                         bPfvkyfief;zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufzdkY                   or®wc&D;pOfESifh qufpyfonfh            cH y nmq&m? q&mrrsm;\                     Mum;onf/                                    EkdifiHwGif; &if;ESD;jr§KyfESH&ef tcGihf
        k f        hf
tuditcGitvrf;awGrsm;rsm;                            twGuf tBuHjyKcsufawGrsm;pGm                       owif;rsm;u azmfjy xm;onf/              t*Fvdyfpmt&nftaoG;jr§ihf                         or® w OD ; od e f ; pd e f o nf      tvrf ; rsm;ud k o m OD ; pm;ay;
zefwD;ay;Ekdifr,hf &if;ESD;jr§Kyf                   &&S d c J h y gw,f } }[k or® w c&D ;                      vef'eftajcpdkuf Stan-          wifay;&efESifh toufarG;0rf;               NAdwdefESifh jyifopfEkdifiHodkY Zlvkdif     aqG ; aEG ; oG m ;aMumif ; or® w
ESHrIrsKd;jzpfzdkY uRefawmfwkdYajymcJh              pOfwGif vdkufygoGm;olb@m                          dard Charter bPfuvnf;                  ausmif; wuúodkvfrsm;jzpfonfh              14 &uf rS 18 &uftxd av;&uf                  c&D;pOfwGif vdkufygoGm;olwpf
ygw,f/ or®wc&D;pOfu atmif                           a&;0ef B uD ; Xmejynf a xmif p k                  jrefrmEkdifiHwGif bPfvkyfief;          tif*sifeD,moifwef;tygt                    Mum oG m ;a&muf c J h N yD ; jref r m       OD;u ajymMum;onf/
jrifcJhwmrdkYvdkY rMumcifrSm EkdifiH                0efBuD; OD;0if;&Sdefu ajymMum;                    qkdif&m tultnDrsm;ay;&ef                                     kd f
                                                                                                                                             0if enf;ynm wuúovrsm;wGif                 EkdifiHodkY Zlvdkif 20 &uf eHeufu




rdk;acgifaeaom tv,fydkif;a'orsm; ZlvdkifaemufqHk;ywf rdk;&GmEdkif
atmifopfvGif
                   k
             &efue?f Zlvi-22 kd f
Zlvdkif aemufqHk;&ufowåywf
twGif; wpfEdkifiHvHk; rdk;aumif;
pGm &GmoGef;EdkifaomaMumihf rdk;
acgifaeaom tv,fydkif;a'
orsm;wGifyg pdkufysKd;a&&&SdEdkif
aMumif ; rd k ; av0oynm&S i f
a'gufwmxGe;f vGiu ajymonf/ f
          ,ckESpf rdk;umvwGif b*F
vm;yifv,fatmfü avzdtm;
enf;&yf0ef;yHkrSefrjzpfbJ avzd
tm;enf;&yf0ef;rSwpfqihf jzpf
ay:aom rkefwdkif;av;vHk;onf
vnf; jrefrmEdkifiHbufodkY 0if
                         d
a&mufvmjcif;r&Say/ xdaMumihf             Yk
tqdkyga'orsm;wGif ,cifESpf
rsm;xuf rdk;acgifaeNyD; pdkufysKd;
a&;orm;rsm; tcuftcJ rsKd;pHk
BuHKawGUae&onf/
          ]]a'otESYH rd;k aumif;aeNy;D
rdk;av0oynm&yfqdkif&m t
ac:ta0:t& pGwpumvjzpf           f kd
vdkY tv,fykdif;a'oawGrSm rdk;&
           k f
vmEdiw,f}} [k a'gufwmxGe;f                          rkd;acgifaeojzihf rauG;wkdif;&Sd aus;&Gmwpf&GmwGif rkd;ac:vGefqGJyGJusif;yaepOf                                                                                                                       "mwfykH-rkd;ausmf
vGifuqkdonf/                                        aumif;pGm &GmoGef;cJhaomfvnf;                                            kd
                                                                                                      jcif;aMumifh tv,fyi;f a'o rd;k                 ]]'D&ufyi;f aeYwi;f eD;yg; rd;k
                                                                                                                                                               kd       kd             enf;cJhjcif;aMumifh a&Tbdkc½dkift                 ]]ynm&SifawG cPcP o
          b*Fvm;yifv,fatmfwif                   G   tv,fydkif;a'orsm;wGif &uf                         jywfoGm;cJh&onf/ ,if;&moDO             &Gmaeayr,hf pyg;pduztwGuf
                                                                                                                                                                    k f Ykd            wGif;&Sd aEGpyg;pdkuf{u oHk;odef;                        h k
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   wday;aewJtwdi;f ygyJ/ awmif
rdk;BudKumvu jzpfay:cJhaom                          tenf;i,fom rdk;&GmNyD; aemuf                      wkjzpfpOf\ tusKd;qufaMumihf            awmh a&vdktyfaeao;w,f/                    ausmftwGuf a&ay;a0Edkif&ef                  ol a wG t wG u f pd k u f y sKd ; a&;
                k f kd
r[mpifrewi;f onf &cdiurf;                   k f     xyfr&GmawmhbJ rdk;acgifoGm;cJh                    tv,fyi;f a'o NrKd Ue,f trsm;
                                                                                                                kd                           &Gmr,hfrdk;udkyJ arQmfae&wmyJ}}           wnfaqmufxm;aom uRef;vS                      tcuf t cJ t qif a jyEd k i f z d k Y q d k
½dk;wef;teD;rSjzwfí oD&dvuFm                        onf/ ZGefvqef;u jrefrmEdkifiH                     pkwGif pdkufysKd;xm;aom ysKd;yif       [k rauG;wkdif;a'oBuD; atmif               NrdKUe,f&Sd ozef;qdyfqnfwGif                &if aocsma&&mwJh ajratmuf
                       fS kd f H
ESifh b*Fvm;a'h&Eiirsm;okYd 0if                     txufydkif;txd 0ifa&mufcJh                         rsm;aoqHk;jcif;? pdkufcif;rsm; t       vHNrKUd e,frS v,form;wpfO;D u             vnf; a&enf;aeNyDjzpfaMumif;                 a&t&if;tjrpf &&Sda&;udkom
a&mufoGm;NyD;aemuf jrefrmEdkif                      aom taemufawmifrkwfokH                            wGif; zsufydk;usjcif;? qnfrsm;rS       ajymonf/                                  pdkufysKd;a&;wm0ef&Sdolrsm;u                tpdk;&u OD;aqmifNyD; taumif
iH o k d Y taemuf a wmif r k w f o k H              avonf ZGef wwd,ywfcefYrS                                       k f
                                                                                                      a&ray;EdiaomaMumihf aEG pyg;                   ,ckESpf rdk;acgifaeonhft          a'ocHawmifolrsm;tm; ,ck                                        f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   txnfazmfay;oihygw,f}} [k
av pwif 0 if a &muf c J h o nf /                    pwifí jrpf0uRe;f ay:ESifh awmif                           f
                                                                                                      txGuavsmjh cif;ponhf tcuf              jyif NyD;cJhonhfESpfuvnf; qnf             &uf y d k i f ; twG i f ; owd a y; Ed I ;   pdkufysKd;a&;ynm&Sif a'gufwm
               d f
,if;tcseu jrefrmEdiitESYH rd;k       k f H          ydkif;a'orsm;odkY jyefqkwfoGm;cJh                 tcJrsm; BuKH awGUcJ&onf/
                                                                                                                         h                                   k        kd f
                                                                                                                                             twGi;f a&odavSmifEirI yrmP                aqmfcJhonf/                                 xGef;0if;u ajymonf/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       3

Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Home
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            rIrSm trsm;qHk;jzpfNyD; 89 &mckdif
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            EIef;cefY&SdaMumif; od&onf/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ,ckuJhodkY ta&;BuD;onfh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            toGiu;l ajymif;a&;umvwGif
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            tcsif;csif;pdwf0rf;ruGJoihfbJ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            n§dEIdif;aqG;aEG; tajz&Smoihf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            aMumif; vlrIa&;tzGJUtpnf;t
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            csKd UESifh ynm&Sirsm;u axmufjy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ajymqkdonf/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ]]uefYuGufwmvnf; Ak'¨
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            bmom? 'DOya'ukd vkyfwmu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            vnf; q&mawmfawG? Ak'bmom                  ¨
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            awG? ESpfzufvHk;u aumif;wm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            udk vkdcsifvdkY/ 'gaMumihf bmjzpf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            vdkY 'DOya'udk vkyfwmvJ uefY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            uGufolawGudk zdwfac:n§dEIdif;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            aqmif&Gufoihfygw,f/ ESpfzuf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            xdyg;wmawG rvkyfoihfbl;}}[k
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            pma&;q&mr a':oef;jrihf
ZGef27&ufwGifusif;ychJaom trsKd;?bmom? omoemxdef;odrf;apmihfa&Smufa&;tzGJU Mo0g'cH,lyGJESihf OD;aqmifq&mawmfrsm;aqG;aEG;yGJ usif;ypOf                                                             "mwfyHk - a*sarmifarmif(tr&yl&)           atmif uaxmufjyajymqdonf/                    k
xkdaqG;aEG;yGJwufa&mufvmaom q&mawmfrsm;uvnf; rsKd;apmihfOya'jy|mef;&ef oabmwlcJhonf/                                                                                                                                                                                 d f H G ¨
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     jrefrmEkiiwif Ak'bmom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            udk;uG,fol trsm;qHk;jzpfaomf



tm;vHk;apmihfMunfhaeaom rsdK;apmihfOya'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            vnf; c&pf,mefbmomudk;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            uG,frIrSm av;&mckdifEIef;cefY&dS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            onf/ c&pf,mefbmomud;k uG,f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            rIrSm ucsif? csif;? u&if ponfh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            wkdif;&if;om;rsm;wGif trsm;qHk;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            jzpfonf/ urÇmwGif jynfwi;f ppf                G
atmifcdkif? &Jaemif                                a&;qGJxm;NyDjzpfonf/ jynfol              axmufjyajymqkdonf/                                      Mum;xm;onf/                                            f                 f
                                                                                                                                                                                                &rf;vkyvYkdr&bl;/ vky&if abmif              oufwrf;t&SnfqHk;jzpfonfh
                                                   \ axmufcHqE´rJrsm;jzihf vTwf                    rsKd ;apmifOya' jynfoqE´
                                                                                                                         h                 Yl                uefYuGufMuonfh tzGJUt              r0ifygbl;}}[k a&SUaeOD;cifaZmf                               d f H G d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            jrefrmEkiiwif wki;f &if;om;rsKd ;
                         NrdKUü ZGefv
arSmfbD
                                                   awmfodkY wifoGif;twnfjyKEkdif                              H J
                                                                                            axmufcrrsm;udk txufjrefrm                               pnf;rsm;url ,if;Oya'wGif vlY                (r&rf;ukef;)u oHk;oyfonf/                   EG,fpkrsm;rSm wef;wlnDrQtcGifh
                        13 &ufu jyK                &ef BudK;yrf;oGm;rnf[k q&m               jynfwGif t&Sif0D&ol? atmuf                              tcGihfta&;udk csdK;azmufonfh                                        k T f
                                                                                                                                                                                                        jynfaxmifpvwawmfoYkd                ta&;&Sdonfh jynfaxmifpkpepf
                        vk y f c J h a om          awmfrsm;u rdefYMum;xm;onf/               jrefrmjynfwif q&mawmfb'´EÅ G                            tcsufrsm; yg0ifonfhtwGuf                    Oya'Murf;rsm; wifoi;f &mwGif     G          jzpfay:vm&ef vkvm;Muonf/            d
                        Ak'¨omoem                          rsdK ;apmihfOya'(rlM urf;)       ynm0&wku wm0ef,aumuf  Yd                   l            oabmrwlEkdifjcif;jzpfaMumif;                                  k T f
                                                                                                                                                                                                jynfaxmifpvwawmfu,pm;                kd f            ,ckrsKd ;apmihOya'twnf   f
awmfqkdif&mMo0g'cH,lyGJtNyD;                       wGif rnfolrqdk Ak'¨bmom0if               cHvsuf&Sdonf/                                           ajymMuonf/                                  vS,frsm;? jynfaxmifpk0efBuD;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            jyKjzpfygu wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;pk
wGif rsKd ;apmifOya'ESiywfouf
                h            fh                    jrefrmtrsdK;orD;ukd vufxyf                      ,if;odkY aumufcH&mwGif                                    ,if ; rsd K ;apmih f O ya'uk d     XmeESihf tzGJUtpnf;rsm;uom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            rsm;tay: tusKd ;oufa&mufrI
í oabmxm;uGvrrsm; us,fJ JG I                       rnhfolonf w&m;0ifAk'¨bm                  wkdif;ESihf jynfe,frsm;rS oHCm                          Rain Fall ? tc&mtrsdK;orD;t                 wkduf½dkufwifoGif;cGihf&Sdonf/
                                                   bm0ifjzpf&rnf/ Oya'yg jy                 awmfrsm;? a'ocHvlrIa&;tzGJU                             zGJU? u&iftrsdK;orD;zGHUNzdK;a&;t                   ]]'DOya'Murf;ukd vTwf               rsm; &SdvmEkdifaMumif; wkdif;&if;
avmifpGmxGufay:vmcJhonf/
                                                   |mef;csufrsm;udk rvkdufembJ              rsm;? EkdifiHa&;ygwDtcsdKUrS tzGJU                      zGUJ ? zefr;D tdr?f 88 rsKd ;quf (trsKd ;   awmfwifzkdY EkdifiHa&;ygwDawGeJY            om;ygwDtcsdKUESihf acgif;aqmif
       axmufcHolESihf uefYuGuf
                                                   vufxyfjcif;? aygif;oif;jcif;jyK          0ifrsm;wkdYu yg0ifaqmif&GufcJh                          orD;)? Colorful Girls ESihf                 aqG;aEG;xm;wm r&Sao;ygbl;/d                 rsm;u axmufjyonf/
olrsm;u ,if;Oya'ESihfywf
oufí aMunmcsufrsm; quf                                   f             d l
                                                   vkyygu xkoukd axmif'Pf 10                Muonf/ tcsKd Uaom NrKd Ue, rsm;                   f     Triangel Women Support                      jynfolYqE´rJeJY wifoGif;rSmyg}}                      ]]zuf'&,fpepfukd tenf;
wkdufxkwfjyefcJhMuonf/                             ESpf uscHap&ef jypf'PfcsrSwf&            wGif r@yfrsm;xd;k í aumufcrI                        H   Group tygt0if tzGJUtpnf;                    [k q&mawmfb'´EÅa'gufwm                      trsm;awmh xdcdkufrSmyJ/ zuf'
       vwfwavmwGif jzpfym;cJh                G     rnfhtjyif xkdolydkifypönf;tm;            rsm;yif awGU&onf/                                       &Spfcku uefYuGufaMumif; aMu                 "r®yD,u rdefYMum;xm;onf/                    &,fqkdwm ukd,hfMur®mukd,f zef
onfh vlrsdK;a&;? bmoma&; t                         vkH;udkvnf; odrf;,lí Ak'¨bm                     &efukefwkdif;twGif;&Sd NrdKU                     nmcsuf x k w f j yef x m;onf /                              l
                                                                                                                                                                                                ,ckjynforsm; vuf0,fa&muf                                hf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            wD;cGiav/ aemufNy;D trsKd ;om;
oGifaqmifonfh y#dyu©rsm;                           om0if trsKd ;orD;tm; ay;&rnf             e,ftcsKdUü rsKd;apmihfOya'ukd                           urÇmhukvor*¾tzGJU tjynf                     &Sdaeonfh Oya'rSm rlMurf;om                 a&;0g'awG ay:xGufvmrSmudk
aMumihf rsdK;apmihfOya'onf                         [k azmfjyxm;onf/                         axmufcHonhf vufrSwfxkd;yGJ                                          dk f    Y
                                                                                                                                                    jynfqi&m vltcGita&; aMu   fh                jzpfNyD; tBudrfBudrfavhvmoHk;               pkd;&drfrdw,f/ Oya'vkyfr,fqkd
trsm;apmihfMunhfaeonfh t                                   ,if;Oya'ESifh ywfoufí            rsm;ukd qGrf;avmif;"r®m½kHr@yf                          nmpmwrf; tcef;(16)wGif t                    oyfNy;D rS twnfjyKí vTwawmf            f                            D kd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            &if ygvDref'rua&pDukd OD;wnf
aMumif;t&mwpfck jzpfaeonf/                             d
                                                   rdrtrsKd ;bmomukd apmiha&Smuf    f       tcsKdUwGif jyKvkyfcJhaomfvnf;                           ouft&G,fjynfhol trsdK;om;?                  odkY wifjyrnf[kvnf; q&m                           h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            wJOya'rsKd ;bJ vkyoihw,f}}[k          f f
                  f
       rsKd ;apmihOya'[k vlorsm;           d       &mwGif Oya'jzihf uefYowfjcif;            vufrwa&;xk;d cJonhvl trsm;
                                                                                                     S f                     h f                                      d
                                                                                                                                                    trsKd ;orD;wki;f onf vlrsKd ;? EkiiH
                                                                                                                                                                                       d f      awmfrsm;u rdefYMum;onf/                     OD;ZkdZrfuajymonf/
                    ¨
onfh jrefrmAk'bmom0if trsKd ;                      xuf vlxkynmay;pepfjzihf                  pkrm rsK;d apmihOya'ESiywfouf
                                                                                                S                    f           fh                                Yk
                                                                                                                                                    om; (odr[kw) bmoma&;t&f                             rsdK;apmihfOya'ukd jynf                      EkdifiHawmfor®w OD;odef;
orD;rsm; vufxyfxdrf;jrm;jcif;                      aqmif&Gufjcif;u ydkoifhavsmf                          d
                                                                                            í wdwususo&jdS cif;r&SaMumif;  d             d               Y
                                                                                                                                                    uefowfxm;rI wpfpwpf&mr&Sd    kH             axmifpktqihfESihf vTwfawmf                  pdefu &ckdifjynfe,fwGif vlYt
qkdif&m ta&;ay:Oya'(rl                                           d f H            S d
                                                   rnf[k Ekiia&;ygwDEifh wki;f &if;         ukd,fwkdifvufrSwfa&;xkd;cJhol                           bJ vGwfvyfpGmxdrf;jrm;cGihf? rd             ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;u wifjyvm                   okdif;t0dkif;ESpfckMum; jzpfyGm;cJh
Murf;)jzpfay:vm&ef 2013 ckEpf                  S   om;tiftm;pktcsdKUu ¤if;wkdY              wpfOD;u ajymMum;cJhonf/                                 om;pkxlaxmifcGihf&Sdonf/ ¤if;               rS pOf;pm;oGm;rnf[k jynfolY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            onfh y#dyu©udk vlrsdK;a&;? bm
arv 6 &ufu pwifconf/ xkd        hJ                 tjrifudk oHk;oyfajymMuonf/                      ]]raeYutxd axmufcHrJ                             wdkYonf vufxyfxdrf;jrm;jcif;                vTwfawmfOuú| ol&OD;a&Tref;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            oma&;y#dyu©tjzpf a'owGi;f
aeYu tif;pdef&Gmry&d,wådpm                                 ]]uk d , f h t rsd K ;bmomuk d   oHk;oef;avmuf&ygw,f/ t                                  rwd k i f r D v nf ; aumif ; ? td r f       uajymMum;xm;onf/
                                                   apmihfa&SmufzkdY bmomwkdif;rSm                     dk
                                                                                            xufyi;f rSm ppfui;f eJY &Sr;f u t dk                    axmifzufb0üvnf;aumif;?                                d f H
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ekiiawmfonf Ak'bmom        ¨        ta&;udpö? EkdifiHwumta&;
oifwkduf q&mawmfESihf rpdk;&drf
                                                   tenf;trsm;&Sw,f/ uReawmfd           f    rsm;qHk;yg/ vTwfawmfukdwifzkdY                          uG m &S i f ; jywf p J & mwG i f v nf ;     omoemawmfudk EkdifiHom;t                    udpötjzpf yHkazmfNyD; ukvor*¾
   d f
wkuopfq&mawmf t&Si0&ol               f D
tygt0if q&mawmf&Spfyg;u                            wkdYqkd&ifvnf; usrf;pmawGrSm                            k f S
                                                                                            qufvyrmyg}}[k t&Si0&olu                   f D           aumif; wlnDaomtcGihfta&;                    rsm;qH;k uk;d uG,&mjzpfaom *kPf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     f                      rsuEmpmwGif wifjy&ef BudK;pm;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    f S
tqdkygOya'rlMurf;a&;qGJ&ef                                               Y l
                                                   bmomjcm;eJ,whJ tusKd ;tjypf              Zlvkdif 21 &ufu rdefYMum; onf/                                  d
                                                                                                                                                    rsm; &S&rnf[k azmfjyxm;onf/                 xl;0daooeESifh jynfponfh bm h kH            rIrsm; pwifawGU&Sdvm&NyDjzpfNyD;
oabmwlcJhMuonf/                                    awGygw,f/ 'gayrJh 'gu Civil                     rsdK;apmihfOya'jy|mef;Ekdif                             jrefrmh"avhxHk;wrf;xdrf;             omomoemjzpfonf[k EkdifiH                    rdrdwdkYEkdifiH zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOy
       rsdK;apmifhOya'jy|mef;&ef                   Education taeeJY vHkavmuf                jcif;ESihf ywfoufí rnfonfh                              jrm;rIOya'wGif rnfolYukd vuf                awmfu todtrSwfjyKonf/                       a'wGif bmomBuD;av;ckudk
jynfwGif;jynfy oHCmhudk,fpm;                       w,fvdkY ,HkMunfw,f/ Oya'                 bmomrqkd xdef;odrf;apmihf                                         G fh d k
                                                                                                                                                    xyfcir&S[ryg0ifbJ aoG;&if;                  EkdifiHawmfonf c&pf,mef? tpö                todtrSwfjyKumuG,fapmihf
vS,ftyg; 1ç500 ausmfu ZGef                         wpfcktaeeJY rvkdtyfbl;vkdY ,l            a&Smufonfh Oya'rsm;&Sdaomf                              om;&if;rSvGJí vGwfvyfpGm                    vmrf? [dE´LESihf ewfudk;uG,f                a&Smuf&rnfh jy|mef;csufrsm;yg
v 27 &uf tif;pdeoCmhnvmf H               D         qw,f/ Oya'qkd&if 'Dxuft                  vnf; ax&0g'Ak'¨bmomwGif                                 vufxyfcGihf&SdaMumif; azmfjy                aom bmomwdkYukd EkdifiHawmf                 0ifNyD;jzpfí vlrsdK;a&;? bmom
cHwGif wnDwñGwfwnf;vuf                             a&;BuD;wJhOya'awG trsm;BuD;                    d h
                                                                                            rl r&SonftwGuf {nhonfrsm;               f               xm;onf/                                     wGif &SdaeMuaom udk;uG,f&m                  a&;cGJjcm;rIrsm;udk vHk;0vufrcH
cHtwnfjyKcJhMujyefonf/                             &Sw,f/ 'gawGukd t&ifvyoifh
                                                     d                                k f   \ tEkdifusifhrIrsm; BuHKawGUcJh&                               ]]1954 txl;xdr;f jrm;rIEifh     S    bmomrsm;[lí todtrSwfjyK                       d f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            EkiaMumif; Zlvif 21 &ufu bm    dk
       ,cktcg rsKd ;apmihOya'udk   f               w,fvkdYyJ jywfjywfom;om;                 aomaMumifh ,if;Oya'ay:                                  tarG q uf c H r I O ya'&S d w ,f /          aMumif; 2008 zGJUpnf;yHktajccH                                    k
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            omaygif;pHcspMf unfnñwa&;               D G f
uRrf;usifaom Oya'ynm&Sif                           ajymcsifygw,f}}[k csif;trsdK;            ayguf & ef Bud K ;yrf ; jcif ; jzpf                     jynfhpHkNyD;om;yg/ NyD;&ifvTwf              Oya'wGif azmfjyxm;onf/ jref                 tzGJUESihfawGUqHkpOf xnfhoGif;
rsm;jzihf wkdifyifí rlMurf;tqihf                   om;ygwD O uú | OD ; Zd k Z rf u          aMumif; q&mawmfrsm;u rdefY                              awmfuwpfqihf vkyf&rSm/ t                          d f H G ¨
                                                                                                                                                                                                rmEkiiwif Ak'bmomud;k uG,f                  ajymMum;cJhonf/
4

Home                                                                                                                                                                                       Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013



                                                                                      wdkif;&if;om;vufeufudkiftzJGUtm;vHk;yg0ifrnfh
    a&Twd*HkapwDodkY "m;,lvmol wpfOD; xyfrHzrf;qD;                                    Nidrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;yJGtwGuf KNU ESihf RCSS yl;wJGaMunmcsufxkwf
    at;jrwfol                                                                         atmifol&                                                                                                              odkYaomf rMumao;rDu
                                     &efukef? Zlvkdif-20
    a&Twd*HkapwDawmfwGif "m;,laqmifolwpfOD;tm; 'kwd,                                                   k
                                                                                               &efue?f Zlvi-20 kd f                                                                                   jyefvnfzJGUpnf;vdkufonhf Nidrf;
    tBudrftjzpf tmZmenfaeYwGif xyfrHzrf;qD;ta&;,lcJh                                  wpfEkdifiHvkH; typfcwf&yfpJ&ef                                                                                  csrf;a&;aumfrwDrsm;wGif a':
    aMumif; &efukefwdkif;&JwyfzJGUrSL;½Hk;rS owif;&&dSonf/                            wdkif;&if;om;vufeufydkiftzJGU                                                                                   atmif q ef ; pk M unf r yg0if b J
           a&Tw*apwDawmifbufrc&Sd tv,fypö,apmif;wef;
                   d kH                         k f               H                   tm;vHk;ESihf tpdk;& yxrqHk;t                                                                                    wkdif;a'oBuD;ESihf jynfe,f0ef
    wGif ,ckv19&ufu eHeuf10em&Du vHkNcHKa&;wm0ef,l                                    Budrf awGUqHk aqG;aEG;Mu&mwGif                                                                                  BuD;csKyfrsm;om yg0ifcJhonf/
    olrsm;onf vIdifom,mNrdKUe,ftwGif; aexdkifol touf                                  yg0ifywfoufol tpktzJGUtm;                                                                                             tpdk;&taejzihf wpfEdkifiH
    26 ESpt&G,f ArmvlrsKd ;ode;f rsKd ;aqGtm; vHNk cKH a&;t& &SmazG
             f                                                                        vHk; twlwuGyl;aygif;aqmif                                                                                       vHk;typftcwf&yfpJa&; pmcsKyf
    ppfaq;cJhonf/                                                                     &G u f o G m ;&ef vd k t yf a Mumif ;                                                                           csKyfqdkEdkif&ef wkdif;&if;om;
                Yd
           xkaemuf¤if;xHrS t½d;k toGm; &Spvufr&daom "m;tdrf  f  S                     u&if t rsKd ; om;tpnf ; t½H k ;                                                                                 vufeufudkiftzJGUtpnf;rsm;
                        f                               S Jh
    yg "m;OD;cRewpfacsmif; &SmazGawGU&dconf/ aemuf¤if;tm;                             (KNU)ESihf &Srf;jynfjyefvnfxl                                                                                   ESihf n§dEIdif;vsuf&SdNyD; xdkuJhokdY
                          l        G f G
    trsm;jynfo0ifxuom;vm&m ae&mwGif cGijhf yKcsur&dbJ                           f S   axmifa&;aumifpD (RCSS)                  ESptwGi;f usi;f yEdi&ef BuKd ;yrf;
                                                                                                                                  f                k f             w,fqdkwm wm0eft& vkyf&             vufrSwfa&;xdk;NyD;ygu EdkifiH
               § dk f                 hJ h
    "m;ajrmifuiaqmifconftwGufvufeufOya' yk'r-19                               f                              G
                                                                                      Ouú|ESpO;D u yl;wJaMunmcsuf
                                                                                                   f                          aeonf/                               w,f/ ae&m,lzdkY 'DtzJGUrSmyg0if    a&; aqG;aEG;rIrsm; pwifrnfjzpf
    (i)t& zrf;qD;ppfaq;aeaMumif; &Jrwwrf;wGif azmfjyxm;     S f                       wpfapmif xkwfjyefvdkufonf/                     tqdkyg xkwfjyefcsufwGif       wmr[kwf&bl;/ Nidrf;csrf;a&;        onf/
    onf/                                                                                                                                                                                                    NyD;cJhonhf&ufydkif;u wdkif;
                                                                                                 k
                                                                                             wdi;f &if;om;vufeufuif     kd    jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;ü yg0ifywfouf       aqG;aEG;yJGrsm;wGif b,folrqdk
           Zlvkdif 12 &ufeHeufydkif;uvnf; tqdkyg awmifbuf
                                                                                      ESpfzJGU yl;wJGaMunmcsuf xkwf           onhf tiftm;pkrsm;jzpfMuaom           vkyfEdkifwJh tajctaerSm &Sdyg      &if;om;vufeufudkiftiftm;
    rkcfapmif;wef;üyif bk&m;vmzl;olwpfOD;tm; rouFmí
    wm0efus vHkNcHKa&;wkdYu ppfaq;cJh&m ¤if;ukdifaqmifvm                              jyefjcif;rSm yxrqHk;tBudrfjzpf          EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;? vlrItzJGUt       w,f/ us&mae&mu wm0ef,l             pkrsm;ESihf zJGUpnf;xm;aom nD
                                 d f                  J
    onfh <uyf<uyftwtwGi;f rS "mwfctBu;D oH;k vH;k ? 0ki,mBuKd ;         d f           NyD; Zlvdkif 17 &ufu xkwfjyefcJh                         f
                                                                                                                              pnf;rsm;? vTwawmf? wyfrawmf?         &rSmjzpfw,f}} [k a':atmif          ñGwfaom wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;
    wpfacsmif;? rD;cvkwfwpfck? t½dk;toGm; ckepfvufrcefY&dS                            jcif;jzpfonf/                           a':atmifqef;pkMunftygt               qef;pkMunfu qdkonf/                rsm; zuf'&,faumifpD (UNFC)
    "m;cRefwpfacsmif;? cGwpfckwkdYukd awGU&í vufeufOya'                                          k
                                                                                             wdi;f &if;om;vufeufuif     kd    0if tjcm;aom txifu& EkiiH     d f              k                  k
                                                                                                                                                                           wdi;f &if;om;rsm;u vdvm;   rS enf;ynmtaxmuftuljyK
    yk'rjzihf trIzita&;,lconf/ okaomf ¤if;rSm qkiu,f
       f                    G fh          hJ             Yd                 d f       tzJGUtpnf;tm;vHk;? EdkifiHa&;yg         a&;acgif;aqmifrsm;yg yg0if&          onhftwGuf Nidrf;csrf;a&;aqG;       tzJGUESihf jrefrmNidrf;csrf;a&;pif
           l
    jyifowpfO;D jzpfNy;D &GmwGif tvkyraumif;í &efueoYdktvkyf
                                                 f                  k f               wDrsm;? vTwawmfu,pm;vS,f
                                                                                                     f            kd f        rnf[kvnf; yg&Sdonf/                  aEG;yJrsm;wGif a':atmifqef;pk
                                                                                                                                                                         G                            wmrS enf;ynmtaxmuftul
    vkyf&efvma&mufjcif;jzpfNyD; bk&m;vmzl;pOf qdkifu,fjyif                            rsm;? tpdk;&tzJGUponfwdkYyg0if                     k                   k
                                                                                                                                     ]]wdi;f &if;om;rsm;u vdvkd    MunfrSm wpfae&mrSyg0ifoihf         jyKtzJGUwdkYonf EkdifiHa&;aqG;
    &mwGif toHk;jyKaomypönf;rsm;ukd &JurouFmí zrf;qD;                                 aom Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf EdkifiH         vm;vm;&Sdw,fqdkwmuawmh               aMumif; jynfovwawmfOuú|
                                                                                                                                                                                      Yl T f          aEG;rIrwdkifrD tBuKdn§dEIdif;rIrsm;
    cHcJh&jcif;jzpfonf[kxGufqkdcJhonf/                                                a&;aqG;aEG;yJGudk tpdk;&u ,ck           0rf;omygw,f/ 'Dvtvkyvyf  kd  f k     ol&OD;a&Tref;uajymonf/             jyKvkyf&ef aqG;aEG;cJhonf/
                                                                                               Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013




jrefrmh½kyf&Sif wpfausmhjyefacgif;axmifvmEdkifrvm;
                    k
93 ESpMf um ordi;f umvtwGi;f                                                                                                                            &S d a om jref r ma[mvd 0 k ' f [ k          avmuf½dkuful; Ekdifjcif;r&SdcJhyg/
wGif jrefrmh½kyf&Sifvkyfief;onf                                                                                                                         ac:qdk&onfh at0rf; ½kyf&Sif                             f S f        f
                                                                                                                                                                                                             ½ky&io½kyaqmiftu,f
twuftusrsKd;pHkudk BuHKawGUcJh                                                                                                                          NcHudk wnfcJhonf/                            'rDaqGZifxdkufu ]]1946 rSm
&ygonf/ odkYaomfvnf; 1963                                                                                                                                             k f S H
                                                                                                                                                                 ]]'D½y&iNf cu jrefrmh½y&if  k f S   awmh ½kyf&SifawGjyefp½dkufcJhyg
ckESpf ppftmPmodrf;NyD; aemuf                                                                                                                                  f
                                                                                                                                                        vkyief;&JU xnf0gcrf;em;ta&;                  w,f/ 'gayrJh t&nftaoG;r
qk d & S , f v pf tpd k ; &vuf x uf                                                                                                                     ygcJhrIudk jywmayghAsm}} at0rf;              aumif;bl;/ *syefacwfrm zvif         S
wGif jrefrmh½kyf&Siftusydkif;odkY                                                                                                                       NcHwnfaxmifol OD;nDyk\ wl                    r0,fEkdifawmh zvifawGudk ajr
a&mufcJhonfqkdonfrSm vHk;vHk;                                                                                                                           jzpf o l O D ; jrif h p d k ; u ajymMum;     xJjr§KyfNyD;odrf;xm;Muw,f/ tJ
                  f
vsm;vsm;rSeonf[k rqkEiyg/      d kd f                                                                                                                   onf/                                         'DrSm tyl&SdefaMumifh zvifawG
xdktpdk;&vufxufaemufydkif;                                                                                                                                       1930 jynfhESpfwGifrl jref           ysufpD;ukefw,f}}
ppftpdk;&u tmPmodrf;,lNyD;                                                                                                                              rmpwefY pGefYpm;cef;½kyf&Sifrsm;                                 S f G f S f
                                                                                                                                                                                                             1947 ckEpwif ½ky&ium;
onfhaemuf q,fpkESpfrsm;pGm                                                                                                                              ESifh umwGef;um;rsm;vnf; ½dkuf               ES p f q ,f c ef Y ½d k u f u l ; cJ h N yD ; xd k Y
tMumrSm vHk;0ysufpD;,dk,Gif;                                                                                                                            ul;vmcJhygonf/ ½kyf&Sifrsm;u                 aemufwGif wpfESpfudk um;av;
oGm;cJhjcif;jzpfygonf/                                                                                                                                  vlrIa&;ESihfEdkifiHa&;udk ½dkuful;           q,f ? um;ig;q,f t xd wd k ;
         jrefrmh½kyf&SifaeY[k aemuf                                                                                                                     xm;aomf v nf ; xk d t csd e f u                             h
                                                                                                                                                                                                     wufvmcJonf/ a[mvd0'½yf                      k f k
ydkif;wGifowfrSwfcJhonfh 1920                                                                                                                           avmif;upm;ESifh tusifhysufjc                 &SifuJhodkY jrefrm½kyf&Sif\ acwf
jynfhESpf atmufwkdbm 17 &uf                                                                                                                             pm;rIrsm;udk azmfjyxm;onfh t                 taumif;qHk;umvu 1950
wGif arwåmESifh ol&m½kyf&Sif              jrefrmh&kyf&Sifacwfaumif;pOftcgu &kyf&SifaMumfjimwpfck                                                        wGuf ½kyf&Sifum; tawmfrsm;                   jynfhESpfrsm;jzpfNyD; 1952 ckESpf
Zmwfum;jzifh tpjyKcJhaom jref             rif;orD;rsm;u tdE´d,ESifh *syef                     k f k f S f
                                                                                  abmvd0'½y&iu jrefrmEkiiH    d f   xd ½dkuful;cJhonfh jrefrm½kyf&Sif   rsm; NAdwdoQ tpkd;& qifqmjzwf                wGif tu,f'rD½kyf&Sifxl;cRef
rmh½kyf&Sifvkyfief;onf tpydkif;           EkdifiHwdkYwGif oGm;a&mufo½kyf          \ aemufwpfEpMf umrSom toH
                                                                                                      S             rsm;rSm &mZ0ifum;rsm;ESihf rdom;    awmufjcif;udkcHcJh&\/ 1941                   qkcsD;jr§ihfrIudk pwifcJhonf/
wmxG u f tvG e f a umif ; cJ h y g        aqmifcJhNyD; 1932 ckESpfwGifrl          xGufZmwfum;udk ½dkuful;Ekdif      pk Zmwfvrf;rsm;omrsm;onf/           ckESpftausmf *syefacwfwGif
onf/ 1920 jynfEptapmydi;f
                       h S f          k   toHwdwfrS toHxGuf½kyf&Sif               cJhjcif;jzpfygonf/                1930 jynfhESpfwGif at0rf; ukrÜ      ½kyf&Sif½Hktawmfrsm;rsm;rSm AHk;                                      pmrsufESm(6)odkY
umvrsm;wG i f jref r mh ½ k y f & S i f   rsm; ½dkuful;vmonf/ tdE´d,                     1920 rS 1930 jynfhESpft    PDu 23 [ufwmajrtus,f                BuJcH&NyD; ½kyf&Sifvnf; ig;ESpf
6

life                                                                                                                                                                                                       Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013


pmrsufESm(5)rS

jrefrmh½kyf&Sifvkyfief; wpfausmhjyefacgif;axmif vmEdkifOD;rvm;
           1953 ckESpfwGif Crasade                                  d d     Ydk
                                                  csn;f u NAwoQw\ vTr;f rk;d rIt                    wGif oHk;ESpfoufwrf;omowf
Pictures California udk twk,l                     aiGUtoufrnfonfhtcgurS                             rSwfcJh\/
                 k
Ny;D vlxatmifv½y&ium;Bu;D      H k f S f          r&SdcJh[k ajymMum;onf/                                                      S f G d S f
                                                                                                             1972 ckEpwif qk&,vpf
udk 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ekudk,fwkdifyg                         ol\ oli,fcsif;tcsKdUu                     tpdk;&u jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;[k
0ifZmwfñTef;a&;om;cJhonf/                         NAdwdoQvkyf½kyf&Sifpufypönf;                      qkdum ½kyf&Sifrsm;udk qkd&S,fvpf
           ]]tJ'DZmwfum;u uGefjrL                 rsm; oH;k aomfvnf; NAwoQw\    d d         Ykd     oabmxm;rsm; jyefYyGm;a&;t                          ]0}O MumqHokyf
epfpepfudk qefYusifNyD; vlYtcGifh                 ½k y f & S i f y nmud k jref r m½k y f & S i f    wGuf ½dkuful;&rnf[k owfrSwf
ta&;udk tm;ay;xm;wJh *E¦0if                       orm;rsm;u erlemtwkr,lcJh                          vmonf/                                           ]]0}}O u aps;xJrSm tNrJawGUae&NyD;bmrSef;rodvkdY 'grSr[kwf bmvkyfpm;&rSef;rodvkdY jrnf;
Zmwfum;wpfum;yg}}[k aqGZif                        [k olu qkdygonf/                                           ]]tJ'gu uRefrwdkY&JU tEk                prf;rMunhfzl;olawGtwGuf 'Dwpfywf0kdufzDu jyifqif csufjyKwfxm;ygw,f/ aps;xJu usKdNyD;
xkdufu qkdonf/                                                   Yk
                                                          odaomfvnf; NAwoQtpd;k  d d                ynmzef w D ; wd k ; wuf r I a wG u d k           om; ]]0}}O twkH;wpfq,fusyfom;? yJMumqHtenf;i,feJY tmvl;ESpfvkH;yJ vdkygw,f/
           1950 jynf h E S p f w G i f , l e D    &qDu qifqmjzwfrIudk jrefrm                        [efYwm;vdkufwmygyJ}}[k a':                               0,fvmwJh ]]0}}OtwkH;ukd q,frdepfcefYjyefjyKwfygr,f/ yJ MumqHtenf;i,fukdvnf; jyKwf
Amq,fpwl'D,dk\ tdE´d,Xme                          tpd;k &u twk,cum vGwvyf l hJ        f             aqGZifxdkufu ajymMum;onf/                        yg/ tmvl;ESpfvkH;ukdvnf; jyKwfxm;yg/
udk,fpm;vS,fu jrefrmjynfokdY                      a&;&tNyD; 1950 jynfhESpfrsm;                               ½kyf&SifaumifpDtzGJU0if vl                      ]]0}}Oukd wkdY[l;vSD;ovkd taeawmfvSD;? a&Smuf&Gufn§yfxnhf? i½kwfoD;pdrf;? i½kwftusuf
vm a&mufNy;D enf;ynmtcsKUd udk                    aemufydkif; ½kyf&SifqifqmtzGJU                    BuD;rsm;udk tpdk;&u cefYtyfol                    rIefY? MuufoGefjzLqDcsufaMumf? iHjym&nf? [if;cwfrIefYwkdYESifha&marTe,fNyD; oHy&m&nfn§pfvkduf
oifjycJh&m jrefrmrsm;uvnf;                        udkvnf; wnfaxmifcJh onf/                          rsm;ESifh tpm;xdk;cJhonf/ &nf                    &if&ygNyD/ oufowfvGwf pm;vkdolawGuawmh iHjym&nftpm; qm;eJY okyfvdkY&ygw,f/
pdwf0ifpm;avhvmcJhMuonf/                                  odkYaomfvnf; xkdqifqm                             f f S
                                                                                                    &G,csurm tEkynmxuf xde;f                                 cyfprpr]hf ]0}}Oudk csOcsOpyfpyf okyxm;wmaMumifh t&omtvGeaumif;wJh [if;vsmwpf
                                                                                                                                                                   d hf d           f f          f                           f
wpf c sd e f w nf ; rS m yif ½k y f & S i f       tzGJUu jrefrm½kyf&Sifvkyfief;udk                  csKyfzdkY oufoufomjzpfonf/                       cGufyJjzpfygw,f/
ukrÜPDrsm;ESifh ½kyf&Sif½Hkta&t                   xdcdkufrIr&Sd[k tzdk;ESifh zcifESpf               ½kyf&Sifvkyfief;wpfckvHk;onf
         f
wGuvnf; rsm;jym;wk;d wufvm                        OD;pvHk;emrnfBuD; ½kyf&Sif'g½dkuf                 jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrf;pOftm
onf/ at0rf;NcHtquftET,f                           wmrsm;jzpfMuaom a':0gEku                          abmfomjzpfatmif zdtm;ay;
OD ; atmif p nf u xk d a cwf t                    qkdonf/                                           xm;cJhonf/
aMumif;udk ,ckvdk jyefajymjy                                         f
                                                          ]]uRertzd;k u 1959 ckEpf              S            1988 ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDt
onf/                                              rSm ½kkyf&Sifp½dkufcJhw,f/ 'gayrJh                a&;tcif;tNyD;wGif tpdk;&\
           ]]tJ'Dwkef;uqkd&if tdE´d,              qifqmaMumifh jyóemr&SdcJh                         ½kyf&Siftay:wif;usyfrIu ydkydk
eJY xdkif;o½kyfaqmifawGawmif                      bl ; / ol u omref v l a wG t                      qkd;vmonf/ taemufwkdif;Ekdif
'D u d k v m&w,f / bmvd k Y v J q d k             aMumif;udkyJ ½kyf&Sif½dkufcJhwmyg                 iHrsm;\ ydwfqdkYrIaMumifh zvif
                   S
awmh 'Drmu tuke&w,fav}}           f                           D d f k
                                                  yJ/ tJ'tcsewe;f uawmh acwf                                    l
                                                                                                    0,f,&ef tcuftcJ&vmonfh               dS
           a':aqGZifxdkufuvnf;                    aumif;wmaygh/ wpfESpfudk ½kyf                     tcg AD'D,dkrsm; ½dkuful;cGifhudk
]]uRef r wk d Y u wpf c sd e f w k e f ; u        &S i f u m;wpf & mausmf a vmuf                    ay;cJhonf/
awmh tm&S½kyf&Sifvkyfief;&JU rD;                  xGufw,f}}                                                       k                f S D
                                                                                                             xdtcg tdrrm AD',Mdk unfh
½SL;wefaqmifayghav/ tJ'DaeY                               1962 ckESpf awmfvSefa&;                   onfh tavhtxxGef;um;vm
awGudkyJ jyefwrf;wae&wmyJ/                        aumifpD tpdk;&u w½kwfEkdifiH                      NyD; wpfESpfudk AD'D,dkum; wpf
t&ifwkef;uawmh a&SUu tck                          twkdif; yHkpH,lNyD; 0g'jzefY½kyf&Sif              axmif c ef Y t xd xk w f v k y f E k d i f
awmhaemufu/ obm0yJaygh}}                          awGudk,fwdkif½dkufum tpdk;&½Hk                    vmonf/
              Yk
           xdtjyif 1954 ckEpf urÇm       S        awGrSm jyocJhonf/ aemufydkif;                              tjcm;wpfzufrmvnf; ½kyf    S
ausmf NAd w d o Qppf u m; c&rf ;                  wGif p&dwfpuBuD;onfhtwGuf                         &Sif Munfholusqif;vmonf/
a&mifvGifjyif (Purple Plain)                      xkdtBuHudk pGefYvTwfum ½kyf&Sif                   vufrSwf0,fNyD; ½HkwGif Munfh
wGif jrefrmrif;orD;0if;rif;oef;                   rsm;udk xdef;csKyf&ef tjcm;enf;                   rnfhtpm; rdom;pkESifht wl AD'D
u rif;om;*a&*&DyufEitwl                    S hf   vrf;rsm;udk oHk;vmcJhonf/                         ,dkwpfum;Munfhvdkufjcif;u
o½kyfaqmifcJhygonf/                                       'g½dkufwmMunfpkd;xGef;u                   aiG 500 avmufom tukeft
           NAdwdoQudkvdkeDEkdifiHjzpfzl;          ]]olwkdYu uRefawmfwkdYudk zefwD;                  us&S d o nf r d k Y yd k w G u f a jc ud k u f
onfhtwGuf ,ckuJhodkY jrefrm                       cGifhay;xm;ygw,f/ 'gayrJh t                       vmonf/
½kyf&Sifvkyfief;u vsifvsifjref                    rsm;BuD;apmifhMunfhxdef;csKyfrI                            xdkYtjyif udk&D;,m;? w½kwf
jref wk;d wufconf[vnf; ajymhJ        k            awGMum;uayghav}}                                  ESifh a[mvd0k'f½kyf&Sifrsm;udk vl
Muonf/ wu,fwrf;wGif ½kyf                                  1980 jynfhESpfwGifrl o½kyf                BudKufrsm;vmjcif;uvnf; jynf
&SifESifhywfoufNyD; NAdwdoQ tpkd;                 aqmif w pf O D ; ud k w pf E S p f v Qif          wGif;½kyf&Sifvkyfief;\ tajct
&qDu ajymyavmufatmif yHh                          ½kyf&SifoHk;um;om½dkuf&rnf[k                      aeudk ydkrdkqdk;&Gm;aponf/
ydk;rIr&cJh[k a':aqGZif xkdufu                    owfrSwfcsufcscJhonf/ ½kyf&Sif                                     f S f kH
                                                                                                             ½ky&i½rsm;uvnf; 0ifaiG
qkdygonf/                                         o½k y f a qmif a qG Z if x k d u f u              raumif;awmhacs/ 1988 ckESpf
           odkYaomfvnf; rMumao;                   xk d t csuf u d k vuf r cH c J h o nf h           aemufydkif;wGif tdrf&maps;rsm;
rD u NAd w d o Qaumif p D ü Zmwf                  twGuf olYudk ½kyf&Sif½dkufcGifh                   wpf&Sdefxdk;jrihfwufvmonfht
ñTef;a&;om;enf; oifwef;rsm;                       ajcmufvydwfcJhonf/xdkowf                                           f S f kH
                                                                                                    wGuf ½ky&i½rsm;udk zsuNf y;D tdrf
ESifh xkwfvkyfrIqkdif&m oifwef;                   rSwfrIonf ½kyf&Sifo½kyfaqmif                      &mwdkufcef;rsm; aqmufvmMu
rsm;ay;cJhNyD; tar&duefrDcsD*ef                   rsm;\ toufarG;0rf;ausmif;                         onf/
jynfe,ftajcpduz'azmifa';      k f Ykd f           b0udk tpk;d &u xde;f csKyjf cif;udk                                 f S
                                                                                                             ]]½ky&ijf ywmu &if;ES;D xm;
&Sif;uvnf; jrefrm½kyf&Sifvkyf                     jyo&ma&mufaMumif; aqGZif                          wJh aiGjyef&r,fvdkY tmrçrcHEkdif
ief ; twG u f ul n D r I r sm;ay;cJ h             xkdufu ,HkMunfcJhonf/                             bl;av}}[k a':aqGZifxkdufu
onf[k od&ygonf/                                           xdkYtjyif ½kyf&Sifrsm;onf                     d
                                                                                                    qkonf/ jrefrmEkiiwif vuf&dS   d f H G
           tu,f'rDqk& 'g½dkufwm                   ZmwfñTef;rsm;cGihfjyKcsufESifh t                        f S f
                                                                                                    ½ky&i½kH 100 cef&onfteuf ½HkY dS h
OD ; Munf p d k ; xG e f ; url NAd w d o Q        rsm;jynfojl yo&ef cGijhf yKcsuwYkd      f         50 cefYuyJ ½kyf&Sifrsm; jyoae
acwfwGif ½dkuful;cJhaomfvnf;                      vdktyfaMumif; owfrSwfcsuf                         onf[k olu cefYrSef;ygonf/
arwåmESihf ol&mZmwfum;rStp                        rsm;yg tpdk;&u csrSwfcJhonf/
jrefrm½ky&ium;rsm; oufouf
                     f S f                        cGifhjyKcsufudkvnf; aemufydkif;                                      pmrsufESm(19)odkY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   7

Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013                                                                                                                                                                              life
                                                                                                                                                     wkdufckdufwm;qD;cJhMujcif;jzpf        h
                                                                                                                                                                                         cJaom ol\Zmwd ylwmtkNd rKd UrSm



twdwfrSm aysmfarGUaewJhol
                                                                                                                                                     onf/ xkdpOfu aemhwifucsif           yifwpfoufv;kH tajccsaexdichJ              k f
                                                                                                                                                     v,f0D;wyfwGif ucsifwkdif;&if;                        d
                                                                                                                                                                                         onf/'kw,urÇmppftwGi;f wduf                   k
                                                                                                                                                     om;trsm;pktjyif &0rfESihf vD        yJGrsm;wGif yg0ifcJholyDyD OD;0l;eif
                                                                                                                                                     ql; wdkif;&if;om;rsm;vnf; yg        wDwpfa,muf aowGif;rS vuf
                                                                                                                                                     0ifcJhonf[k OD;0l;eifwDu ajym       wpfvHk;jcm; vGwfajrmufcJhonfh
                                                                                                                                                     jyonf/ a'ocHwkdif;&if;om;           tBudrfuvnf; oHk;Budrfxufr
ausmfukdukd                                                                                                                                          wpfOD;yDyD rd½dk;zvmpkdufysdK;a&;              h
                                                                                                                                                                                         enf;cJay/ *syefwyfrsm;ESifh xdyf
                                                                                                                                                            f       d
                                                                                                                                                     vkyief;ukom tpOf wpkuvyf  d f k     wkduf&ifqkdifwkdufyJGrsm;tjyif &J
pcef;rS aoewfqí tajctae   GJ                                                                                                                         ukdifaomfvnf; ylwmtdka&muf                                    fh S f
                                                                                                                                                                                         abmfwpfO;D ESiEpO;D wnf; *syef
         h
Munf&efwpfa,muf wnf; xGuf                                                                                                                            vmrnfh *syefwyfrsm;ukd um           wyfom;wpfOD;ukd rsufESmcsif;
vmaom ucsif wyfom;av;                                                                                                                                uG,f&rnfhtajctaeaMumihf                  d f k f
                                                                                                                                                                                         qkiowoifypfEiconfhtrSwf        dk f hJ
wpfa,mufvrf;auGUwGif &efol                                                                                                                           ucsifwyfxJodkY 0ifa&mufcJh                               S hJ
                                                                                                                                                                                         w&vnf;&dconf[k OD;0l;eifwD
*syefwyfom;ESifh jAKe;f ceJ&ifqif kd                                                                                                                 jcif;jzpfaMumif; OD;0l;eifwDu                    f l
                                                                                                                                                                                         u*kP,0<hH um;pGm ajymjyonf/
tawGUxdwfvefYoGm;onf/ ESpf                                                                                                                           qkdonf/ ]]*syefawG oGm;wdkuf                 ppfyJGrsm;taMumif; jyef
                    f Y
OD;om; xdwveftMhH oumacwå                                                                                                                            &r,fqdkNyD; ajymMuawmhukd,fh        ajymif;ajymaecsdefwGif olYrsuf
             G
aMumifom;Ny;D aemuf uk,pcef; d hf                                                                                                                                 Y dk
                                                                                                                                                     oabmeJu,fwyfzUGJ xJ 0ifvuf     dk   vHk;rsm;rSm toufwpf&mqdk
qDodkY jyefajy;Muavonf/                                                                                                                              wm/ tdrfu tpuawmh wm;               onfh t&G,fESihfrvkdufatmif
         ]]uRefawmfa&m tJ'D*syef                                                                                                                     w,f/ 'gayrJh aemufawmhwm;           awmufyvmwwfonf/
            Y G
a&mvefom;wmaygh/ aoewfeYJ                                                                                                                            vkdYr&awmhbl;/ tJ'geJY *syef                                    d
                                                                                                                                                                                                  ]]wpfcgqk&ifwyfzUGJ pcef;cs
rypfMubJ ukd,fhpcef;ukd,fjyef                                                                                                                        awGoGm; wkdufr,fh wyfzJGUxJyg       aewkef; a&SUem;rSm &efolYpcef;
      hf
vSnajy;Muwm/wyfzUGJ qDa&muf                                                                                                                          vmwm}}[k OD;0l;eifwDu vGef          &dS? r&dSoGm;Munfhckdif;wm/ ucsif
                f     h S
 awmh uReawmfrm armvkpum;      Yd                                                                                                                    cJhaom ESpf 70 ausmf *syefrsm;      wyfom;wpfa,mufeaygh/ uk,f              YJ  d
rajymEkdifbl;/ udk,fu wyfom;           *syefawGudk wdkufcdkufcJhaom ucsifppfom;a[mif;BuD; OD;0l;eifwD                          "mwfyHk-ausmfudkudk   ukdwkduf&ef wyfxJokdY0ifcJhonf      u wyfom;ti,fqkdawmh 'Dvkd
ti,fqkdawmh pcef;cswJh teD;                    h kH        J f
                                       ab;eD;cJyudk toH00jJ zihtouf            xkwfcJhonfh tcsdefucsifwyf[k     yJGjyif;xefpGmjzpfyGm;aeMucsdef          d d f I f S
                                                                                                                                                     ukpwvy&m; pGm jyefajymonf/                                 d hJ
                                                                                                                                                                                         cPcPtcki;f cHc&w,f/ tJ'geJY
em;rSm &efolpcef;&dS? r&dStNrJyJ       wpf&mt&G,f ucsifwyfom;                  vlodrsm;onfh aemhwifucsif        jzpfonf/ ucsijf ynfe,fjrpfBuD;                NAwoQwyfrawmfEifh Arm
                                                                                                                                                                d d             S                           h
                                                                                                                                                                                         oGm;Munfawmh *syefuif;orm;
               h dk
oGm;Munfci;f wmcH&w,f/ uRef            a[mif;OD;0l;eifwDu jyefajymjy           v,f0D;wyfzJGUwGif yg0ifcJhonfh   em;okdY ausmfjzwfum ylwmtkd          wyfrawmfyl;aygif;um *syef           wpfa,mufu aoewfaxmif
 awmf vnf;pcef;jyefa&mufa&m                                 D
                                       aeonf/ OD;0l;eifwonf 1942               wyfom;wpfOD;yif/                                 Sd kd f
                                                                                                                a'oodYka&muf&&efriav;q,f             wyfzJGUrsm;wkdufxkwf&mwGif xkd      xm;NyD; aemufrDSxkdifaewm/
*syefawGaemufua&mufvmwm                ckESpf tcsdefumvu jrefrm                     jrefrmjynftESHYtjym;wGif    ceftvkwifaemhwifucsifv,f
                                                                                                                    Y d G                                             f
                                                                                                                                                     pOfuucsiwyfrawmfrmatmif S           yxrawmh vefYoGm;wm/ jrif
     d f
eJYwkuyjGJ zpfawmhwmyJ}}[k *syef              J G f
                                       jynfxrS edye*syefwyfrawmfudk            *syefwyfrsm;ESifh NAdwdoQrsm;    0D;wyfom;rsm;u qufvufr               yJG&rIjzihfemrnfBuD;cJhonf/ *s      oGm;vm;vkdYaygh/
awG jrefrmjynf0ifcJhpOf touf           NAdwdoQtpdk;&ESihf yl;aygif;wkduf       OD;aqmifonfh wyfzJGUrsm;wkduf    usL;ausmfap&ef oGm;a&muf             yefrsm;ukd usL;ausmrvm&ef ckcH
                                                                                                                                                                         f                                             pmrsufESm(8)odkY
8

Home                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013


rsufESmzkH;rS                                                                                     rsufESmzkH;rS                                                                                                axmifwufawmhonf/ jynfy                         wGif t"du&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHaeolrsm;
                                                                                                                                                                                                               &if;ES;D jrK§ yErudk arQmu;dk íaiGaMu;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               f HS I           f             rSm t&iftpdk;&vufxufu em
ukrÜPDrsm;odrf;onfh v,f,majrjyóem wyfudpöxuf ykdcuf                                               ta&;,lrIrsm;tvGef tdrfjcHajr                                                                                 csrf;om<u,f0olrsm;u pufrI                      rnfBuD;vkyfief;&Sifrsm;? MoZm
        ]]ukrÜPDu rvdrfhwywfeJY                 ukdtm;uk;d Ny;D vkyaqmifaMumif;
                                                                       f                                                                                                                                       Zk e f p D r H u d e f ; &S d a om ae&mrsm;    tmPm&dScJholrsm;ESifh qufpyfrI
                         k f
t&ifu tmPmydiawGeYJ aygif;                      aumfrwD tzJGU0ifrsm;uajym                                                   dk f
                                                                                                          tpk;d &u Zlviv'kw,ywf           d             aqmif&onfhtxl;tcGefouf                                 wGif ajr0,fxm;Muonf/ ,if;                             S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              rsm;&daeojzihf tdrNf cajraps;uGuf H
odrf;wmvnf;&dSw,f/ t&ifu                        onf/ ]]c½kdeDawGu tusdK;wl                        wGif tdrfjcHajr a&mif;0,f&mü                          omcGifhpepfukd ig;ESpfMumjy|mef;                                                 Sd k f
                                                                                                                                                                                                               aMumifh vuf&vyief;&Sirsm; ESihf        f       rS m uk d i f w G , f & cuf a eaMumif ;
tmPm&dSwJholu pDrHudef;qkdNyD;                                           H d
                                                yl aygif;w,f/ pDrue;f vkyw,f            f         yg0ifywfoufcJhaom jynfwGif;                           cJh onf/ 2012 ckESpfMo*kwfv                            jynfyrS xkwfukefvkyfief;vkyf                   vnf; uRrf;usifolrsm;uoHk;oyf
vkyfckdif;vkdY Mum;nyfwJhvkyfief;                                    d
                                                qkd Ny;D v,for;f wmawG&w,f/          Sd                   f
                                                                                                  tcGerS 0efxrf;9OD;tm; tem;ay;                         aemufydkif;rSpí tqkdygpepfukd                          ukdifolrsm;twGuf tcuftcJ                       Muonf/
&Sivnf;&dw,f/ wyfvuprsKd ;u
     f          S              dk d ö           [dk;t&ifacwfuqkdawmh ajr                                                                                                                                       rsm; jzpfcJhonf/                                        xkdYtjyif jynfyEkdifiHrsm;rS
olwkdYacgif;aqmifeJYajym&ifjref                 pm&if;uvJ tay:u trdefYeJY                         NyD; 7OD;tm; Xmeajymif;um 13OD;                       zsufodrf;í rlvpepfukd jyefvnf
                                                                                                  tm; tvkyfrSxkwfy,fcJhonf/                             usifhoHk;cJhNyD; tdrfNcHajr0,f,l&m                             xdYk aMumifh &efue-rEÅav;  k f         txl;ojzifh w½kwEiirS vkyief; f dk f H     f
w,f/ ukrÜPDawGjyóemus                            qkdawmh vkyfay;vkduf&wmawG
awmh awmfawmf&Sif;,l&w,f}}                      &d S w maygh / tk y f c sKyf a &;yd k i f ;eJ Y           od k Y a omf & ef u k e f t d r f N cH a jr   wGif 0ifaiG&vrf;razmfjyEkdifygu                        NrdKUBuD;rsm;wGif tdrfNcHajraps;               &Sifrsm;uvnf; w&m;Oya'pdk;rkd;
[k pHkprf;a&;aumfr&SiftzJGU0if                  aygif;Ny;D vdrwmawGv&Sd w,f}}
                                                                  f               J               aps;uGufwGif tcGef0efxrf;rsm;                         30 &mcdkifEIef;ESifh wHqdyfacgif;cGef                  EIef;rSm a'owGif;EkdifiHrsm;wGif               rItm;enf;aeonfukd tcGifh
wpfOD;uajymonf/                                 [k rauG;NrdKUe,fjynfolYvTwf                       &mxl;rS z,f&Sm;NyD;aemuf wefzdk;                      7 &mckdifEIef;aumufcHcJhonf/                           tjrifhqHk;taetxm;odkY a&muf                    aumif;,lum jrefrmEdkifiHom;
        v,f,majrodrf;qnf;cH                     awmfukd,fpm;vS,fOD;jrifhodef;                     BuD;onfh tdrfNcHajrtuGufrsm;                                 txl;tcGeoufomcGiay;    f                 hf     &dSvmcJhonf/                                                           H dk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              rsm;tm;trnfcci;f Ny;D tdrNf cajr            H
&onf[k wkdifMum;aom v,f                         uajymonf/                                                                                                                                                              tpd k ; &opf v uf x uf w G i f         aps;uG u f w G i f 0 if u pm;vsuf & d S
orm;rsm;ESihf ukrÜPDwkdY tMum;                          wyfrawmfrS jrefrmEkdifiH                  ta&mif;t0,fat;cJhNyD; txl;                            cJhonfh 2007 ckESpfaemufydkif;rSp
                                                                                                                                                                                                               jynfyEkdifiHrS &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHolrsm;         onf/
aumf r &S i f u Mum;aend § E I d i f ;          tESHYtjym;wGif odrf;qnf;xm;                       udk,fpm;vS,fvJTpmjzifh a&mif;cs                       í &efukef-rEÅav;NrdKUBuD;rsm;\
                                                                                                                                                                                                               zdwfac:cJhaomfvnf; tdrfNcHajr                                    dk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ]]0,fvtm;ursm;aew,f/
rI r sm;jyKvk y f a y;jcif ; aMumif h           aom v,f,majrESifh tjcm;ajr                        aomajruGufrsm;ESihf wkdufcef;                         tdrfNcHajraps;EIef;rsm;rSm wpfESpf
                  I
ajyvnfrtcsKd U& &dcaomfvnf;
                          S hJ       f          rsm;rS {uaygif; wpfoef;&Spf                                                                                                                                    aps;EIef;BuD;rm;rI twm;tqD;                    a&mif;vkdtm;u enf;awmh aps;
                                                                                                  rsm;om ta&mif;t0,fjzpfvm                              ukd 20 &mckdifEIef;ten;fqHk;jrifh
xdyfwkduf&ifqdkifae&onfh jy                     axmifausmfukd jyefvnfay;                                                                                                                                       wpfckjzpfvmcJhonf/ EkdifiHawmf                            h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              u jrifwmaygh/ 'gukEiiawmfu       d dk f H
                                                                                                  onf[k tusdK;aqmifrsm;uqkd                             wufcJhonf/ jynfwGif;pD;yGm;a&;
óemrsm;vnf; trsm;tjym; &dS                      tyfrnf[k umuG,fa&;0efBuD;                                                                                                                                      tpd;k &uvnf; aps;EIe;f tdrNf cajr        H     ajruGufawG wdkufcef;awGazmf
onf/                                            'kwd, AkdvfcsKyfBuD; a0vGifu                      onf/                                                                         h k f
                                                                                                                                                        wGif rnfonfvyief;rQ raumif;                                                                           xkwf ay;&iftqifajyvmrSmyg}}
                                                                                                                                                                                                               aps;EIef;usqif;ap&ef enf;rsdK;pHk
        ]]tpdk;&opfwufcgptxd                    Zlvkdif 16&ufwGif usif;yaom                             ,ck u J h o d k Y txl ; uk d , f p m;           aomaMumif h f umvwk d ? umv                            jzifh BudK;pm;cJhonf/ tusdK;quf                [k pD;yGm;a&;ynm&Sifygarmu©
uRef a wmf w k d Y v ,f a wG x J u k d          jynfaxmifpvwawmf tpnf;
                                                                    k T f                                f TJ
                                                                                                  vS,vpmrsm;ukd toH;k jyKrsm;vm                         &S n f & if ; ES D ; jr§ K yf E S H o l t m;vH k ; u   taejzihf ig;ESpftxl;tcGefouf                   a'guf w matmif x G e f ; ouf u
vk y f i ef ; &S i f t m;uk d ; eJ Y & J a wG   ta0;ü ajzMum;cJhonf/                              jcif;rSm txl;tcGeoufomcGiudkf                   hf    tdrfNcHajrwGif t"dujr§KyfESHMuNyD;                     omcGihfukdOD;pGmzsufodrf;NyD;aps;              ajymonf/
uk d , f w k d i f vmzsuf w m/ Ncd r f ;                ajr,modrf;rIukdwpfzuf                     y,fzsuNf yD; aemuf tcGeraqmif         f               jr§KyfESHoltm;vHk; tusdL;tjrwf
                    S hJ
ajcmufwm&dcw,f/ aemufyi;f                  kd   wGif epfemaMu;ay;avsmf&NyD;                                                                                                                                    EIef;rsm; usqif;vmjcif;r&dSonfh                         ,ciftpd;k &vufxufu t
                                                                                                  vkdYonfh 0,fa&mif;orm;rsm;u                           &d S í td r f N cH a jraps;uG u f u k d                twGuf aps;EIef;pHowfrSwfzkdY jyif              pdk;&ESihf tqifajycJhaom vkyfief;
usawmh aumf r &S i f 0 if v mrS                               G f
                                                wpfzufwivnf; Ekiia&;t&       d f H
tcsdKUukd avsmfay;w,f/ t&if                     xkd;ESufcH&aMumif;? ,if;udpö                      t"d u jyKvk y f v musjcif ; jzpf                      ,HkMunfrI ydkvmum aps;EIef;rsm;                        qifvmonf/                                      &Sifrsm;rSm pufrIZkefrsm;wGif vkyf
ujyóemwuf&if &Juyg ol                           udk tpdk;&tm; wifjy&mwGif                         onf/                                                            dk f
                                                                                                                                                        qufwuwufaeawmhonf/ xkd                                         ]]tcGefa&SmifwmawGrsm;NyD;             ief;rsm;aqmif&Gufjcif;r&dSbJ ae
wk d Y b uf y gawmh uRef a wmf w k d Y          vnf; r&onfh tajctae                                       td r f N cH a jraps;uG u f \ t                tcsdefwGif EkdifiHa&;? tajymif;t                       rSefrSefuefuefrvkyfvdkY tckvkdY pH             &mOD;xm;rIrsm;&dSonf/ xkdYtjyif
awmf a wmf ' k u © a &muf w ,f } }              BuHKawGUae&onf[k r*Fvm'Hk                         ajymif;tvJukdzefwD;ay;cJhonfh                         vJaMumifh jynfy&if;ED;S jrK§ yErI rsm;     f HS        owfrSwfcsufawGvkyf&wm}}[k                                           f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              tcsKd Uaomvkyief;&Sirsm;rSm v,f     f
[k vdIifom,mNrdKUe,f y'H&GmrS                   O,smOfNrKd U awmf pufrZetrSwf  I k f                                f
                                                                                                  txl;tcGeoufomcGiudk 2007           hf                 0ifvmrnfqkdaomftcg tpdk;&                              b@ma&;0efBuD;XmerS 'kwd,                       orm;rsm;xHrSm v,f,majrrsm;
v,fodrf;cH&aMumif; wkdifMum;                    (4)twGuf aZurÇmukrÜPDrS                           ckESpfMo*kwfvrSpwifí jy|mef;                          opfvufxufprue;f rsm; aqmif  D H d
xm;olwpfOD;uajym onf/                           aqmif&GufaerI tm; trsdK;om;                                                                                                                                    0efBu;D a'gufwmarmifarmifoe;f              d   odrf;qnf;xm;ojzifh xkdjyóem
        v,f a jrrsm;uk d uk r Ü P D             vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f OD;cif                       cJhonf/ a&mif;ol 10 &mckdifEIef;                      &Guf&efjyifaomtcg tdrfNcHajr                           uajymMum;onf/                                  rsm;rSm tckxd &Sif;r&jzpfaecJh
rsm;u odrf;,l&mwGif v,fo                        a&Tu Zlvkdif 15 &ufwGif usif;y                    0,f , l o l 15 &mcd k i f E I e f ; ay;               aps;rsm; rdk;xdatmifavSum;                                     vuf&dStdrfNcHajraps;uGuf               onf/
rm;rsm;xH w G i f taxmuf t                      aom jynfaxmif pkvTwfawmf
xm;aysmuf qH;k aerIrsm;? aus;&Gm                tpnf ; ta0;ü uk r Ü P D r sm;
rsm;wG i f tvGef t uRH t mPm                    ajr,mod r f ; qnf ; rI E S i h f ywf
jyonfh tkyfcsKyfa&;t&m&dSrsm;                   oufNyD; ajymMum;oGm;onf/                          pmrsufESm(7)rS                                        om;rsm;\ tptaemufcHcJh&                                rsm; ajrjyefYa'obufokdY xGuf                            xkdYaemuf rcsrf;abm
                                                                                                                                                        onf/Murf;wrf;aom awmvrf;                               cGmoGm;cJhNyD; wdkif;&if;om; &J                wGif&dSaom e,fjcm;apmifhwyf
                                                                                                  twdwfrSm aysmfarGUaewJhol                             c&D;wGif tdyf&mvdyfukd ro,f                            abmfrsm;url Zmwdjzpfaom                        wGif wm0efxrf;aqmif&if;
                                                                                                            d         h
                                                                                                  tem;ukuyfMunfrS tdyaysmae    f f                      Ekdifí oli,fcsif;&Jabmfrsm;u                           ylwmtkdbufokdY jyefcGifh&onf/                                 S f G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1988 ckEpwifwyfMuyfBu;D b0
                                                                                                  rSef;odwm/ tJ'DawmhrS uif;o                                                h
                                                                                                                                                        yifulo,fay;cJ&onf/ okaomf         Yd                          1944 ckESpfwGif *syefwyf                jzihf tNidrf;pm;,lchJonf/ e,f
                                                                                                  rm;taemufuae uk,rmygwJh   d hf S                             GJ
                                                                                                                                                        ppfyrsm;u olUukdoefrmvmapcJh                           rsm;ESihf wkdufyJGNyD;qHk;NyD; aoewf           jcm;apmifhwyfwGif wm0efxrf;
                                                                                                  aoewfeJYvnfyif;ukd n§pfwm/                            onf/                                                   rsm; jyeftyfcgeD;wGif usnfqef                  cJhpOfu wkdif;&if; om;vufeuf
                                                                                                  aoewfeJYypfvkduf&if aoewf                                         *syefukdwkdufpOf NAdwdoQ                   rsm; tm;&atmif azmufcJhzl;                     udkiftzJGUrsm;jzihf olwdkY ppfwdkuf
                                                                                                  oHukd olYwyfzJGUuMum;rSmav/                           ppfbufqkdif&m t&m&Sdrsm;u                              onf/                                           cJh&zl;onf/ *syefrsm;ukd wkduf&
                                                                                                  ygvmwJh ucsif&Jabmfuvnf;                              yefcsmyDrsm;ukd ac:vmzl;aomf                                  ]]wyf&if;u aoewfawG                     onfrSm olaemifw r&aomf
                                                                                                  ta&SUuaeaoewfrmwyfxm;      S                          vnf; ppfwkdufcdkif;í r&aom                             jyefawmif;w,f/ rif;wkdY*syef                   vnf; wdkif;&if;om; tcsif;csif;
                                                                                                  wJhvHSpGyfeJY &if0ukdxkd;wmyJ}}[k                     aMumifh a*:&cg;vlrsdK;rsm;ukd                          awGukdvnf; rwkduf&awmhbl;/                         d f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              wku&aomppfyrsm;ukrl olrESpf GJ   d
                                                                                                  *syefuif;orm;wpfOD;ukd teD;                           ac:vmaomtcgwGifrS ucsif                                ppfvnf;NyD;NyD/aoewf azmuf                     ouf/ wdkif;&if;om;csif; ppfjzpf
                                                                                                  uyfokwfoifcJhzl;onfh tawGU                            wyfzJGUrsm;ESihf twJGnDcJhonf/                         p&m rvkdawmhbl;/ 'gaMumifh                     onfukdawmh olrBudKuf[kajym
                                                                                                  tBuHKukd OD;0l;eifwDu pdwftm;                         ucsifwyfrsm;ESihf a*:&cg;rsm;                          azmufcsif&if tck azmufNyD;                     onf/ tNidrf;pm;,lNyD; aemuf
                                                                                                  xufoefpGm &Sif;jyonf/xkdpOf                           aygif;í wkdufyJGrsm; twJGnDnD                          aoewfjyeftyfygvkajymw,f/   Yd                  axmufyHhaMu;wcsdKU yHkrSef &&dScJh
                                                                                                  u *syefwyfzJGUtrsm;pkonf u                            wkdufEkdifcJhonf/ ucsifwyf[k                           tJ'geJY aoewfukd tm;&atmif                     aomfvnf; ,ckrnfonfh tNir;f         d
                                                                                                      f                  kd f
                                                                                                  csiwyfrsm;ESifh &ifqiawGUonfh                         trnfwGifcJhaomfvnf; tcsdef                             rk;d ay:axmifazmufNyD; jyeftyf                 pm;axmufyHhaMu;rS r&awmh
                                                                                                  tcg ½IH;edrfhonfh tBudrfuydkrsm;                      ,lrzJGUpnf;EkdifcJhonfhtwGuf                           vkdufw,f/ b,folrS aoewf                        onfrSm ckepfESpfcefYMumjrifhcJhNyD
                                                                                                  onf/ wpfcgwpf&H *syefwyfpwf      d                    ,leDazmif;rsm;yif r&cJhMuay/                           jyefray;csifMubl;}}                            [k orufjzpfou ajymjyonf/  l
                                                                                                  wpfckvHk;ukdyif &Sif;ypfEkdifvkduf                         D
                                                                                                                                                        ,leazmif;jzpfap&ef wyfzUGJ om;                                wkdufyJGrsm;NyD;qkH;NyD;aemuf           ,ckawmh orD;jzpfolrdom;pk
                                                                                                  aom tcgrsm;&dSonftxd u                                &Jabmfrsm;tm;vH;k onf *HavQmf   k                                d
                                                                                                                                                                                                               ylwmtkoYdk jyefvnfa&muf&vm       Sd            \ apmifha&SmufrIcH,lumylwm
                                                                                                  csifwyfrsm;atmifyJG&Muonf/                                      f      d
                                                                                                                                                        tdwrsm;ukvnfyif;aygufazmuf                             um 1951 ckESpfwGif 0efBuD; OD;                 tkdNrdKU NrdKUr&yfuGufwGif b0ae
                                                                                                         ucsifwkdif;&if;om;trsm;                        um tusÐvkyf 0wfqifcJh&onf                              wef&'ef\ um;'½dkifbm tjzpf                     0ifcsdef jzwfoef;aeonf/
                                                                                                  pkESifh &0rf? vDql;wdkif;&if;om;                      ukdvnf; trSwfw&jyefajymjy                              wm0ef xrf;aqmifcJhonf/                                               D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       OD;0l;eifw\ arG;csi;f armif
                                                                                                  rsm; aygif;pyfxm;aom wyfzUGJ qkd                      onf/                                                   trsdK;om;acgif;aqmif AkdvfcsKyf                                               f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ESr rsm;tm;vH;k ? rdwaqG rsm;tm;
                                                                                                  aomfvnf;wyfzUGJ rsm;ukdOD;aqmif                                   ucsifwyfrsm; jrpfBuD;em;                   atmifqef;ylwmtdkokdY a&muf&dS                                    f G f G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              vH;k rSm uG,veom;MuNyjD zpf Ny;D
                                                                                                  onfh wyfrSL;rsm;u NAdwdoQwyf                          okdYa&mufonftxd vrf;c&D;                               vmpOfuvnf; um;armif;vkuf            d                dk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Zlvif12&ufwiftoufwpf&m  G
                                                                                                  rS wyfrSL;rsm;yifjzpfonf/ olY                         wpfavQmuf wkdufyJGrsm;ukd                                Yd h
                                                                                                                                                                                                               ykay;cJz;l Ny;D ol\um;armif;onfh                               h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              wdwjd ynfaom oluawmh olwYdk
                                                                                                  udk cE¨mukd,f ao;auG;NyD; t                           atmifjrifcJhonf/ jrpfBuD;em;                           t&nftcsif;ukd AkdvfcsKyfu csD;                 &yfuGufwGif touf&Snft
                                                                                                                     d f
                                                                                                  Murf;twrf; rcH EkiaomaMumifh                          okdYa&mufaomtcg twlwkduf                               usL;zl;onf[k *kPf,lpGm jyef                    usef;rmqHk; jzpfaeayNyD/
                                                                                                  wyfoYkd0ifa&muf pu tjcm;wyf                           yJG0ifvmonfh a*:&cg;ppfom;                             ajymjyonf/
                                                                                           Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013




usef;rma&;0efBuD;Xme
vlemwif,mOf 26 pD;
0,f,lrnf
0wf&nfatmif                            rsm;wGif aMunmxm;NyD; Mo*kwf
        &efukef? Zlvdkif-20            15 &ufü wif'gydwrnfonf/f
usef;rma&;OD;pD;Xme A[dkaq;                  aejynfawmfwGif usif;y
odkavSmifa&;XmerS vlemwif              rnhf qD;*drf;NydKifyJGtwGuf vlem
,mOf 26 pD;0,f,&ef wif'gac:
                   l                   wif,mOf 50 ausmf toH;k jyKrnf
,lxm;aMumif;owif;&&Sonf/    d          jzpfNyD; qD;*drf;NyD;pD;oGm;ygu
      ]]qD;*drf;uvnf; eD;ae            vnf; xdkvlemwif,mOfrsm;ESihf
awmh qD;*drf;rSm oHk;rvm;/ w           edyGefazmifa';&Sif;rS vSL'gef;
jcm;b,frSmoHk;r,fqdkwJh ao             xm;aom vlemwif,mOf 88
csmñTefMum;csufvnf; r&Sdyg             pD; wdkYudk jynfe,fESihfwdkif;rsm;&Sd
bl;}} [k A[dkaq;odkavSmifa&;           aq;½Hkrsm;ü qufvuftoHk;
XmerS 0,f,la&;t&m&SdwpfOD;             jyKoGm;rnfjzpfaMumif; usef;rm           vuf&SdtoHk;jyKvsuf&Sdaom vlemwif,mOfrsm;                                                                                   "mwfyHk-ausmfZifoef;
u ajymonf/                             a&;0efBuD; a'gufwmazouf                 Xmeu ta&;ay:vlemrsm;t                              k k
                                                                                                                   ta&;ay:jyKpuoay;Edionhf k f               vl e mwif , mOf r sm;tm;        ,mOfaxmufyHhay;EdkifNyD; tcsKdU
      vlemwif,mOf 26 pD; 0,f                          Yl T f
                                       cifu jynfovwawmfwif ajz       G         wGuf ta&;ay:zkef;vdkif;jzihf        usef;rma&;pepf0efaqmifrIudk         A[dktqihfaq;½Hkrsm;? jynfe,f          aomc½dkifESihf NrdKUe,faq;½Hkrsm;
,l&ef wif'gac:,ljcif;udk Zlvifkd       Mum;cJhonf/                             15 rdepftwGif; vlemwif,mOf          ,ckESpfqD;*drf;rwdkifrD pwif           hf kd     H                   k
                                                                                                                                                       ESiwi;f aq;½krsm;ESifh tcsKUd c½dif   ü zJGUpnf;yHkt& vlemwif,mOf
17 &ufxwf Ediiyif owif;pm
           k k f H kd                        xdkYjyif usef;rma&;0efBuD;        a&muf&SdNyD; aq;½Hkra&mufcif        Edkif&ef pDpOfxm;onf/                                f
                                                                                                                                                       aq;½Hkrsm;twGuom vlemwif              ryg&Sd aMumif; od&onf/


arG;&myg ajccGifuav;rsm;twGuf oD;oefYaq;cef;rsm;zGifh
0wf&nfatmif                                  &efukefuav;aq;½HkBuD;?            qkdif&m oifwef;rsm; yHhydk;ay;cJh   OD; NzdK;xufatmifuajymonf/          ywfpOf aomMumaeYwkdif; aq;            jyefajzmifhapjcif;r[kwfbJ u
&efukef-arG;&mygajccGifuav;                               k S
                                       rEÅav;t½d;k aq;½HEifh rauG;t            jcif;jzpfaMumif; xkazmifa';&Si;f
                                                                                                  d                                 d f H G
                                                                                                                            jrefrmEkiiwif wpfESpvQif
                                                                                                                                                f      ukoay;vsu&&m wpfEpausmf
                                                                                                                                                                      f Sd       S f         av;rsm;udk Ponseti enf;ynm
rsm; oD;oefYukoEkdif&ef &efukef?                                k
                                       axGaxGa&m*gukaq;½Hrsm;wGif              rS wm0ef&dSol OD;NzdK;xufatmif      1500 cefY arG;&myg ajcaxmuf         twGif; uav; 185 OD; uko               jzifh oDwif;ywftenf;i,f t
rEÅav;ESihf rauG;wki;f a'oBuD;
                     d                    hf
                                       zGivSpfxm;jcif;jzpfNyD; &efukef?        uajymonf/                           cGifaeonfhuav; arG;zGm;ae           ay;NyD;jzpfum uav;trsm;pk             wGi;f aumufaeonfhajcaxmuf
rsm;wGif aq;cef;rsm;zGivpxm;
                          hf S f                              k
                                       rEÅav;? rauG;&dS aq;½HtoD;oD;                       dk
                                                                                      ]]tJvuav;awGudk tpk;d &      aMumif; avhvmxm;csursm;t&  f        onf {&m0wDwkdif; a'oBuD;rS            jyef v nf q ef Y o G m;apNyD ; t
NyD; xkdukorIrsm;twGuf Life            rS t½dk;taMum q&m0efrsm;?               aq;½Hkwkdif;rSm ukoEkdifatmif             dS
                                                                                                                   od&&onf/ &efuef uav;aq;k            jzpfaMumif; &efueuav;aq;½Hk
                                                                                                                                                                           k f                        k f
                                                                                                                                                                                             xl;jyKvyxm;onfh zdeyfjzihf ESpf
azmifa';&Si;f rS ypön;f ESifh aq;0g;   jyefvnfoefpGrf;rIavhusifha&;                           h
                                                                               enf;ynmyHy;kd rIawGay;Ny;D azmif                      d hJ Ykd
                                                                                                                   ½HBk uD;onf xkuoaom uav;            BuD;rSowif;&&dSonf/                   tenf;i,f qufvuftoHk;jyK
rsm; axmufyHhay;aMumif; o              ynm&Sifrsm;tygt0if olemjyK                               d
                                                                               a';&Si;f uvktyfwhJ ypön;f eJY aq;   rsm;twGuf yxrqHk;oD;oefY                  ,ckenf;ynmyHhykd;rIonf          &jcif;enf;vrf;jzihf ukoay;ae
wif;&dSonf/                            q&mrrsm;udkvnf; enf;ynm                 0g;awGaxmufyHhay;wmyg}}[k           ukoay;onfh ae&mjzpfNyD; t           ,cifcJGpdwfjcif;jzifh ajcaxmuf        jcif;jzpfonf/
10

Health                                                                                                                                                         Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013



                                                                                   tjrefvrf;ay:&Sd &JwyfzJGU0ifrsm;tm;
                                                                                   a&S;OD;jyKpkjcif; oifwef;ay;rnf
                                                                                   0wf&nfatmif                                                         dS l
                                                                                                                      wyfzUGJ rS OD;qH;k a&muf&orsm;jzpf                                   f
                                                                                                                                                                               wef;vkyay;rSmyg}} [k MuufajceD
                                                                                                                                           d l
                                                                                                                      Ny;D 'Pf&m&&Sorsm;udk a&S;OD;jyK                         toif; ta&;ay: vlemwif
                                                                                        k f
                                                                                   &efue-,mOfrawmfwqrIrsm;            pkjcif;enf;rsm;jzihf toufu,f                             ,mOfydkYaqmifa&;rS refae*sm
                                                                                   rMumcPjzpfym;&m &efue-rEÅ
                                                                                                  G           k f        k f
                                                                                                                      Edi&ef tjrefvrf;wpfavQmuf&dS                             a':eDeDrdk;u ajymonf/
                                                                                   av;tjrefvrf;ay:&Sd&JwyfzUGJ 0if    &Jpcef; 12 ckrS wyfMuyf? 'kwyf                                   owdvpfaeonhf vlem
                                                                                   rsm;tm; a&S;OD;jyKpkjcif; tajccH                    f S
                                                                                                                      MuyftqihEifh wyfzUGJ 0ifrsm;tm;                          udk ESvHk;EId;qGjcif;enf;vrf;jzihf
                                                                                   oifwef;ay;oGm; rnfjzpfaMumif;      ,ckv 23 &ufü pwifoifwef;                                 toufu,fenf;? aoG;xGuf
                                                                                   jrefrmEdkifiHMuufajceDtoif;rS      ay;rnfjzpfonf/                                                 f         f l
                                                                                                                                                                               vGeaeonhvem aoG;wdwap            f
                                                                                   owif;&&Sdonf/                                                 dk f I
                                                                                                                             tcsKUd aom xdcurrsm;wGif                          &ef jyKvkyfonhf a&S;OD;jyKpkjcif;
&efukef-rEÅav; tjrefvrf;rBuD;wpfae&mudk awGU&pOf   "mwfyHk-a*sarmifarmif(tr&yl&)        rawmfwqrIwdkif;wGif &J                               d l
                                                                                                                      yxrqH;k awGU&Sorsm;rS a&S;OD;jyK                         enf;vrf;ponfwdkY yg0ifonhf
                                                                                                                      pkrIay;EkdifvQif vlem\touf                                             k
                                                                                                                                                                               a&S;OD;jyKpenf; tajccHoifwef;
                                                                                                                               kd f h
                                                                                                                      u,fEirnftjyif 'kuwjzpfom;     d©      G                  jzpfNyD; ta&;ay:oHk;ypönf;rsm;
                                                                                                                      Edkifonhf tcGifhta&;rsm;vnf;                             yg0ifonhf aq;ypönf;aowåm
                                                                                                                      avQmhcsEdkifrnfjzpfaMumif; od&                                               h
                                                                                                                                                                               rsm; &Jpcef;wGif yHy;kd ay; oGm;rnf
                                                                                                                      onf/                                                     jzpfaMumif; owif;&&Sdonf/
                                                                                                                             ]]tcsKdUxdcdkufrIawGrSm ap                                tjrefvrf;ay:wGif 2009
                                                                                                                                 Y k f
                                                                                                                      wemeJvyayr,hf Oyrm-ausm                                  rwfvrS 2012 'DZifbmtxd oH;k
                                                                                                                      ½d;k 'Pf&m&wJholqkd&if acgif;udk                             f     f
                                                                                                                                                                               ESpausmtwGi;f ,mOfrawmfw
                                                                                                                      Nidrfatmifxm;NyD; vlemudk r &                            qrI 350 ausmf jzpfyGm;cJhNyD; vl
                                                                                                                      r,fqdkwm rodawmh vlemudk                                 180 ausmfaoqHk;um vl 560
                                                                                                                      r&muae cg;½dk;qpfjyKwfNyD;                               ausmf 'Pf&m&&SdcJhaMumif; EdkifiH
                                                                                                                      atmufydkif; aooGm;EkdifwmrsKd;                           ydkifowif;pmrsm;wGif azmfjycJh
                                                                                                                      awGvnf; &SdEdkifwJhtwGuf oif                             onf/



                                                                                                                      wDbDvlemopfrsm;\ 10 &mckdifEIef;
                                                                                                                      tdwfcsftkdifADykd; ul;pufcHae&
                                                                                                                      0wf&nfatmif                                              wGif avxJü ysHESHYaeonfh wDbD
                                                                                                                                                                               a&m*gonf pwiful;pufonfh
                                                                                                                               &efukef?Zlvdkif-20                              a&m*gjzpfNyD; xkdrSwpfqifh aq;
                                                                                                                      wDbDvlemopfrsm;\ 10 &mckdif                                      D D
                                                                                                                                                                               ,mOfwba&m*gul;pufjzpfym;       G
                                                                                                                      EIef;onf wDbDESihf tdyfcsftkdifAD                        vmEkdifonfhtEÅ&m,frsm;jym;
                                                                                                                      a&m*gydk;ESpfrsdK;vHk;ulpufcHae&                         aMumif;od&onf/
                                                                                                                      aMumif; usef;rma&;0efBuD;Xme                                   wDbDvlemrsm; tdyfcsftkdif
                                                                                                                      wDbDa&m*gwkdufzsufa&;rS o                                ADa&m*gydk;ul;pufcH&NyD; wDbD^
                                                                                                                      wif;&&dSonf/                                                 f f dk f f        G
                                                                                                                                                                               tdycstiAD 'GewjGJ zpfym;jcif; ESifh
                                                                                                                             xkdppfwrf;udk 2012 ckESpf                         aq;,Ofyg;wDbDjzpfay:jcif;
                                                                                                                      u NrdKUe,f 25 NrdKUe,fwGifjyKvkyf                        wkdYonf wDbDa&m*gwkdufzsuf
                                                                                                                      cJhjcif;jzpfNyD; ,ckESpfqef;ydkif;                                               f
                                                                                                                                                                               a&;atmifjrifrI tzsutqD; t
                                                                                                                      uvnf; tdyfcsftkdifADydk;ul;puf                           [efYtwm;rsm;jzpfapaMumif;
                                                                                                                      cHxm;&olrsm;wGif tcGifhta&;                              wDbDa&m*gwdkufzsufa&;rS 'kwd
                                                                                                                      ,l a&m*gwpfrsdK;jzpfonfh wDbD                            ,ñTefMum;a&;rSL; a'gufwm
                                                                                                                      a&m*gaMumifh aoqHk;rIrsm;jym;                            oEÅmvGifuajym onf/
                                                                                                                      vmojzihf tddyfcsftkdifADESihf wDbD                             Medecine Sans Front-
                                                                                                                      ESpfrsdK;pvHk;ppfaq;rIjyKvkyfoifh                        ieres-Holland,Medecins
                                                                                                                      aMumif;UNAIDS uEI;d aqmfxm;                              San Frontieres-Switzerland,
                                                                                                                      onf/                                                     Asian Harm Reduction
                                                                                                                             ]]td y f c sf t k d i f A D & d S w J h v l e m   Network , Medecins Du
                                                                                                                      100rSm 100eD;eD;avmufu wD                                Mondeaqcef;rsm;wGifvnf;
                                                                                                                      bDa&m*g&dSw,f}}[k tdwfcsftdkif                           wDbD^tdyfcsftdkifAD 'GefwJGcHpm;
                                                                                                                      ADykd;ul;pufcHxm;&NyD; vuf&dS                            ae&aom vlemrsm;udk OD;pm;
                                                                                                                      wGiftdyfcsftdkifAD umuG,fuko                             ay;ukoaeNyD; usef;rma&; 0ef
                                                                                                                      a&; vkyief;rsm;aqmif&uaeol
                                                                                                                                f                              G f             BuD;XmerSvnf; oHk;vwpfBudrf
                                                                                                                      wpfOD;uajymonf/                                          wD b D a q;0g; axmuf y H h r I r sm;
                                                                                                                             tdyfcsftkdifADydk;ul;pufcH&                       aqmif&GufaeaMumif; od&Sd&
                                                                                                                      NyD; ckcHtm;usqif;onfhtcsdef                             onf/
                                                                                                     Vol.10, No.13 JuNe 16 2013
                                                                                                     Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2011



c½kdifNrdKUtjzpf tqifhjr§ifhrnfh ,if;rmyif tdrfNcHajraps; ESpfqjrifhwuf ysm;arG;jrLa&;vkyfief;rsm; aemifcsdKNrdKUe,f&dS
                                                                                                                                                                              pm;usufajrrsm;okdY pwifajymif;a&TU
                                                                                                                                                                              Zkda[qm                                   vm Muonf / jref r mEk d i f i H t
                                                                                                                                                                                           uav;? Zlvkdif- 20            &yf&yf&dS ysm;yHk;rsm;onf azazmf
                                                                                                                                                                              jrefrmEkiit&yf&yf&Sd ysm;arG;jrL
                                                                                                                                                                                            d f H                       0g&DrS arvukeftxd uav;NrdKU
                                                                                                                                                                              a&;vkyfief;rsm;onf Zlvkdifv               e,fwGifxm;&dSMuNyD; ZGefvwpf
                                                                                                                                                                              qef;ydi;f rSpí &Sr;f jynfe,f aemif
                                                                                                                                                                                         k                              vukd rHk&Gmc½dkif ueDNrdKUe,fodkY
                                                                                                                                                                              csdKNrdKUe,f&dS pm;usufajrrsm;okdY        ajymif;a&TUum qufvufí t
                                                                                                                                                                              pwifajymif;a&TUvsu&Sd aMumif;
                                                                                                                                                                                                          f             pmaygrsm;aom &Srf;jynfe,f
                                                                                                                                                                              owif;&&dSonf/                             aemifcsdKNrdKUe,fokdY ajymif;a&TU
                                                                                                                                                                                       ]]aemifcsKdbufukd Zlvkdifv       jcif;jzpfonf/ ,ckESpfwGifrl ysm;
                                                                                                                                                                              qef;ydkif;rSmyJ pajymif;ygw,f/            aumifrsm;\ pm;usufopft
                                                                                                                                                                              aemifcsKd bufrm avmavmq,f
                                                                                                                                                                                                      S                                            Yd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        jzpf azmif;jyifNrKd Ue,f okyg pwif
                                                                                                                                                                              ysm;aumifawG&JU tpmuawmh                  prf;oyfarG;jrLvmNyD;ysm;aumif
                                                                                                                                                                              ajymif;&,f? aygif;yifawGuae               rsm;twG u f tqif a jyojzif h
                                                                                                                                                                              yGifhwJh tyGifhawG&,f&dSr,f/ tck          aemifESpfrsm;wGifvnf; azmif;
,if;rSmyifNrdKU&Sd NrdKUraps;udk awGU&pOf                                                                                                                                     ajymif;wmu rHk&Gmc½dkif? ueDNrfdKU        jyifNrdKUe,fwGif arG;jrLOD;rnfjzpf
rsKd;rif;OD;                                      buft0ifrSm wuúodkvf t                 yifNrdKUay:rSm ukrÜPDawG pD;yGm;           h § hf
                                                                                                                              qifw;dk jrivsmxm;cJonf/ ,ck    h                e,fuae pajymif;wmyg/ yJeJY                aMumif; ysm;arG;jrLa&;vkyfief;
          ,if;rmyif? Zlvkdif-20                   aqmufttkHawG? &Joifwef;               a&;vkyfief;awG wdk;csJUvkyfudkif                dk f
                                                                                                                              ESpf Zlviv 4 &ufrS pwifí ppf                    aeMumyGicseq&if ysm;vkyief;
                                                                                                                                                                                                hf d f dk        f      &Sif wpfOD;uajymMum;onf/
rk H & G m c½d k i f ? ,if ; rmyif N rd K Uuk d   ausmif;awG aqmufr,fqkdwJh             vmw,f/ tdrfiSm;ctaeeJY t                 d d
                                                                                                                              uki;f wki;f a'oBuD; tpdk;&tzJGU                 &SifawGtrsm;pkysm;yHk;awGvm                     a&TUajymif; ysm;arG;jrLa&;
c½dkifNrdKUtjzpf wkd;jr§ifh&ef vsm                                 dk f
                                                  ae&m teD;wpf0uu v,f,m                 &ifusyfwpfodef;cJG&SdwJh tdrfawG      0if pnfyifom,ma&;0efBuD;                        xm;Muw,f / {NyD v uk e f y d k i f ;      vkyfief;&Sifrsm;onf vkyfom;
xm;cJhNyD;aemuf ,if;rmyifNrdKU                    ajrawG v nf ; t&if wpf { u            u tck w pf v ok H ; od e f ; txd      ud k , f w k d i f c½k d i f t qif h ½k H ; t   avmufusawmh aeMumyef;awG                  ysm;aumifrsm;ukd aemifcsdKNrdKU
ay:&Sd tdrNf cajr a&mif;? 0,f? iSm;
                       H                          usyfckepfodef;? usyf&Spfodef;0ef;     wufoGm;w,f/ NrdKUxJtwGif;             aqmufttkHrsm; aqmufvkyf                         rSm 0wf&nfr&dSMuawmhbl;/ ar                                        k f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        e,ftwGi;f &dS ajymif;pducif;rsm;
aps;uGufwGif ESpfqcefYaps;jrifh                   usif ta&mif;t0,fjzpfwJh ajr           vrf;uwkdufawGt&if wpfv                &ef ajrae&mrsm; owfrSwfvsm                      vqef ; yd k i f ; a&muf a wmh ysm;        wGif ESpfvcefY xm;&dSrnfjzpfNyD;
             G
wufom;aMumif; ,if;rmyifNrKd U                     awG tckusyfodef;wpf&mtxd              usyf i g;aomif ; ? usyf a jcmuf       xm;cJhonfh aemufydkif; tdrfNcH                  orm;awG tukefvHk;eD;yg; rHk&Gm            ,cifEpu ysm;&nftxGuenf;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 S f                     f
a'ocHrsm;ajymjycsut&od&dS&     f                  ta&mif;t0,fjzpfcJhw,f}} [k            aomif ; uae tck w pf o d e f ; cJ G   ajraps;uG u f w G i f ,cif a ps;                c½dkif ajrmifNrdKUe,fukd qufNyD;                              S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ojzihf ysm;&nfrmta&mif;oGuf
onf/ ]]t&ifwkef;u usyfodef;                       ,if;rmyifNrdKU a'ocHtdrfNcHajr        txd wufoGm;w,f/ vkH;csif;             xuf ES p f q cef Y jrif h w uf v m              ajymif;a&TUMuw,f}} [kvrif;                aeNy;D ysm;&nfaps;rSm wpfyóm   d
wpf&meJY ta&mif;t0,frjzpf                         a&mif;0,fa&; tusKd;aqmif              ysOfaxmiftdrfav;awGqdk&if             jcif;jzpfaMumif; ,if;rmyifNrdKU                 ysm;arG ; jrLa&;vk y f i ef ; &S i f u    1ç700 usyf0ef;usif&dSNyD; a'o
wJh ay 60_90 ajruGuwpfuuf        f         G      wpfOD;u ajymonf/                      wpf v ES p f a omif ; 0ef ; usif u    a'ocH tdrfNcHajr tusKd;aqmif                    ajymonf/                                  tvkduf xGufaomysm;&nfrsm;
'D&ufydkif;rSm usyfodef;wpf&mh                          ,if;rmyifNrdKU NrdKUrdNrdKUzt   tckusyfig;aomif;wpfodef;t             rsm;\ ajymjycsuf t & od & d S &                          aemifcsKdNrdKUe,fokdY ysm;vkyf      d                  k
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ukrEÅav;? &efueNf rKd UrS wpfqifh
ig;q,feJY ta&mif;t0,fjzpf                         zJGU0if OD;aumif;wifu tdrfNcH                         G
                                                                                        xd aps;wufom;Ny}D } [k qdonf/k        onf/                                            ief;&Sifaygif; 30 uaxmifcsD               *syefEkdifiHxdwifydkYMuaMumif;
oGm;NyD/ ,if;rmyifNrdKU&JU ta&SU                  ajraps;ESihfywfoufí ]],if;rm                ,if;rmyifNrdKUudk c½dkift                                                       aom ysm;yHk;rsm;jzihf ajymif;a&TU         owif;&&dSonf/

                                                                                        Zlvkdifv 16 &ufu trIzGifhwkdif        awmif,mvkyfief;vkyfudkif&ef                     ,maus;&Gmae OD;jrifhaomif ; ?             e,f abmaus;&Gm? aus;wyif
v,fpkduf&ef uRef;yif                              rsKd;rif;OD;
                                                           rkH&Gm? Zlvkdif-20           Mum;cJhaMumif; od&Sd&onf/             usL;ausmfí uRef;yifrsm;ckwf                     OD;qef;armif? OD;jrifha0wdkYonfh          awmwkduf aexkdifol OD;ausmfeD
                                                  uefYbvlNrdKUe,f? abmaus;&Gm?                 uef Y b vl N rd K Ue,f abm     vSJ xGef,ufvsuf&SdaMumif; o                     uRef;yif 1733 yif ckwfvJSxm;              0if; ckwfvSJxm;aom uRef;yif
wpfaxmifhckepf&mausmf                                                 k
                                                  opfawmBuKd ;0di;f twGi;f awmif        aus;&Gm opfawmBudK;0dkif;t            wif;t& uefYbvlNrdKUe,f opf                      aMumif; ppfaq;awGU&Sd&ojzifh                           f JS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1306yifckwvaMumif;ppfaq;
                                                  ,mpd k u f y sKd ; &ef usL;ausmf í    uGuf trSwf-110? 111? 120                                      f S
                                                                                                                              awmOD;pD;XmerS awmtkyEihf t                     uefYbvlNrdKUe,f &JwyfzJGUpcef;                  d           Y
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        awGU&S&ojzifh uefbvl &JwyfzUGJ
ckwfaom                                           uRef;yifrsm; ckwfvSJol a'ocH          twGif; at;jrpkd;azmifa';&Sif;                 dk f     G
                                                                                                                              zJUG Zlviv 4 &ufwifoGm;a&muf                    u opfawmOya' yk'r 43(u)f                                G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        pcef;u trIzihf ta&;,lNy;D opf
                                                  av;OD;udk oufqkdif&mrS uefY           u pdkufysKd;xm;aom uRef;pdkuf                      h
                                                                                                                              ppfaq;cJonf/ ppfaq;csursm;  f                   jzifh ppfaq; aqmif&Gufvsuf&Sd                             f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        awmOya'yk'r 43(u)t&ppf
awmifolrsm;udk trIzGifh                           bvlN rdK Ue,f &Jw yfzJGU pcef;ü       {uwpfaxmif pkdufcif;twGif;            t& uefYbvlNrdKUe,f at;om                                    dS           Y
                                                                                                                                                                              aMumif; od&&onf/ uefbvlNrKd U             aq; aqmif&Gufvsuf&Sdonf/
12

Regional                                                                                                                                                                                                  Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013




rkH&GmNrdKUe,f pdrf;vef;pdkjynfa&; ysKd;yifaygif; wpfodef;ausmf ysKd;axmif
rsKd;rif;OD;                                  a'opdrf;vef;pdkjynfa&;OD;pD;                          S H G
                                                                                          awmfEihf rk&mNrKd U ov’m&yfuu?f            G
        &efukef? Zlvkdif-20                   XmeOD;pD;rSL; OD;xGef;xGef;a0u              trSwf(4) tajccHynmtxuf
rkH&GmNrdKUe,ftwGif; tylydkif;                ajymMum;onf/                                wef;ausmif;ESihf 0ef;usiopfyiff
a'o pd r f ; vef ; pd k j ynf a &; t                   ,ckESpf rkd;&moDwGif rkH&Gm        pdkufysKd;yJGrsm;wGif tylydkif;a' o
wGuf rkH&GmwuúodkvfteD; tyl                   NrdKUe,f aAm"dwpfaxmifawmif                 pdrf;vef;pdkjynfa&;OD;pD;XmerS
ydkif;a'opdrf;vef;pdkjynfa&;OD;               wef;wGif uGufvyfjznfhpdkufcif;              ysKd ; yif r sm; axmuf y H h c J h N yD ; jzpf
pD;Xme\ NrdKUrysKd;O,smOfwGif t               twGuf ysK;d yifaygif;av;axmif               aMumif; od&Sd&onf/
yifaygif;av;aomif;ausmfESifh                  ausmfESifh awmifwef; uGefwdk                                S f      H G
                                                                                                  ,ckEptwGi;f rk&mNrKd Ue,f
aAm"dwpfaxmif awm&teD;                        pkdufcif;twGuf ysKd;yifaygif;               tylydkif;a'o pdrf;vef;pdkjynf
aAm"dwpfaxmif ysKd;O,smOfü                    275 yif pk d u f y sKd ; xm;NyD ; jzpf      a&;OD ; pD ; XmerS opf y if y sKd ; yif
ysKd;yifaygif;ajcmufaomif;cJG                 aMumif; od&Sd&onf/ rkH&Gmwuú                aygif ; ok H ; aomif ; ausmf pk d u f
cefY jyKpkysKd;axmifxm;NyD;jzpf                    k f         d f GJ
                                              odvopfyif pkuyawmf? rk&mNrKd U  H G         ysKd;&ef vsmxm;NyDjzpfaMumif;
aMumif; rkH&GmNrdKUe,f tylydkif;              y&[dwa*[m opfyifpuysK;d yJG  kd f           od&Sd&onf/
                                                                                                                                           aAm"dwpfaxmife,fajrtxl;pdrf;vef;pkdajya&; ysKd;O,smOf                                             "mwfykH- rsKd;rif;OD;




rD;½dIUcHaus;&Gmrsm;rS awmifolrsm;tm; atmf*JepfpdkufysKd;rI oifwef;ay; [kr®vif;NrdKUe,f
armifuH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      a&Tarsmvkyfief;cGiftwGif;
      armifawm? Zlvkdif- 21
awmifolrsm;\ pdkufysKd;p&dwf
oHk;aiG avQmhcsEdkifa&;twGuf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ajrydí vlwpfOD; aoqkH;
opfawmoD;ESHa&maESm pdkufysKd;                                                                                                                                                                                        rsKd;rif;OD;
jcif;ESifh "mwkuif;pif atmf*epf        J                                                                                                                                                                                                    rkH&Gm?
pdkufcif; pdkufysKd;jcif;oifwef;udk                                                                                                                                                                                                     Zlvkdif-20
Zlvdkifv 20 &ufu aAm"dukef;                                                                                                                                                                                                  ®
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      [krvif;NrKd Ue,f? aomif;OD;aus;
aus;&G m ü zG i f h v S p f c J h a Mumif ;                                                                                                                                                                           &G m ? erf h y g[k w f a&T a rS m f & S d O½k
owif;&&Sdonf/                                                                                                                                                                                                         arwåmukrÜPD a&TvkyfuGuft
         tqdkygoifwef;udk &cdkif                                                                                                                                                                                      wGif; Zlvkdif 16 &ufu vkyfief;
jynfe,f awmifukwfNrdKUtajc                                                                                                                                                                                            cGifwGif ajrydí a&Tarsmvkyfudkif
pdkufa'owGif; vlxktajcjyK                                                                                                                                                                                                                         h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ol wpfO;D aoqk;H cJaMumif;owif;
tzJ G U tpnf ; wpf c k j zpf o nh f                                                                                                                                                                                   &&Sdonf/
Action for Green Earth (at                                                                                                                                                                                                                  S       ®
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               jzpfpOfrm [krvif;NrKd Ue,f?
*sDtD;)tzJGUESihf armifawmc½dkif                                                                                                                                                                                      aomif;OD;aus;&Gm? erfyg[kwa&T   h         f
trsK;d om;ulnapmiha&Smufa&;
                   D        f                                                                                                                                                                                         arSmf&Sd O½karwåmukrÜPDydkif a&T
azmifa';&Sif;tzJGUwdkY yl;aygif;                                                                                                                                                                                      vkyfuGuf trSwf-128 twGif;
zGifhvSpfcJhjcif;jzpfNyD; rD;½dIUcH aus;                                                                                                                                                                                                 f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      a&Tarsmvkyom;pd;k oefonf a&T       Y
&G m rsm;rS awmif o l r sm; wuf                                                                                                                                                                                       arsmvkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;ESifht
a&mufcJhaMumif; od&onf/                                                                                                                                                                                               wl vkyfief;odrf;pOf ½kwfw&uf
         ]]awmifolawG&JU pdkufysKd;                                                                                                                                                                                   urf;yg;NydKusrIaMumifh ajrydí
                                              atmf*JepfpdkufysKd;rI oifwef; ydkYcsaepOf                                                                                                            "mwfykH- armifuH
a&; vkyfief;awGrSm toHk;jyKae                                                                                                                                                                                         aoqkH;cJhaMumif; od&Sd&onf/
&wJh ukefusp&dwfawG avQmhcs                   a&T&ifat;? uHom,mtv,f?                      aewmjzpfygw,f}} [k at*sDpD;                      oD;0vHpdkufysKd;xkwfvkyfolrsm;        oa&ukef;abmif? udkif;BuD;ESifh                       d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               tqkyg ajrydí aoqk;H rIEihf         S
EdkifzdkYeJY "mwkuif;pif atmf*Jepf            uHom,mtxuf?aAm"dukef;?                      tzJUG Ouú| OD;cspjf ruajymonf/                                         k f H
                                                                                                                                           toif; enf;jy? jrefrmEdiiatmf          arm&0wDaus;&Gmrsm;rS awmif                                d k
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ywfoufí rki;f udif &Jpcef;rS ao
pducif;awG pduysK;d wwfatmif
  k f             k f                         ca&NrdKifeJY uif;acsmif;aus;&Gm                                      f
                                                                                                 oifwef;umv ESp&ufjzpf                     *Jepf pdkufcif;rsm; toif;Ouú|         olrsm;udk Zlvdkif 23 ESihf 24 &uf    rIaocif;trSw-24^2013 t    f
twGuf zGifhvSpfcJhwm jzpfyg                   awGu wpf&Gmudkoifwef;om;                    Ny;D oifwef;enf;jytjzpf jrefrm                   a'gufwmoef;oef;pdefu vm               wGifoifwef;ay;rnfjzpfaMumif;                    G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      & trIzihf ppfaq;vsu&aMumif;       f dS
w,f/ rD;½dIUcHaus;&GmawGjzpfwJh               oHk;OD;EIef;eJY 18 OD; oifwef;ay;           EdkifiH[if;oD;[if;&GufESihf opf                  a&mufjyoay;cJhjcif;jzpfonf/           owif;&&Sonf/
                                                                                                                                                                                            d                         od&Sd&onf/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       13

Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013                                                                                                                                                             Regional
zdkvf0ifawmif a&S;a[mif;,Ofaus;rIa'o jrif;vSnf;jzifh                                                                                                               uomwGif wpfaeY
oGm;vmaom tavhtx zefwD;rnf                                                                                                                                         BuHwefcsdef
                                                                                                                                                                   ig;axmifBudwfEdkifaom
                                                                                                                                                                   oMum;puf½Hkwnfrnf
                                                                                                                                                              armifwm                                   uomwGif puf½Hkaqmufvkyf
                                                                                                                                                                           rEÅav;? Zlvkdif- 21          jcif;jzpfaom jrefrm oMum;zHUG NzK;d
                                                                                                                                                              ppfui;f wdi;f a'oBu;D ? uomNrKd U
                                                                                                                                                                        kd k                            a&;trsm;ydkifukrÜPD rS 'k-Ouú|
                                                                                                                                                              e,f? pum;uke;f aus;&GmwGif wpf            OD;aZmf0if;u ajymonf/
                                                                                                                                                              aeYBuHwefcsdef ig;axmif Budwf                                 kH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ]]'Dpuf½aqmufwtwGuf     hJ
                                                                                                                                                              0g;Edkifaom oMum;puf½Hk wnf               awmifolawGvnf; tusKd;&Sdyg
                                                                                                                                                              aqmuf&ef pDpOfaeaMumif; o                 r,f/ t&ifupuf½awGeYJ a0;wJh    kH
                                                                                                                                                              wif; &&Sdonf/                             twGuf o,f,lp&dwfawGukef
                                                                                                                                                                       jrefrmhoMum;zHGUNzKd;a&;t                               H kd f
                                                                                                                                                                                                        w,f/ tck Bupucif;em;rSmpuf
                                                                                                                                                              rsm;ydif ukrPEifh pifumyltajc
                                                                                                                                                                     k         Ü D S                    ½Hk&Sdawmh o,f,lp&dwf? xkwf
                                                                                                                                                              pduf ENGENIUS Investment vD
                                                                                                                                                                k                                       vkyfrIukefusp&dwf oufomNyD;
                                                                                                                                                              rdwufwYkd yl;aygif;wnfaqmuf               awmifolawG trsm;qHk;tusKd;
                                                                                                                                                              rnfjzpfNyD; tar&duefa':vm                 &SdEdkifygw,f/ puf½HktwGuf a'
                                                                                                                                                              85 oef;cefYukeusrnf[kcefre;f
                                                                                                                                                                                    f           Y S     ocHawGukd tvkytudiay;Edif     f k f k
                                                                                                                                                              xm;aMumif; jrefrmoMum;zHUG NzK;d          r,f}} [k OD;oD[xGef;u ajym
                                                                                                                                                              a&;trsm;ydkifukrÜPDrS 'k-Ouú|             onf/
                                                                                                                                                              OD;oD[xGef;u ajymonf/                               puf½HkaMumifh obm0ywf
                                                                                                                                      "mwfykH- rsKd;rif;OD;
                                                                                                                                                                       oMum;puf½ukd ,ckEpt
                                                                                                                                                                                       kH      S f      0ef;usif xdcdkufrI&Sdap&ef a&
rsKd;rif;OD;                        a'oBuD; tpdk;&tzJGUrS wm0ef            jrif;vSnf;tpD; ta&twGuf                rD;wkdifrsm; aqmif&Gufjcif;? pdrf;          wGif; pwifaqmufvkyfrnfjzpf                qdk;oefYpifpuf½Hkyg xnhfoGif;
         rkH&Gm? Zlvkdif- 20        &Sdol wpfOD;uajymonf/                  vnf; avsmvmNy/ trsm;pku 0g
                                                                                           h          D           vef ; pd k a jya&;ES i f h trsm;ok H ;      NyD; 2015 ckESpfwGif pwifvnf              aqmufvkyfrnfjzpfNyD; puf½kH
zdv0ifawmif? a&Tbawmif a&S;
  k f                                      vuf&SdwGif zdkvf0ifawmif        oemt& jrif;vSnf;vkyfief;udk            &ef t wG u f puf a &wG i f ; wpf                       kd f
                                                                                                                                                              ywfEi&ef arQmre;f xm;aMumif;?
                                                                                                                                                                                   f S                  rS oefYpif oMum;? tDoaem?
a[mif; ,Ofaus;rIa'otwGi;f           tqifhjr§ifhwifa&;vkyfief;rsm;          vkyuioawGavmufom usef
                                                                                f kd f l                          wGi;f ? ajratmufa&avSmifuef?                puf½HkaqmufvkyfrItwGuf pif                ajrMoZmESihf vQyfppfrsm; xkwf
jrif;vSnf;rsm;jzifh oGm;vmonfh      aqmif&Gufvsuf&SdNyD; ,if;vkyf          awmhw,f/ zdv0ifawmifa'ok f             pifjrifha&uefESifh a&jzefYa0ydkuf           umyl ukrPu ckepfq,f&mcdif
                                                                                                                                                                              Ü D                   k   ,lEdkif&ef &nfrSef;xm;aMumif;
tavhtxrsm; zefwD;rnfjzpf            ief;rsm;wGipm;aomufqivyf
                                                   f            dk f k     rSm jrif;vSnf;eJY bk&m;zl;tpDt         vkdif;rsm; yg0ifonfh a&ay;a0                EIe;f yg 0ifrnfjzpfaMumif;? jrefrm        OD;aZmf0if;u ajymonf/
aMumif; owif;&&Sdonf/               ief;? a'oxGufypönf;ta&mif;             pOf ay:xGuvmr,fqvQifjrif;
                                                                                             f               kd   a&;vkyfief;wpfck aqmif&Guf                  EdkifiHwGif vuf&Sd vnfywfae                         BuHESihfoMum;vkyfief;rsm;
      ]]zdkvf0ifawmif a'oudk        qkdif? y&aq;ypönf; ta&mif;             vSnf;awGtwGufvnf; tvkyf                jcif;? zdv0ifawmifay:&Sd txif
                                                                                                                           k f                                aom oMum;puf½Hkrsm;rSm wpf                zH G U NzKd ; &ef t wG u f t"d u &nf
vmwJh armfawmf,mOfawGtm;            qkdif? armfawmf,mOf a&aq;qD                  k
                                                                           tudif tcGitvrf;yd&wmaygh}}
                                                                                               hf        k        u&ae&mrsm;od k Y oG m ;a&muf                aeYBuHwefcsdef ESpfaxmifhig;&m            &G,fum jrefrmoMum;zHGUNzKd;a&;
vkH; ,mOf&yfem;pcef;rSm &yfem;                 f
                                    xd;k vkyief;? ,mOf&yfem;pcef;ESihf     [k rkH&GmNrdKU a'ocHjrif;vSnf;0ef      rnfh awmifywfvrf;? awmif                    om BudwfEdkifojzihf ,ckwnf                               k
                                                                                                                                                                                                        trsm;ydifukrPukdtzJUG 0if 102
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ü D
&rSm jzpfygw,f/ ,mOf&yfem;          jrif; vSn;f ,mOf0efaqmifrI vkyf        aqmifrI vkyfief;vkyfudkifol OD;        wufvrf;apmif;wef;rsm;? avS                  aqmufrnhf oMum;puf½Hkrsm;                 OD;jzihf zJGUpnf;xm;NyD; Zlvdkif 15
pcef;uae zkv0ifawmif? a&Tb
                d f                 ief;rsm; yg0ifNyD; ,if;vkyfief;        aZmf0if;u ajymMum;onf/                 um;rsm; jyKjyifjcif;? tqifhjr§ifh           rSm jrefrmEdkifiHwGif tBuD;qHk;           &ufrSpí usyfwpfaomif;wef
awmifudk oGm;vmzdkY jrif;vSnf;      rsm;aMumifh a'ocHrsm; tvkyf                    zdkvf0ifawmif a&S;a[mif;       wifjcif;? zdkvf0ifawmift0if                 oMum;puf½Hkjzpfvmrnf[kqdk                             S f
                                                                                                                                                                                                        tpk&,,mrsm; a&mif;csvsu&dS           f
,mOfawGxm;&SdwJh tavhtx             tudkif tcGifhtvrf; ydkrdk&&Sd          ,Ofaus;rIa'o tajccHvkdtyf              um;vrf;ab;wGif bk&m;zl;{nfh                 onf/                                      onf/ ¤if;trsm;ydkifukrÜPDrS
zefw;D ay;r,f/ yk*rmvnf;jrif;
                       H S          vmrnfjzpfaMumif; owif;&&Sd             csufu@wGif t0ifvrf;jyKjyif             onfrsm;\ armfawmf,mOfrsm;                            puf½kHaqmufvkyf&efajr            oMum;puf½Hk wnfaqmufrnf
vSnf;av;awGeJY bk&m;zl;Ekdif        onf/                                   jcif;ESihf vrf;tqifjh riwifjcif;?
                                                                                                        § hf      &yfem;&ef ,mOf&yfem;pcef;rsm;               ae&mtwGuf cGifhjyKcsuf&&SdNyD;            jzpfNyD; oDv0g txl;pD;yGm;a&;
ovdk zdkvf0ifawmifrSmvnf;                  ]]jrif;vSn;f vkyief;u rk&m
                                                           f         H G   t0ifvrf;wpfavQmufaeY? n                tygt0if vkyfaqmifoGm;rnf                    jzpfum puf½HkukefMurf;&&Sd&ef             ZkefwGifvnf; yg0if&if;ESD;jr§KyfESH
jrif;vSnf;av;eJY bk&m;zl;EkdifrSm   NrdKUay:rSm aysmufuG,fvkqJqJ           ra&G;oGm;vmEkdifonfh vQyfppf           jzpfaMumif; od&onf/                         twGuf jrefrmEdkifiHwGif BuHpdkuf          rnf j zpf a Mumif ; owif ; &&S d
jzpfygw,f}} [k ppfudkif;wkdif;      jzpfaeNyD/ wpfESpfxuf wpfESpf          rD; (odkYr[kwf) qdkvmpepfvrf;                                                      ysKd;rI trsm;qHk;a'ojzpfaom               onf/
14

Regional                                                                                                                                                                                     Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013



                                                                                                                                                                jyefMum;a&;u
                                                                                                                                                                jynfe,f^wkdif;NrKdUawmfrsm;wGif
                                                                                                                                                                owif;AsL½kdrsm;xm;&efpDpOf
                                                                                                                                                                oef;xl;                                   ESifh rEÅav;NrKdUrsm;ü owif;AsL
                                                                                                                                                                      aejynfawmf? Zlvkdif- 21             ½kdrsm; zGJUpnf;NyD; owif;&,l
                                                                                                                                                                jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xmeykdif jref           aqmif&Gufvsuf&Sdonf/ toH
                                                                                                                                                                            S
                                                                                                                                                                rmhtoHEihf ½kyjf rifoH Mum;tae                     hf
                                                                                                                                                                                                          vTiXmersm;udk jynfe,fEiwi;f                    S hf dk
                                                                                                                                                                jzifh a'oqkdif&mowif;rsm; t               a'oBuD;rsm;wGif wkd;csJUzGifhvSpf
                                                                                                                                                                csdefrD xkwfvTifhEkdif&eftwGuf            &efrvkdbJ wkd;csJUxkwfvTifhrnfh
                                                                                                                                                                jynfe,fESifh wkdif;a'oBuD; NrKdU          tpDtpOf tm;vkH;udk aejynf
                                                                                                                                                                awmfrsm;wGif owif;AsL½kdrsm;                               S
                                                                                                                                                                                                          awmfEihf &efue&dS toHviXme       k f            T hf
                                                                                                                                                                                     G f
                                                                                                                                                                zGUJ pnf;aqmif&u&ef tpDtpOf               rsm;rS xkwfvTifh½kHjzifh vkHavmuf
                                                                                                                                                                &SdaMumif; jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;             aMumif;vnf; ¤if;uqufvuf
                                                                                                                                                                Xme'kwd,0efBuD; OD;ykdufaxG;              ajymMum;onf/
                                                                                                                                                                u ajymMum;onf/                                                           d f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         jrefrmEkiiH atmufyi;f a'          dk
                                                                                                                                                                       ]]2013 ckESpf Mo*kwfvrS            oae wdkif;&if;om;rsm;twGuf
                                                                                                                                                                pí wkdif;&if;om;bmompum;                  bmom&SprsK;d udk a&ul;toHvihff                         T
                                                                                                                                                                11 rsKd; ucsif? u,m;? u&if                  H                  f T hf
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ½krS xkwviay;vsu&ouJoYdk                 f dS h
                                                                                                                                                                (paum)? u&if(taemufykdif;)?                                     kd
                                                                                                                                                                                                          txufyi;f ae wki;f &if;om;rsm;        d
                                                                                                                                                                u&if(ta&SUykdif;)? csif;(pvif;)?                             f
                                                                                                                                                                                                          twGuvnf; aejynfawmftoH
aygif;wvnfNrdKUopfzGifhyJG jrifuGif;                                                                                                   "mwfykH- aZmfrif;xkduf    csif;(rif;wyf)? rGef? &ckdif? &Srf;? 0         hf                 Hk
                                                                                                                                                                                                          vTipuf½rS bmomckepfrsK;d ukt                         d
                                                                                                                                                                twGuf owif;AsL½kdrsm;zGJUpnf;                         hf
                                                                                                                                                                                                          vSnusxwvivsu&aMumif;?       k f T hf      f dS


aygif;wvnfNrdKUopf zGifhvSpf
                                                                                                                                                                              dk f
                                                                                                                                                                &ef oufqi& ma'orsm;okYd ap                ,ckESpftwGif; wkdif;&if;om;vl
                                                                                                                                                                vTwfNyD;owif; &,lxkwfvTifh                rsKd;pkcsefe,f(Ethnic National
                                                                                                                                                                oGm;&ef&Sdygw,f}}[k 'k-0efBuD;            Channel) ukdvnf;'D*spfw,f
                                                                                                                                                                         dk
                                                                                                                                                                u Zlvif17&ufwiusi;f yaom G f              pepfjzifh wk;d csUJ xkwviay;rnf        f T hf
                                                                                                                                                                                   f
                                                                                                                                                                trsK;d om;vTwawmfü ajymMum;               jzpfaMumif; 'k-0efBuD;uxyfrH
aZmfrif;xkduf                          vnfNrdKUt0ifvrf;rü usif;ycJh                        ynma&;? usef ; rma&;?                                   f
                                                                                                                        pnfyifaps;wpfc?k vQyppfjzefjY zL;
                                                                                                                                                                onf/                                      ajymMum;onf/
         jynf? Zlvkdif- 21             aMumif;owif;&&dSonf/                       vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&; aumif;             ½Hk? qufoG,fa&;½Hk;? pmwkduft
                                                                                                                                                                                dS     k
                                                                                                                                                                       vuf&&efue?f aejynfawmf
yJcl;wkdif; taemufjcrf;c½dkif t                jynf c ½d k i f t wG i f ; yef ;   rGefrI tajctae t&yf&yfwkdY                   S    Ydk Sd
                                                                                                                        p&donfw&aom NrKd UwpfNrKd Ujzpf
wGif; NrdKUoHk;NrdKU wdk;csJUowfrSwf   awmif;NrdKUe,f O&SpfyifNrdKUtm;            aMumifh NrdKUwpfNrdKUtjzpf wdk;csJU   onf/ aygif;wvnfNrdKUzGifhyGJokdY
  h
cJ&m jynfNrKd Ue,ftwGi;f &dS aygif;
wvnf tk y f p k t m; Nrd K Utjzpf
                                       zGihfvSpfay;cJhNyD;jzpfum oJukef;
                                       NrdKUe,f ykwD;ukef;wkdufe,fukd
                                                                                  &ef vkdtyfojzihf owfrSwfjcif;
                                                                                  jzpfonf[k qdkonf/ aygif;w
                                                                                                                        vTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;?
                                                                                                                             d             k
                                                                                                                        wki;f tqif?h c½di?f NrKd Ue,ftqifh
                                                                                                                                                                rEÅav; auwDADvkyfief;wpfck &J0ifzrf;
owfrSwfzGifhvSpfjcif;ukd Zlvkdif                               hf S f G
                                       vnf; NrKd Utjzpf zGivpom;rnf                                                f
                                                                                  vnfNrKd UwGif aus;&GmcJG uk;d tkypk   &dS Xmeqkdif&mrsm;? NrdKUrdNrdKUzrsm;   armifwm                                   jcm;t&ufykvif;rsm;ESifh t&uf
21 &uf eHeuf 8 em&Duaygif;w            jzpfaMumif; od&onf/                        &dSNyD; 25 ckwifqHh aq;½Hkwpf½Hk?     wufa&mufcJhonf/                                       rEÅav;?                     a&mif;csaiGwkdY odrf;qnf;&rd
                                                                                                                                                                            Zlvkdif- 21                   aMumif; owif;&&Sdonf/
                                                                                                                                                                csrf;jrompnfNrKdUe,f? uefom                         cGifhjyKcsufr&SdbJ auwDAD

wnf;cdkcef;wGif wnf;cdkolxHrS usyf 15 odef;ausmfzdk; pdwf<u½l;oGyfaq;rsm; zrf;rd                                                                                           G f hf S f
                                                                                                                                                                ,m&yfuuü zGivpxm;aom
                                                                                                                                                                auwDADwpfckukd cGifhjyKcsufr&Sd
                                                                                                                                                                bJ zGifhvSpfxm;onf[k qkdum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                d f G hf I S d f hJ
                                                                                                                                                                                                          qkizirEihf vkipifrt&uf? bD
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ,ma&mif;csrItwGuf qkdifref
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ae*smtrsKd;om;ukd (y)254^
pdkif;omatmif                          odef;ausmfzdk; zrf;qD;rdcJhaMumif;         av;NrKd UodYk ,laqmifvmcJonf/h        tzJGUrS tzJGU0ifrsm;onf owif;           Zlvkdif 18 &ufu0ifa&mufzrf;               2013jzifh atmifyifv,f&pcef;       J
        rEÅav;? Zlvkdif- 21            owif;&&Sdonf/                              jrihfrdk&fOD;wnf;cdkcef;wGif wnf;     t& rEÅ av;NrKd U 33? 34 vrf;Mum;        qD;cJhaMumif; owif;&&Sdonf/               wGif trIzGifhNyD; ,pfrsKd;yk'fr 30
rEÅav;NrdKU jrifhrdk&fOD;wnf;cdkcef;        eef;xduatmif (c) atmif
                                                    k f                           cdkNyD; 0,fvufESihf csdef;qdkxm;      &Sd yef;cspfol uaz;wGif owif;                              G k f
                                                                                                                                                                       zrf;qD;rIwif qdirefae*sm           (c)? qkdifrefae*smtygt0if
wGif acwå wnf;cdkaeol eef;             ausmfonf uomc½dkif xD;csKdifh                            hJ
                                                                                  pOf ,ckuoYdk zrf;qD;cH&jcif;jzpf      t&apmifhqdkif;aepOf zrf;rdjcif;                                       D k
                                                                                                                                                                trsK;d om;wpfO;D ESihf auwDAvyf           auwDADvkyfief;vkyfukdifol t
xdkufatmif(c)atmifausmfxH              bufrS pdwf<u½l;oGyfaq;jym;                 onf/                                  jzpfNyD; e,fajr&Jpcef; trSwf 6                   f dk f
                                                                                                                                                                ief;vkyuiol trsK;d orD; 21OD;?                                        I k f
                                                                                                                                                                                                          rsK;d orD; 21OD; ukd jypfry'r 188
rS pdwf<u½l;oGyfaq;jym; oHk;           300 tm; qH&SnfqdkolxHrS usyf                       eef;xdkufatmifudk jrefrm      wGitrIzixm;aMumif; owif;
                                                                                                                             f      G hf                        vkdifpifrJht&uf? jrefrmbD,m               jzifh trIzGifhta&;,laqmif&Guf
&mho;kH jym; umvwefz;kd usyf 15        oHk;odef;cJGjzihf 0,f,lcJhNyD; rEÅ         EdkifiH &JwyfzJGU? rEÅav;rl;,pf       &&Sdonf/                                36 vkH;? pykdif0kdifykvif;rsm;? t         aeaMumif; owif;&&Sdonf/
                                                                                        Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013


ynma&;taxmuftxm;                                                                                                                                                                                 tdE´d,ESifhyl;aygif;
twkawGU&SdrIaMumifh                                                                                                                                                                              wnfaxmifaom MITT
jrefrmrsm;                                                                                                                                                                                       ,ck ynmoifESpfwGif
ydkrdkpdppfcH&zG,f&Sd                                                                                                                                                                            yxrbGJYBuKdoifwef;
aevif;xGef;
                                                                                                                                                                                                 zGifhrnf
          &efukef? Zlvkdif-20                                                                                                                                                                    oef;xl;
pifumylEkdifiHü ynma&;vuf                                                                                                                                                                              aejynfawmf? Zlvi-18              kd f
rSwftaxmuftxm;twkjzifh                                                                                                                                                                           jrefrmEkdifiHwGif EkdifiHwumt
            d f H
jrefrmEkiiom; 21 OD; zrf;qD;t                                                                                                                                                                          h D
                                                                                                                                                                                                 qifraom wuúovay:ayguf            dk f
a&;,lcH&jcif;aMumifh jynfwGif;                                                                                                                                                                   vma&;twGuf tdE´d,EkdifiHESifh
ynma&;rSwwrf;taxmuftf                                                                                                                                                                            yl;aygif;wnfaxmifonfh rEÅ
xm;udk ydkrdkwif;usyfpdppfcH&Ekdif                                                                                                                                                               av; jrefrmowif;tcsuft
aMumif; EkdifiHwumynma&;                                                                                                                                                                         vufESifhenf;ynmwuúokdvf
uRrf;usifolrsm;u ajymonf/                                                                                                                                                                        MITT wGif 2013-2014 ynm
        jynfyEkdifiHrsm;wGif ynm                                                                                                                                                                 oifESpfü yxrbGJUBuKdoifwef;
oGm;a&mufoif,ljcif;? tvkyf                                                                                                                                                                       zGifhvSpfEkdif&ef aqmif&Gufae
oGm;a&mufvkyfudkifjcif;wkdYt                                                                                                                                                                     aMumif; trsKd;om;pDrHudef;ESifh
wGuf jynfwGif;ynma&;t
                                      txu(1)A[ef; ausmif;om; ^ausmif;olav;rsm;                                                                               "mwfyHk-a*sarmifarmif(tr&yl&)       pD;yGm;a&; zGUH NzK;d wk;d wufrI 0efBuD;
axmuftxm;rsm;udk twkjyK
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Xme'kwd,0efBuD; a'gufwm
vkyfí aqmif&Gufaejcif;rsm;&Sd
ae&m ,cktcg pifumylEdkifiHü
ppfaq;awGU&SdcJhjcif;jzpfonf/
                                      urÇmhbPf axmufyHhrI ausmif;taxGaxG toHk;p&dwf? ynmoifaxmufyHhaMu;ESihf                                                                                     a':cifpef;&Du ajymMum;onf/
                                                                                                                                                                                                            ]]ICT enf;ynm&yf?aqmhz0J                 f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    J
                                                                                                                                                                                                 ESihf ['f0enf;ynm&yfrsm;zGUH NzK;d
        EkdifiHjcm;om; 25 OD;onf
           f k f G hf
tvkyvycitwGuf ynma&;                  pmzwfpGrf;&nf jr§ihfwifa&;wdkYtwGuf toHk;jyKrnf                                                                                                            wkd;wufa&;twGuf yl;aygif;
                                                                                                                                                                                                 aqmif&Gufvkdaom EkdifiHwum
taxmuftxm;twkrsm; wif
     h
jycJ&m 21 OD;rSm jrefrmEkiirjS zpf
                              d f H   aevif;xGef;                           vmoef; 20 jzihf urÇmhbPfrS          XmerS wm0ef&owpfO;D u ajymSd l            tJ'gukd wkd;jr§ihfay;tyfoGm;r          tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;? wuúovrsm;?                 dk f
NyD; axmif'Pfav;ywfuscH&                     &efukef?Zlvkdif-18             ynma&;0efBu;D XmetoH;k p&dwf        onf/                                      vm;? ykdif;avmhtaeeJY vkyfr            ukrÜPDrsm;ESifhvnf; em;vnf
rnfhol 20 OD;ESifh pifumyla':         urÇmhbPfrS axmufyHha om               okdYwdkuf½dkuf xnfh0ifoGm;rnfh             jrefrmEkdifiHwGif ynma&;           vm; rodao;bl;/ t&ifwe;f u  k                          f T
                                                                                                                                                                                                 rIpmcRevmrsm; vufrwa&;xk;d               S f
vm 5ç000 ay;aqmif&rnfhol                                                                                                                                                                         aqmif&Gufvsuf &Sdygw,f}}[k
                                      tar&duefa':vmoef; 60 ukd              tpDtpOfukd yxrqHk;tBudrf            pepf z G H U Nzd K ;wk d ; wuf v map&ef   pmoifausmif;awGu ajrjzL
ig;OD;wkdYudk jypf'PfcsrSwfcJh                                                                                                                                                                   txufyg wuúokdvfESifh ywf
                                      tajccH y nm ausmif ; rsm;\            oabmwlxm;jcif;jzpfonf/              EkdifiHwumrS yHhydk;ulnDrIrsm;            awmif 0,f p &mr&d S b l ; av/
aMumif; pifumylowif;pmrsm;                                                                                                                                                                       oufNyD; 'kwd,0efBuD;u Zlvkdif
                                      taxGaxGtoHk;p&dwf? ausmif;                 ]]urÇmhbPf&JU axmufyHh rI      aqmif & G u f v suf & d S & m urÇ m h     ukd,fhtpDtpOfeJY ukd,f0,fMu&
wGif Zlvivwwd,ywfu azmf
             dk f                                                                                                                                                                                17&ufwGif usif;yonfh trsKd;
                                      om;rsm;tm; ynmoifaxmuf                u ynma&;0efBuD;Xme&JU toH;k         bPf\ axmufyrukd ynma&;         hH I       wm/ aemufausmif;om;awGukd              om;vTwfawmfü ajymMum;cJh
jycJhonf/
                                      yHhaMu;ESihf rlvwef;tqifh pm          p&dwfxJukd 0ifoGm;rSmjzpfyg         0efBuD;Xme\ pDrHrIjzihf tajccH            ynmoifaxmufyHaMu;ay;ae                 jcif; jzpfonf/
        ]]udk,fwkdifvkyfMuwmawG
&Sdovdk at*sifpDawGu vkyfay;          zwfpGrf;&nfjr§ifhwifjcif;wkdY t       w,f/ t&ifu'DvkdaxmufyHhrI           ynma&;zGHUNzdK;rIe,fy,foHk;ck             wmawGtwGuf oHk;pJGoGm;r,f/                          tqkdyg wuúodkvfonf
aewmvnf; &Saew,f/ b,fvkd
                      d               wGuf oHk;pJGoGm;rnfjzpfaMumif;        r&dSygbl/ tjcm;tzJGUtpnf;           wGifoHk;pJGoGm;&ef pDpOfaejcif;                    G        § fh Ydk
                                                                                                                                                          pmzwfpr;f &nfjriwifzu wki;f  d         odyEihf enf;ynm 0efBu;D Xme\
                                                                                                                                                                                                        HÜ S
enf ; eJ Y j zpf j zpf y nma&;t       ynma&;pDrHudef;ESihf avhusifh                        hH
                                                                            awG axmufywmuvnf; olwYdk            jzpfonf/                                  &if;om;? vlrsdK;pkawGu uav;            pDrHcefYcGJrIatmufwGif&SdNyD; tdE´d
axmuftxm;twkvkyfwmudk                 a&;OD;pD;XmerSod&onf/                 tpDtpOfeJY aqmif&GufMuwm                   ]]tajccHynmausmif;awG              i,fawG jrefrmpmzwfpGrf;&nf                      d f H S
                                                                                                                                                                                                 ,EkiiEihf yl;aygif;wnfaxmif
tm;ray;oifhbl;/ aemufqkd&if                 2014-2015? 2015-                yg/ ynma&;toHk;p&dwfukd 0if         &J U taxG a xG t oH k ; p&d w f t         jr§ifhwifzkdYtwGuf toHk;jyKoGm;        xm;jcif;jzpfum tdE,rS enf; y        d´
jrefrmEkdifiHom;udk ydkrdkpdppfzdkY   2016 ESihf 2016-2017 b@m                           S
                                                                            vmwmr&dygbl;}}[k ynma&; pD          wGuf ynma&;0efBuD;Xmeu                    rSmyg}}[k txufygyk*d¾Kvfu              nmrsm;jzifh t"duoifMum;oGm;
pdwfpGJoGm;Ekdifw,f}}[k pifumyl           f                 S f
                                      ESprsm;twGuf wpfEpvQif a':            rHudef;ESihf avhusifha&;OD;pD;a&;   axmufyHaewmawG &dSw,f/                    ajymonf/                               rnfjzpfonf[kqkdonf/ xkdYt
ynma&;0efaqmifrIvkyfief;                                                                                                                                                                                         d´
                                                                                                                                                                                                 jyif tdE,rSoifMum;a&;ygarm
wpfckrS refae*sif;'g½dkufwmu                                                                                                                                                                     u©rsm;vma&muf oifwef;ykdYcs
ajymonf/
                         kd
        jynfywuúov?f aumvdyf
                                      jrefrmhynma&; *smreDyl;aygif;aqmif&GufrI jr§ihfwifrnf                                                                                                                               d f H
                                                                                                                                                                                                 jcif;? jrefrmEkiirS oGm;a&mufí
                                                                                                                                                                                                 oifwef;wufa&mufjcif;rsm;p
rsm;wGif 0ifcGihf&&Sd&ef jynfwGif;                                                                                                                                                               onfjzifh yl;aygif;aqmif&GufcJh
                                      aevif;xGef;                           xm;aMumif; ¤if;u qkdonf/            av;wpfckudk ajymjycsifw,f/                ukefwGif pwifzGifhvSpfí *smref
wuúodkvf0ifwef; &v'fudk                                                                                                                                                                          aMumif; owif;&Sonf/            d
                                             &efukef? Zlvkdif-16                   jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd txufwef;    jrefrmawGtaeeJY wjcm;EdkifiH              bmompum;oifMum;ydkYcsjcif;?
twkjyKvkyfjcif;? jynfyEkdifiHrsm;                                                                                                                                                                           yxrESpfbGJYBuKdoifwef;
wGif tvkyfvkyfudkif&ef jynf           *smreDEkdifiHonf jrefrmEkdifiHESifh   ausmif ; ajcmuf ausmif ; rS         awGvdk *smrefynmoifqkawG                  *smrefbmompum;q&m? q&m
                                      ynma&;yl;aygif;aqmif&GufrI            ausmif;om; 40 OD;tm; *smreDEif dk   udk wdkuf½dkufavQmufvdkYr&wm              rrsm; arG;xkwjf cif;? EkiijH cm;bm
                                                                                                                                                                                  d f            ac:,la&;twGuf ausmif;om;
wGif;bGJUvufrSwftwkjyKvkyf                                                                                                                                                                       OD;a& owfrwcsu?f wuúovf   S f                    dk
jcif;wkdYonf vGefcJhaomESpfrsm;       ESifh ulnDaxmufyHhrIrsm;udk wkd;      iHodkY zdwfac:í ynma&;ESifh         Mum;&ygw,f/ oufqi&mtzGUJ  dk f            omwuúodkvfrsm;? tjcm;wuú
                                      jr§ihfaqmif&GufoGm;&ef tpDt           ,Ofaus;rIqkdif&mrsm; avhvm          tpnf;? 0efBu;D XmeawGu ynm                okdvfrsm;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif          0ifwef;atmif trSwfpm&if;p
uyif jynfwGif;ü wGifus,fae                                                                                                                                                                       onfh owfrSwfcsufrsm;udk r
jcif;jzpfonf/                         pOfrsm;csrSwfxm;aMumif; *sm           Edkif&ef pDpOfxm;jcif;? jrefrmok    oifqkawG pkpnf;NyD; wpfqifh               &Guf&ef &nfrSef;xm;aMumif;
                                      reD'kwd,EkdifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;         awoeynm&S i f 18 OD ; tm;           jyefa0ay;wJhpepfudk Mum;xm;               od&onf/                                xkwfjyefEkdifao;aomfvnf; t
        jynfyEkdifiHrsm;odkY oGm;
                                      Mrs Cornelia Pieper u ajym            ynmoifqkay;xm;jcif;? bGJU           ygw,f/ uRefrtaeeJY jzpfap                        vuf&tcsewif *smreft
                                                                                                                                                                       dS d f G                  jcm;wuúokdvfrsm; enf;wl oif
a&mufMurnfh ausmif;om;?
                                      onf/                                  vGeynmoif,&ef ynmoifqk
                                                                                 f             l                csifwmu jrefrmausmif;om;                  u,f'JrpfzvS,fa&;0efaqmif               wef ; om;ac:,l o G m ;rnf j zpf
ausmif;olrsm;? tvkyfvkyfudkif
                                             bmompum;oifwef;ESifh           rsm; ay;aejcif ; ? jref r mwuú      rnfolrqdk vGwfvyfpGm t&nf                 rI (DAAD)onf jrefrmausmif;                                  HÜ S hf
                                                                                                                                                                                                 aMumif; odyEienf;ynm0efBu;D
       h l
rnforsm;taejzifh ynma&;t
axmuf t xm;rS w f w rf ; rsm;         ,Ofaus;rIzvS,frIrsm;aqmif             odkvfrsm;wGif *smreDynm&Sif         tcsi;f ay:rlwnfNy;D *smreftzGUJ           om;rsm;twGuf bGJUvGefynm               XmerS wm0ef&SdoluajymMum;
twkjyKvkyfjcif;udk a&Smif&Sm;         &Gufaeaom *dkoJhtifpwDusKU'f                        f
                                                                            rsm; apvTwoifMum;ydcsapjcif;Yk      tpnf ; awG q D r S m wk d u f ½ d k u f   oif q k a y;tyf a eNyD ; &ef u k e f   onf/ ]]wuúokdvfBuD;wpfckvkH;
oifhNyD; ppfaq;awGU&Sdygu rdrd        ud k 48 ES p f M umNyD ; aemuf jyef                           d f
                                                                            ponfh ynma&;qki&myl;aygif;          avQmufxm;wmrsK;d jzpfygw,f}}              wuúodkvfESifh udkvHk;wuúodkvf          wnf aqmufa&;uawmh rNyD;
b0twGuomru wki;f jynf yHk
                  f         d         vnfzGifhvSpf&ef ,Ofaus;rI0ef          aqmif&GufrIrsm;&SdaeaMumif;         [k Mrs Cornelia Pieper u                  wdkYyl;aygif;í tqifhjrifhyx0D          ao;ygbl;/ 'gayrJh yxrESpf oif
&dyfudkxdcdkufaprnfjzpfaMumif;        Bu;D XmeESihf oabmwlnxm; Ny;D
                                                                  D         owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJü ¤if;u          oHk;oyftBuHjyKonf/                        0ifXmewnfaxmif&ef axmuf                wef;twGu,m,Dtoif;pmoif f
ynma&;uRr;f usiorsm;u oH;k
                        f l           ynma&;0efBuD;XmeESifhvnf;             ajymMum;onf/                             *smreDEkdifiHonf *dkoJhtif           yHhaeonf/                              aqmifESpfaqmifawmh aqmuf
oyfonf/                               yl;aygif;aqmif&GufrIrsm; pDpOf               ]]uRefrtaeeJY tcuftcJ        pwDusKU'fukd &efueNf rKd Uü ,ckEpf
                                                                                                                                    k               S                                            aeygNy}D }[k ¤if;uajymonf/
16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       17

Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013                                                                                                                                                                     Opportunity
rav;&Sm;jyef jrefrmvkyfom; ig;&mausmf tvkyf&&Sd
at;jrwfol                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         onf/ tvkyavQmufxm;aom
           &efukef? Zlvdkif-21                                                                                                                                                                                                           olrsm;teuf tMurf;zufjzpf
0efBuD;XmetpDtpOfjzifh wpfv                                                                                                                                                                                                              yGm;rIrwkdifrD uwnf;u jyef
twGif; rav;&Sm;jyef jrefrmt                                                                                                                                                                                                              vmMuolrsm;vnf; trsm;pkyg
vkyorm; ig;&mausmf tvkyt
     f                            f                                                                                                                                                                                                      0ifaMumif; owif;&&Sdonf/
udkif&&SdcJhaMumif; tvkyform;?                                                                                                                                                                                                                  rav;&Sm;EddkifiHwGif ¤if;wkdY
tvkyftudkifESifh vlrIzlvHka&;                                                                                                                                                                                                            onf vkyfcvpmoHk;odef;cefY&&Sd
0efBuD;XmerS owif;&&Sdonf/                                                                                                                                                                                                               cJMh uaomfvnf; tcsKUd aom jynf
         rav;&Sm;EkdifiHtwGif; jref                                                                                                                                                                                                      wGif;vkyfief;&Sifrsm;taejzifh
rmtvkyorm;rsm; tMurf;zuf
             f                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ¤if;wkdYudk vkyfcvpm usyfwpf
cH & rI a Mumif h ae&yf o d k Y jyef                                                                                                                                                                                                     odef;0ef;usifcefYomay;NyD; t
vmonfh tvkyform;rsm;udk                                                                                                                                                                                                                  prf;cefY0efxrf;rsm;tjzpf cefY
jynfwGif;ü tvkyftudkif&&Sd&ef                                                                                                                                                                                                            xm;vsuf&SdaMumif; od&onf/
tpd;k &u tvkyavQmufvmrsm;
                     f          T                                                                                                                                                                                                               vkyfief;&Sifrsm;taejzifh
udk ZGefv 19 &ufrSpí vufcHcJh                                                                                                                                                                                                            tvk y f o rm;rsm;\ vk y f i ef ;
onf/ avQmufvTmvufcHonfh                                                                                                                                                                                                                  uRrf;usifrI? pGrf;aqmif&nfay:
       d f S
tcserpí ,ckv 20 &uftxd                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         rl wnfí vkycvpmwk;d jriay;   § hf
tvkyfavQmufxm;ol 3ç012                                                                                                                                                                                                                   rnfjzpfum tNrJwrf;0efxrf;
OD; &Sdonfhteuf vkyfom; 530                    rav;&Sm;rSjyefvmaom jrefrmvkyfom;rsm;ukd avqdyfwGiftultnDay;tyfpOf                                                                             "mwfykH-a*sarmifarmif(tr&yl&)                                       Y
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         rsm;tjzpf ajymif;vJceftyfom;      G
OD; tvkyftudkif&&SdcJhaMumif;                  tvky&ieYJ awGUay;wmoH;k Burf
                                                    f S f                 d                           rSm tvkyf&Muwmrsm;w,f}}[k                  0ef&SdolwpfOD;u ajymonf/                 orm;rsm; ZGefvydkif;rSpí ,ck                   rnf j zpf a Mumif ; owif ; &&S d
owif;&&Sdonf/                                  avmuf&dNS yDxifw,f/ rsm;aom                            tvkyform;? tvkyftudkifESifh                      tMurf;zufcH&rIaMumifh              v 20 &uftxd vkyfom;oHk;                        onf/
         ]]tvkyftudkif&&Sdatmif                                k f      f
                                               tm;jzifh aqmufvya&;vkyief;                             vlrIzlvHka&;0efBuD;XmerS wm                ae&yfoYkd jyefvmMuonfh tvkyf             axmif a usmf & S d a Mumif ; od &


    Free Classified                                                                                                          0 ef x rf ; t vdk &Sd o nf                                                                                  tcrJhaMumfjimu@

Driver (1-Post), Security Guard                      zkef;-09-43012968                                2. Accountant           F (2)                     0efxrf;tvdk&dSonf                       f f
                                                                                                                                                                                          3. uRr;usi,mOfarmif;usm;(2) OD;                3. Driver                 (3) Posts
                    f
(2-Posts). trSw(140)? wuúovf      dk           -----------------------------                          3. Receptionist         M (2) F(2)         1/ Sale & Marketing (Furniture/          trS w f - 2(u)? jynf a wmf a t;                        PH: 09-5103839
&dyfomvrf;opf? ukuúdKif;rD;yGdKifh             Vinyl ½kduf? vufurf;pmapmifa0                          4. Kitchen Helper M (2)                    Curtain) usm; (5) OD;                    &dyfom? &efuif;/                               -----------------------------
teD;? A[ef;NrdKUe,f/                           &ef (tcsd e f y d k i f ; )0ef x rf ; tvk d & d S      trSwf (14)? bke;f BuD;vrf;ESihf urf;       trS w f - 15 ( A / 5 ) , jynf v rf ; ?           zkef;-01-657830                        Recruitment Regent Educa-
       zkef;-09-43023756                       onf/                                                   em;vrf ; axmif h ? vrf ; rawmf N rd K U    at0rf;^9rkdif? r&rf;ukef;NrdKUe,f/       -----------------------------                              tion Group
 -----------------------------                       zkef;-09-43192684                                e,f/                                       &efukefNrdKU/                            tiSm;,mOfarmif;tvkd&dSonf/                     Course Coordinator, Education
armfuGef;r*¾Zif;wGif wm0efxrf;                 -----------------------------                          -----------------------------                    zkef;- 09 43205018                 Probox 2007.                                   Counsellor, Graphic Designer,
aqmif&ef touf(30)atmuf pm                      1/ Receptionist M/F (10) Posts                                  tvkd&dSygonf                      -----------------------------                   zkef;-09-73085929                       Accountant, Marketing Execu-
&if;ukdif (r-2 OD;) tvkd&Sdonf/ Zl             Corner of Bo Myat Tun Road                             bufpHkuRrf;usif? O,smOfpdkufysdK;          1. Marketing               (5) Posts     -----------------------------                  tive/Assistant, Public Relations
vkdif 26 &ufrwkdifrD vma&muf                   & Maharbandoola Road, Bo                               0efxrf;(usm;)/                             2. Accountant            F (2) Posts                tjreftvkd&Sdonf                     Executive, Secretary, Reception-
avQmufxm;Ekdifygonf/                           Myat Tun Tower, Botahtaung                                    zkef;-01-538020                             PH: 09-73198266                  tNid r f ; pm;ausmif ; tk y f B uD ; rsm;?     ist, Admin Assistant. trSwf(bD-
trSwf(93)? yxrxyf(at)? 49                      TownShip.                                              -----------------------------              -----------------------------            vk y f ouf & if h bmom&yf o if                 13+23)? a&TudEé&Dtqifhjrihftdrf
vrf;ESihf AkdvfcsKyfvrf;axmifh? ykZGef                      PH: 01-298184                                  urÇmOD;aq;0g;vkyfief;                 1/ Wed Developer usm;^r (3) OD;          q&m^rrsm;? bG J U &taqmif r S L ;              &m?(a&Taumif;a[mhayghta&SU)? em
awmifNrdKUe,f/                                 -----------------------------                          ta&mif;jr§ihfwifEkdifaom (aq;)             2/ Sale & Marketing usm;^r (5) OD;       usm;^rrsm;? vkyf ouf&Sd ½Hk;tul/               ewf awmvrf;? urm&GwfNrdKU e,f?
      zkef;-09-448047320                       1. Website Development Trainer                         t a&mif;0efxrf;tvkd&dSygonf/               3/ Receptionist          r (5) OD;       (25-at)? &Gmr ausmif;vrf;oG,f?                 &efukef/
 -----------------------------                 M/F (2) Posts                                                 zkef;-01-538020                     4/ Admin Staff           r (5) OD;       (1)&yfuGuf? vdIif NrdKUe,f?                    -----------------------------
A+ Hardware, Network oifMum;                   2. C# Net Programming Trainer                           ----------------------------              5/ Computer Operator                     &efukef/                                       trsdK;orD; (10) OD; tvkd&dSonf/
  d f
Ekiol (usm;^r-2 OD;)? LCCI I, II oif           M/F (1) Post                                           For Foreign service Company                usm;^ r(3) OD;                                    zkef;-09-8620094                                            d f k f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         oifwef;ausmif;ESihf qkivyief;wkYd
Mum;Ekiol (usm;^r- 2 OD;)? MYOB
       d f                                     taqmif (5)? tcef; (4)?MICT Park?                       1. Accountant                   (1) Post   6/ w½kwfpum;jyef usm;^r (3) OD;          -----------------------------                  twGuf/
oifMum;Ekdifol (usm;^r- 2 OD;)/                vIdifNrdKUe,f? &efukefNrKdU/                           2. Research Executive           (1) Post   7/ t*Fvdyfpum;ajym usm;^ r                    Super Air Con-Service
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               zkef;-09-31055793
trSw(356)? r[mAE¨Kvvrf;? qdyf
        f                                                zkef;-01-652288                              3. Driver                    (2) Posts     (3) OD;trSwf- 183 ? A[dkvrf;? u          1. Air Con uRrf;usif (3) OD;                   -----------------------------
urf;omvrf;xdyf/                                -----------------------------                          4. Sales Girl                 (1) Post     rm&Gwf/                                  2. Helper            (3) OD;                      [dkw,f0efxrf;tvkd&dSonf
            zkef;-253293                                                                              5. ukrÜPDrsm; rSwfyHkwifjcif; vkyf                                                                                                 1. Receptionist         F(2) Posts
                                                 Study Abroad Information                                                                                zkef;-01-512029                  3. tvkyfoif0efxrf; (5) OD;
 -----------------------------                                                                        ief;uRr;f usiolf             (1) Post                                                                                              2. Housekeeping        M (2) Posts
                                                                  Centre                                                                         -----------------------------            trS w f - (26^3)? tcef ; (004)?
D r i v e r ( 1 - Po s t ) , S e c u r i t y   Education Counsellor, Graphic                                zkef;- 09 450019352                    King Group Construction                okr*Fvmtdrf&m? av;a'gihfuef                    trS w f - 660at? jruef o m
Guard (2-Posts).         trSwf(140)?           Designer, Admin Assistant,                             -----------------------------                            Co.,Ltd                    vrf;rBuD;? oCFef;uRef;NrdKUe,f?                (1) vrf;?(2) &yfuGuf? urm&Gwf
wuú o k d v f &d y f o mvrf ; opf ?            Marketing Executive/Assistant,                           aMumfjimurÇmowif;*sme,f                                                           &efukefwkdif;/                                 NrdKUe,f/
                                                                                                                                                 1. Site Engineer M/F (2) Posts
ukuúdKif;rD;yGdKifhteD;? A[ef;NrdKUe,f/                                                               1/ Marketing Manger r (5) OD;                                                                                                               zkef;-01-536953
                                               Public Relations Executive,                                                                       2. Site Supervisor M/F (2) Posts                 zkef;-01-569905
          zkef;-09-43023756                                                                           2/ Marketing               r (30) OD;                                                                                              -----------------------------
                                               Secretary.                                                                                        3. Driver F                 (1) Post     -----------------------------
-----------------------------                                                                                                                                                                                                            Chinese project coordinator
                                               wdkuf(at)? 11-vTm? tcef;(11-                           trS w f - 29? ajrnD x yf ? yk n            4. Accountant M/F          (2) Posts     D r i v e r ( 1 - Po s t ) , S e c u r i t y
1/ t,f'Dwm                     (1) OD;                                                                                                                                                                                                   (M-20Posts), Chinese Accounta-
                                               03)? 'k d i f ; rG e f ; uG e f ' d k ? (arwå m OD ;   0¹k e vrf ; ?ewf a csmif ; &yf u G u f ?   No-C-66 ?   ydawmuf0g (9) vrf;?          Guard (2-Posts).         trSwf(140)?
2/ taxGaxG0efxrf; (1) OD;                                                                                                                                                                                                                nt (F/M-10 Posts), Chinese Adm-
                                               aq;cef;teD;)? jynfvrf;? &efuNfk rKd U/                 wmarGNrdKUe,f? &efukefNrdKU/               FMI City tdrf&m? vdIifom,mNrdKU          wuú o k d v f &d y f o mvrf ; opf ?
3/ Marketing                   (1) OD;                                                                                                                                                                                                   in (F/M-10Posts), PR Commissio
                                                    zkef;-01-523931-34                                -----------------------------              e,f? &efukefNrdKU/                       ukuúdKif;rD;yGdKifhteD;? A[ef;NrdKUe,f/
         zkef;-09-421031646                                                                                                                                                                                                              ner (F/M- 10 Posts), Driver (M-
                                                                (Ext:2113)                                 ,mOfarmif;tvkd&dSonf                  -----------------------------                  zkef;-09-43023756
-----------------------------                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 Posts).
                                               -----------------------------                          trsdK;orD;? uRrf;usif,mOfarmif;                     pm&if;ppfvkyfief;               -----------------------------
&S r f ; [if ; ?w½k w f [ if ; csuf u Rrf ;                                                           trsdK;om;? touf (50) txuf/                                                                                                               zkef;-09-43074838
                                                 [kdw,f0efxrf;tvkd&dSonf                                                                         1. Assistant Auditor usm;^r (5) OD;      1. Marketing Manager (1) Post
usifoltvkd&dSonf/                              1. Supervisor                 M (2)                           zkef;- 09 5165022                   2. Admin Assistant         r (2) OD;     2. Marketing                   (3) Posts

      topfzGifhvSpfvdkufonfh tcrJhtvkyfac:aMumfjimu@wGif xnfhoGif;vdkygu 7Day News *sme,fwdkufodkY uGefysLwmpm½dkufNyD; (1.5"x 2") xufrBuD;aomt&G,ftpm;jzifhvma&mufay;ydkYEdkifygonf/
                                                   trSefwu,f0efxrf;ac:,lvdkolrsm;om ,cku@udktokH;jyK&ef arwåm&yfcHtyfygonf/
18

Article                                                                                                                                                                                                                Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013




aemifw
                                                                                                                                                                                   aomfvnf; vIdif;avMurf;Murf;                        a&mufvm\/ aoqkH;aeaom
                                                                                                                                                                                   xJrSm olYudkrrDawmh uRefawmf                       oli,fcsif;jzpfoludk "mwfykH½kduf
                                                                                                                                                                                       Yk                 f
                                                                                                                                                                                   wdvnf; rsuv;Hk awGjyma0oGm;                        \/ vlrIa&;tzJGUtpnf; qkdol
                                                                                                                                                                                   awmhonf/ teD;tem;rSmawGU                           rsm;vnf; a&mufvmyg\/ vdk
                                                                                                                                                                                   aom ydkufuGefxrf;vmolwpf                           tyfonfh tultnDrsm;ay;rnfh
rSefvdkol                                                                                                                                                                          a,mufudk ]]tpfudku,fygOD;                          taMumif;ajymNyD; aq;½kHudk t
                                                                                                                                                                                                f            h l
                                                                                                                                                                                   Asm/ uReawmfoi,fcsi;f a&epf                        avmif;o,fay;Muonf/ xdkn
           ]]at;udk&,f ighom;av;                                                                                                                                                   aevdkY}} [kajymaomtcg ]]qif;                       ü &efukefukd tavmif;jyefo,f
b,frSmvJ[if? ighom;av;udk                                                                                                                                                          vkduf roGm;eJY wpfa,mufqif;                        zdkY BudK;pm;awmh ratmifjrifyg/
ac:ay;ygOD;... /                                                                                                                                                                   &ifwpfa,muf? ESpa,mufqif;       f                  rdk;csKyfoGm;onfhtwGuf q&m
                   k f
           tarvduvmNyav tarh    D                                                                                                                                                  &if ESpfa,mufepfvdrfhr,f/ 'D                                               G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0efu &ifrcJay;awmh? bmjzpfvYkd
udkapmifhygOD; raoygeJYOD;vm;                                                                                                                                                                          dS
                                                                                                                                                                                   ae&mu 0J&w,f}}[kqum ywf                 dk                          k
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      vnf;qdawmh rD;r&Sí jzpfonf/        d
om;&,f om;u i,f y gao;                                                                                                                                                             0ef;usifudk tultnDawmif;                           wpfaeYv;Hk rS rD;u ok;H em&Davmuf
w,f / tarom aovd k u f y g                                                                                                                                                         cdkif;ygawmhonf/ xdtcseup           k d f          omvmaMumif;ESifh ulvkyfrnfh
awmhvm;/ tarb,fvajz&ygh             kd                                                                                                                                                            f hJ
                                                                                                                                                                                   ívdYk usecaom oli,fcsif;ig;                        tvkyform;awGvnf; jyefoGm;
rvJ om;nDav;eJY tarhudkcGJ                                                                                                                                                         a,muf t½l ; wpf y d k i f ; jzpf &                 íjzpfaMumif; q&m0efu uRef
xm;cJhNyDvm;}}                                                                                                                                                                     awmhonf/ [dw,fuajy;Ny;D t  k         kd                         Ykd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      awmfwukd em;vnfatmif &Si;f jy
           qkonfhidoonfaiGaqmif
               d     k H                                                                                                                                                           aMumif ; Mum;? &G m xJ & S d v l a wG              ygawmhonf/ aemufaeY 8 em&D
jynfolYaq;½Hka&SUü Zlvkdif 8 &uf                                                                                                                                                   vnf; owif;Mum;NyD; xGufvm                          0ef ; usif ü ol Y t d r f r S rd o m;pk
reuf 8 em&DtcsdefwGif Mum;&                                                                                                                                                        awmh urf;ajcrSmvlawG azG;azG;                      a&mufvmMuygonf/ q&m0ef
aomtoHjzpfygonf/ xdkidkjcif;                                                                                                                                                       vIyfoGm;ygonf/                                     &ifcNGJ y;D aq;pm(aoqk;H aMumif;)
\tp jrpfzsm;cH&maeYonf Zl                                                                                                                                                                   aemuf a wmh &G m om;ig;                   vufrSwf,lNyD; xdefyifokomef
vdkif 6 &uf nae 8 em&Dausmf                                                                                                                                                        a,muf cg;rS m abmawG c sD N yD ;                   odkY ykodrfNrdKUrSu½kPmvlrIulnD
csdefrSpíjzpfonf/ uRefawmf                                                                                                                                                         a&xJ o d k Y qif ; oG m ;aomtcg                    a&;toif ; rS um;jzif h o ,f
wkdYoli,fcsif;wpfpkonf arQmf                                                                                                                                                       cPav;jzifh urf;ESifha0;a0;udk                                            h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      aqmifvmcJygawmhonf/ tjyef
pifuRef;&Sd bD,mqkdifwpfqdkif                                                                                                                                                      a&mufoGm;wmudk awGU&onf/                           vrf;ü ajcmufuyfve;f vSonf/           G
wGifpkzGJUí bD,maomufaecJh                                                                                                                                                         vIdif;awGMum;xJrSm acgif;av;                       tdyfrufwpfcktjzpf awG;xifrd
Muonf/ u&0du[w,fBu;D \   f kd                0ifonf/ ol½dkufaeusuifr&m                    tcsKd U ae&mrsm;ü urÇ m ausmf                 jyifMuonf/ a&qif;ul;cgeD;                  awGyJ ay:Ny;D jrifwpfvnhf rjrif            S       \/
crf;em;yHk uefa&jyifujkd zwfoef;             udk,l olY&JUvufyfawmhtdwfudk                 ½kyf&Sif AVATAR um;xJrS ½Icif;                reufu usefaeao;onfh x                      wpfvSnfhjzifh &SdaecJhonf/ pdwf                                              f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                jzpfysucNhJy;D aomtaMumif;
wkdufcwfvmaom nif;oGJUoGJU                   qG J N yD ; xG u f v mawmh ol Y t ar         rsKd;udk awGU&onf/ opfyifjrifh                rif;[if;rsm;udk pm;Muawmh ol               xJrS jyefawGUygap[k qkawmif;                       t&mawGudk jyefpOf;pm;rdawmh
avjynfav;rsm;\t&omudk                        tdyfaeNyD EIwfrqufawmhbl;                    jrifhrm;rm;awG\ ywfvnfrSm                     i,fcsi;f u ]]a[haumifawG vm                                k d f
                                                                                                                                                                                   aerd\/ xdtcseü a'ocHrsm;u                          wapäwpfaumifajcmufvSefYae
cHpm;&if; aomufvkdufMuonf                    qd k u m acsmif ; omod k Y O D ; wnf         jrLawG 0 d k i f ; aeyH k u qef ; opf         pm;Mu c½k[if;awG b,favmuf                  [dkbufu tauGUav;rSm ay:                            ovdk cHpm;cJh&onf/ r,kHEkdifyg/
rSm n 10 em&Dxdk;csdefxd jzpf                vk d u f M uaomf v nf ; xd k c k e pf                             k I
                                                                                          vGe;f onf/ xd½cif;rsm;udk "mwf                aumif;vJ/ aemufqdkpm;&rSm                  vdrfhr,f/ reufjzefcg ay:&if                        r,kHMunf&Jyg/ odkYaomf trSef
onf/ xdktcsdefü rnfolup                      a,mufxJrS wpfa,mufu ol                       yHkq&mvnf;jzpf 'DZdkifemvnf;                  r[k w f b l ; 'gaemuf q H k ; yJ } }qk d   ay:? ray:&if oefbufcgawmh                          wu,f jzpfysufoGm;cJhNyD qdkwm
vdkufrSef;rod ]]uJvlpHkNyD tdrfr             \&nf;pm;jzpfolxH tpD&ifcH                    jzpfol oli,fcsif;u trdt&                             h
                                                                                                                                        onfpum;udk ajymonf/ aemuf                  ay:vmrSmyJqdkum yifv,ft                            udk vufcHvkdufNyD; trSm;awGudk
ydi&if a*:vDrvkyMf ueJY wpfae
  k f                                        avaomtcg roGm;&wpfcsuf                       ½dkuf,laeavawmhonf/ um;                       wpfa,mufrS ]]rif;uvJuGm ed                 aMumif; a&aMumif;pD;qif;rI t                               S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      jyef&mazGaomtcg (1) oGm;oifh
&m&mudkoGm;Mur,f}}ponfh p                    vTwftrdefYxkwfjcif;udk cHvdkuf               jyefxGufaomtcg uRefawmf                            f           d
                                                                                                                                        rdwr&Sd ermr&Spum;ajymw,f}}                aetxm;awGukd ajymjyygawmh                          onfh &moDr[kwbJ tEÅ&m,f&dS       f
um;oHwkdYaemufrSm ae&ma&G;                   &awmhonf/ ]]rif;uvnf;uGm                     wpf v S n f h a rmif ; ygonf / aiG            qkdawmh olu&,faeygonf/                     onf/ tay:u vIi;f u urf;odYk       d                onfh ae&mrSm;,Gif; a&G;cs,frI
Muonf / aemuf q H k ; wnD w                  r,lcifuwnf;u aMumufae                        aqmifa&mufawmh reuf 7 em&D                    xrif;pm;Ny;D aomifjyifurqif; kd            ykwfaeaomfvnf; atmufrSm                            (2) ae&ma'otaMumif;udk r
ñGwwnf; oabmwlcMhJ uonf
         f                                   &ygvm;}}qdkum 0dkif;aemufMu                            f
                                                                                          0ef;usicefjY zpfrnf/ [dw,fawGk                rD a&ul;abmif;bDESifh abmudk               a&pD;aMumif; oefaMumif;ESihf a&                    uRr;f usif rodem; rvnfjcif; (3)
u acsmif;omudkoGm;zkdYtwGuf                            Y kd      h
                                             Ny;D oluxm;cJ&avawmhonf/                         k f S
                                                                                          vdu&mawmh wpfv;kH rSrzGihf ydwf               ydkufxm;NyD; olYuifr&mjzifh yHkpH          ul;uRrf;usifonfh a'ocHawG                          a'oqkdif&m tmPmydkifrsm;\
 ]]b,f o l Y q D r S m yd k u f q H b ,f               wpf a ,muf usef c J h N yD q d k   xm;wmudk awGU&onf/ zGionfh        hf          trsKd;rsKd;"mwfyHk½dkufcHygawmh            awmif rqif;&JaMumif;udkajymjy                      urf;ajcvkHNcHKa&; r&Sdjcif; (4) [dk
avmufygvJxkwfMu}}qdkonfh                     awmh oG m ;rnf h o l u ajcmuf                [dkw,fu 'D&moDrSm wpfvHk;                     onf/ "mwfyHkxJrS olY&JU rsufvHk;           aomtcg wkevyom;rdygawmh  f I f G                   w,frS wm0ef&o\ vrf;ñTerI      dS l       f
tar;pum;tqHk;rSm ]]ighqDrSm                  a,mufwnf;jzpfom;aomtcg  G                    wnf;&Sdonf/ xkd[dkw,frSmyJ                    awGu yifv,fjyifBuD;udk pdef                onf / qif ; q,f o nf h vl i g;                     udk rcHcJh&jcif;ponfhtaMumif;
av;odef;ygw,f avmufvm;}}                     um;wpfpD;wnf;oGm;MuzkdYqHk;                  wnf;cdkzdkY qHk;jzwfMuNyD; tcef;              ac:aeoa,mif/ "mwfyHk½dkuf                  a,muf jyefwufvmaomtcg                              aMumif;aMumifhjzpfygrnf/ ,ck
qkdNyD; oli,fcsif;wpfa,mufu                  jzwfMuNyD; acsmif;omodkY uRef                iSm;um tem;,lvuMf uygawmh kd                  tNyD; aomifjyifudktqif;rSm                 wpfa,mufü abmif;bDjyefyg                           awmh wefzdk;&Sdygonfqdkaom
aiGxkwfay;onf/                               awmfwdkYcsDwufcJhygonf/ vdIif                onf/                                          ola&SU u ajy;qif;oGm;ygawmh                rvmawmh a&qJjG zifh uRwusechJ                f f   vlYtoufwpfacsmif; "mwfykH
           xdkaiGjzifh acsmif;omudk r        om,mrStxGuf &efue-ykorf     k f d                    tdyf&mrSEdk;awmh a&qif;               onf/ xkdtcsdefüavuvnf;                     NyD[k ajymygonf/                                   q&m wpfa,mufESpfrdepf t
eufa&muf naetjyefom;vQif               G     vrf;ray:odkYta&muf oli,f                     ul; Muonf/ ol i ,f csif; u r                  Murf;aeonf/ tkef;yifxdyfzsm;                        urf ; ajcwpf a vQmuf t                    wG i f ; rS m yif vl Y a vmuBuD ; rS
    k
vHavmufonf/ xkq;kH jzwfcsufd                 csif;jzpfolu acsmif;omroGm;                  ul;/ uRefawmfwkdYul;wmudk xkdif               awGu avxJrS,drf;xkd;ae\/                   ajy;tvTm;&SmazG&if; &efukefudk                                         G f hJ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      aysmufu,c&awmhonf/ xdrS                    k
       k
udcstNy;D wpfa,mufurvduf                 k   awmhb;l /aiGaqmifuydvw,f/  k S               Munf h a ecJ h o nf / vd y f v d y f N yD ;   vIdif;acgif;jzLjzLawGu atmfNyD;            zk e f ; quf t aMumif ; Mum;NyD ;                  qif j cif r d a omtcg c&D ; oG m ;
Ekdifbl;qkdum uefawmfBuD; bD                 a&vnf;oefYw,f/ tJ'DudkoGm;                   wufvmaom vdIif;acgif;jzLwkdY                  urf;udkwufvmwm aMumuf                      aomtcg &efukefrSzkef;awG t                         rnf h vl i ,f ? vl & G , f r sm;onf
,mqkdifrS rnfolrSrodatmif                    r,f ponfj zifh vrf;aMumif ;                  u uRefawmfwdkYESifhupm;&if;                   p&mawmif aumif;aeygawmh                    qufrjywf 0ifvmygawmhonf/                           vnf; ae&ma'oa&G;cs,fwwf
xGufajy;oGm;avawmhonf/                       ajymif;vdkufawmhonf/ (wm;                    rdwaqGzUJG aecJonf/ wpfcserm
                                                                                                f                h             d f S    onf/ a&SUrSajy;qif;oGm;aom                 aemuf w pf e m&D c ef Y M umaom                    zkdYvdkonf/ a&mufonfhae&mü
xdaMumifh vla&Munfaomtcg
      Yk                      h              qD;uefYuGufrnfholwpfOD; wpf                  &efoltjzpf wkdufcdkufvmrnf                    olYudk a&xJodkYckef qif;oGm;wm             tcg awGUNyDqdkonfh owif;udk                        vnf; a'ocHrsm;udk ar;jref;Ny;D rS
oGm;rnfholu ckepfa,muft                      a,mufrSr&SdcJh)vrf;c&D;ü wpf                 ud k r od c J h / [d k ; ta0;ud k v S r f ;   udk awGUvdkuf&onf/ uRefawmf                &&Sdygonf/ wpfrkdifeD;eD;&Sd aom                                      h h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      oGm; oifonfae&mudk oGm;vQif
jzpf twnfjyKvkdufMuonf/ vl                   a,mufwpfvSnhfarmif;&if; yk                   Munfhawmh temowfr&Sdaom                       wkdY urf;pyfa&mufawmholu                   c&D;odkYajy;NyD;Munfhaom tcg                       tEÅ&m,fuif;rnf[k ,HMk unfrd
ckepfa,muf um;ESpfpD;jzifhoGm;                      fS
                                             odrrtxGufaiGaqmifoa&muf        Ykd           yifv,fBuD;udk jymvJhvJhtjzpf                  urf;eJYreD;ra0;rSma&mufaeNyD;              aomifjyifay:ü yufvuf tae                           ovdk a'ocHrsm;uvnf; udk,fh
rnfqkdNyD; qkdifuxGufvmcJhMu                 &ef rdkif 20 cefYtuGmü ]]udkat;              awG U ae&onf / a&ul ; NyD ; [d k              vIdif;awGMum;xJrSm vl;vGefYae              txm;jzifh aoqkH;aeaom ol                           t&yfa'oodkY tvnfvmonfh
awmh n 11 em&DausmfjzpfoGm;                  udk xx½Icif;awGudk Munfhprf;                 w,fjyefa&mufawmh xrif;pm;                     \/ vIdif;wpfvHk;ykwfvkdufaom               i,fcsif;udk awGUvkduf&ygawmh                       vlrsm;\ touftkd;tdrfpnf;
awmhonf/ xkrpí uReawmfwYkd
                    d S           f          b,favmufvSvJ}}qkdonfh EId;                   Muonf/ xdkYaemuf oli,fcsif;                   tcg abmESifholuif;uGmoGm;                  onf/ tdyfaeonfh twkdif; EIwf                       pd r f u d k tEÅ & m,f u if ; atmif
\ tkypxrS wpfO;D wpfa,muf
             f k J                           oHtqHk;rSm uRefawmfywf0ef;                   u [dkw,f&Sdvlwpfa,mufqDrS                     awmh\ / aemuf v Id if ; wpf vH k;          crf;av;awG jymaewmuvJGí                                       f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      apmiha&Smufr(0efaqmifr)ay;  I          I
\b0rdom;pktajcaeajymif;                      usifudkMunfhvkdufawmh awmif                  *pfwmudkiSm;vmcJhNyD; oDcsif;qkd              tykwfrSm vufwpfcsufaxmif                   ½kyfrysufjyefawGUvkduf&onf/                        &if;jzifh ulnDEkdifMuygap[k qk
vJ&mvrf;odkY toGm;rSef;rod                   xdyfwpfae&ma&mufaeavNyD/                     MuonfrSm aemufwpfem&DrSm                      jyNyD;a&atmufudka&mufoGm;                  'gayrJh toufr&Sawmh/ oli,f    d                    awmif;aerdygawmhonf/
vkdufMuyg/ oli,fcsif;jzpfolu                 xdktcg um;udk&yfNyD; tanmif;                 jzpfay:vmrnfh aMuuGJoHawG                              S
                                                                                                                                        onfrm jyefay:rvmawmhyg/                    csi;f jzpfol aiGaqmifurf;ajcyif                              nDav; Zifvif;xGef;(c)
tdrfodkYcPjyefrnf? uifr&m,l                  tnmajzum ywf0ef; usitvS            f                         dk
                                                                                          jzpfr,fqwmudk rodcyg/ nae      hJ             oli,fcsif;jzpfolwpfa,muf                   v,fxJü aoqkH;cJh&avNyD/ xdk                        ay:OD; a&
rnf[kqdkojzifh olYtdrfudkcP                  udk uRefawmfwdkYMunfhaomtcg                                     f
                                                                                          3 em&Dausmawmh a& qif;ul;&ef                  abm,lNyD; twif;qif;vkduf                   tcsd e f r S m &J p cef ; rS pcef ; rS L ;                   trQ ...trQ ...trQ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 19

Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013                                                                                                                                Commodity Watch
pmrsufESm(6)rS
                                                                                                    [ef;qufaps;EIef;rsm;                                                                pm;aomufukefaps;EIef;rsm;
jrefrmh½kyf&Sif wpfausmhjyefacgif;axmifvmEdkifrvm;                                                  Samsung                                      iPhone                                  trsKd;tpm;                        a&wGufykH             aps;EIef;(usyf)
                                                                                                    Model                      Price             Model                     Price         qef(ay:qef;arT;)                  wpfjynf               1ç000-1ç500
                                                                                                    Galaxy Y                     93,000          iPhone 5 (64 GB)         850,000        qef(awmifysH)                     wpfjynf               1ç000-1ç300
EkdifiHwpf0ef;u ½kyf&Sif½Hkrsm;udk                 aomfvnf; 'DaeY ½ky&iEihf t&if f S f S            Galaxy GIO                  120,000          iPhone 5 (32 GB)         710,000        qef(ZD,m)                         wpfjynf               600-800
a':aqGZifxdkufu oGm;a&muf                          acwfa[mif;um;rsm; bmuGm                          Galaxy Ace                  138,000          iPhone 4s (64 GB)        525,000
                                                                                                    Galaxy Ace Plus             175,000          iPhone 4s (32 GB)        505,000
                                                                                                                                                                                         qD(yJqD&S,f)                      wpfydóm               3ç500
Munfh½IcJh&m armfvNrdKifwGif ½kyf                           dS
                                                   jcm;rI&ovJ ar;onftcg acwf        h               Galaxy Ace 2                185,000          iPhone 4s (16 GB)        480,000        qD(pm;tkef;qD)                    wpfydóm               1ç600
     f kH
&Si½wpfcrm yifv,fpmtat;
                    k S                                              f S f
                                                   a[mif;½ky&itaMumif;udk rod                       Galaxy S Advance            235,000                                                  qD(&efukefyJqD)                   wpfydóm               4ç100
cef;tjzpf yHkpHajymif;xm;onf                       yg[k pkpE´D0if;u ajzygonf/
                                                                                                    Galaxy S2                   320,000          Huawei                                  qm;(tkdiftdk'if;)                 wpfxkyf               100
                                                                                                    Galaxy S3                   435,000
                                                                                                                                                 Model                     Price         MuufoGefeD                        wpfydóm               700
udk awGUcJh&onf/                                          tjcm;jyóemwpf c k u                       Galaxy Note II              500,000
                                                                                                    Galaxy Tab 7.1              285,000          C 8800                    87,000        MuufoGefjzL                       wpfydóm               1ç500
          aemufxyfjyóemwpfck                       o½k y f a qmif r sm;\ t&nf t
                                                                                                    YANGON MOBILE qdkifrS aps;EIef;rsm;jzpf      C 8812                   105,000
rS m jyef M um;a&;0ef B uD ; Xme                   aoG;uvnf; t&ifacwfo½kyf                                                                                                               oMum;                             wpfydóm               1ç150
                                                                                                    onf/                                         C 8810                    97,000
aMumifhjzpfonf/                                                                                                                                  T 8830                   109,000        refusnf;rSnfh(taphvGwf)           wpfydóm               1ç500
                                                                                                    HTC
                                                   aqmifrsm;xuf edrfhusvmjcif;
                                                                                                                                                 U 8818 D                 110,000        tmvl;                             wpfydóm               800-1ç000
          ]]olwdkYu 'DaeYwpfrsKd;ajym              jzpfonf/ aiG&atmifvkyfEkdif                                                                   U 8951                   125,000
                                                                                                    Model                       Price                                                    EdkYqD                            wpfbl;                500-750
vdkuf/ aemufaeYrSm wpfrsKd;pdwf                    onfh o½kyfaqmifrsm;u tm;                                                                      Y 300 C                  109,000
                                                                                                                                                                                         EdkYpdrf;                         wpfbl;                600-750
                                                                                                    One X                       400,000          C 8950 D                 170,000
ajymif;oGm;vduqawmh vlawG k f dk                   vHk;udk½dkuful;aeMuonf/ tcsKdU                   Sensation XL                362,000          U 8950 D                 165,000        MuufO^bJO                         wpfvkH;               120-130
uvnf ; b,f & if ; ES D ; jr§ K yf E S H & J        o½k y f a qmif r sm;qd k v Qif wpf               Desire VC                   240,000          Ascend P1                264,000        ukvm;yJjcrf;                      wpfydóm               1ç350
awmhrvJ}}[k olu qkdonf/                            um;udk oHk;&ufxufyifydkr½dkuf                  Zlvkdif(20)&uf aps;EIef;rsm;jzpfNyD; aps;EIef;tajymif;tvJ&SdEdkifonf/                  Muufom;(arG;jrLa&;)               wpfydóm               7ç000
                           S
          2012 ckEpf ude;f *Pef;rsm;               Mu/                                                                                                                                   Muufom;(Arm)                      wpfydóm               8ç000
t& jrefrmEkifiH½kyf&if½Hkrsm;wGif
                        d            S                    ]]xkwfvkyfolawGuvnf;                      tDvufx&Gefepfypönf;rsm;aps;EIef;                                                     0ufom;                            wpfydóm               6ç000
jyoaeaom ½kyf&Sifrsm;\ 72                          bmrSrajymEdkifMubl;/ w&m;pGJ                                                                                                          trJom;                            wpfydóm               6ç000
                                                                                                                                              TV
&mckdifEIef;rSm EkdifiHjcm;um;rsm;                 zdkYvnf; bmpnf;urf;pmcsKyfrS                      trsKd;tpm;                                armf',f         aps;EIef;(usyf)           c&rf;csOfoD; (tif;oD;)            1 aowåm               10ç000 0ef;usif
omjzpfonf/ xkdif;ESifh uarÇm'D;                    r&Sdbl;/ tJ'guvnf; xkwfvkyf                       Samsung (Smart LED)                      S5500AR                590,000             a*:zDxkyf                         1 xkyf                600-800
                                                                                                     Panasonic(LCD)                            32SC4S                275,000             i½kwfoD;(tyk)                     1 ydóm                5ç000
            d f H
,m;Ekiirsm;uJor[kwbJ jref      h Ykd       f       rI t&nftaoG;udk zsufqD;ae
                                                                                                     Sony (LCD)                                  35BX                300,000
rm½kyf&Sif½Hkrsm;wGif tqifhjrifh                   wmyJ}}[k a':aqGZifxkdufu                          Sony (LED)                                32EX33                340,000
toHpepfaumif;aumif;r&Syg/                      d   &Sif;jyonf/ aemufxyft"du                                                               DVD                                           ig;? ykpGefaps;EIef;rsm;
xkdifcHkrsm;uvnf; oufaomihf                        usonfh tcsufuawmh 'g½dkuf                         Samsung                BD-E 5500(Blu-ray 3D)                    120,000
                                                                                                     EVD (GE)                                    HDMI                 35,000             trsKd;trnf                       a&wGufykH              aps;EIef;(usyf)
oufomr&Sdovdk oefY&Sif;rIu                         wm\ tcef;u@yJjzpfonf/
                                                                                                     EVD (AEK)                                   HDMI                 33,000
vnf;r&Sdyg/                                               'g½dkufwmMunfpkd;xGef;u                                                     a&cJaowåm                                          ig;jrpfcsif;                     1 ydóm                 2ç200-2ç500
          ,aeYacwfrSm aiGt&rsm;                    ]]t&ifwkef;uawmh 'g½dkufwm                        Samsung                              RT25FGJA                   350,000             ig;Muif;                         1 ydóm                 2ç300-2ç600
qHk; jrefrm½kyf&Sifrsm;rSm [mo                     awGu ½dkufuGif;&JU bk&ifaygh/                     Samsung                                    19PTIX               190,000
                                                                                                                                                                                         ig;oavmuf                        1 ydóm                 3ç300-3ç600
                                                                                                     Hitachi                                     190W                250,000
um;rsm;jzpfNyD; o&Jum;rsm;udk                      tckawmh vlawGu wnf;jzwf                                                                                                               ig;z,f                           1 ydóm                 2ç300-2ç700
                                                                                                     Panasonic                                NR.BT224               250,000
vnf; vlBudKufrsm;vmonf[k                           wmawG? xkwvywmawG *½kr  f k f                                                      Washing                                            ykpGefabmhcsdwf                  1 ydóm                 3ç000-4ç200
'g½dkufwmMunfpdk;xGef;u ajym                       pdkufawmhygbl;/}}                                 Samsung                                   WA95V3                180,000
                                                                                                     Samsung                                    WT10J                175,000
                                                                                                                                                                                         ykpGefajymifwkyfBuD;             1 ydóm                 12ç000-26ç000
ygonf/                                                    xkdtajctaersm;u jref
          xdkYtjyif ½kyf&SifawGrSm vl                                                                                                   Aircon                                           wDvm;AD;,m;                      1 ydóm                 1ç600-2ç000
                                                   rmh½kyf&Sifudk tcsdefESifhtrQ us
                                                                                                     Hitachi                    1.0HP(RAS-E1067)                     290,000
BudKufrsm;vmaom udk&D;,m;                          qif;oxufusqif;vmaomf                                                                                                                   dk f                kd f d                       l
                                                                                                                                                                                      Zlvi(20)&ufu Munhjf rifwiA[kpjH yig;aps;BuD;rS aumuf,xm;aom vufum;
                                                                                                     Mitsubishi                       1.0HP(Heavy)                   250,000
,Ofaus;rI\ vTr;f rk;d rIrsm;ygvm                   vnf; tem*wfrm awmufyvm     S                      Samsung                    (1.0HP)AS09TUQN                      245,000
                                                                                                                                                                                      aps;EIef;rsm;jzpfonf/
onf[k a':aqGZifxkdufu qkd                          Edkifrnfh tvif;a&mifudkawmh                    txufygaps;EIef;rsm;rSm Zlvkdif(20) &ufwGif r[mAE¨Kvyef;NcHvrf;&Sd
onf/                                               pd w f u l ; ,Of a rQmf r S e f ; aeMuyg       Capital ESifh OK jrefrmqdkifwdkYrS aumuf,lxm;jcif;jzpfonf/
                                                                                                                                                                                        yk*¾vdupufokH;qDaps;EIef;rsm;
          ]]'DaeYacwfuawmh udk&D;                  onf/                                                                                                                                   aeYpGJ          "mwfqD ‘ 'DZ,f                 Octane          Premier
,m;awG y J ul ; csaewmygyJ /                              olwtaejzihf ,leAmq,f
                                                                 Ykd                   D            tdrfaqmufypönf;rsm;aps;EIef;                                                                                1 Litre      1 Litre     1 Litre          1 Litre
Zmwfvrf;a&m? oDcsif;a&m? t                         pwl'D,dkuJhodkY ½kyf&SifNrdKUawmf              trsKd;trnf                                             a&wGufykH        aps;EIef;    Jul(14)                   815           870          890             910
0wftpm;a&myJ}}                                     wnfaqmufoGm;&ef jyefMum;                                                                                                            Jul(15)                   815           870          890             910
                                                                                                   bdvyfajr (,dk;',m; qifwHqdyf)                         wpftdwf           5ç850
          jref r m½k y f & S i f j ywd k u f ü     a&;0efBuD;XmeESifh aqG;aEG;ae                                                                                                       Jul(16)                   815           870          890             910
                                                                                                   bdvyfajr (,dk;',m; INSee)                             wpftdwf           5ç650
{nfhvrf;ñTefvkyfol roDoDu                          NyD ; rMumrD E S p f t enf ; i,f t                                                                                                  Jul(17)                   815           870          890             910
                                                                                                   bdvyfajr (jrif;acgif;wHqdyf)                          wpftdwf           4ç900
awmh ]]EkdifiHa&;um;awG uRefr                      wGif; taumiftxnfazmfvm                                                                                                              Jul(18)                   815           870          890             910
                                                                                                   bdvyfajr (ausmufql;wHqdyf)                            wpftdwf           5ç500
rBudKufbl;/ &JawGuaemufu                           Ekirnf[ka':aqGZifxuu ,Hk
                                                     d f                                 dk f                                                                                          Jul(19)                   815           870          890             910
                                                                                                   tkwf (ukef;tkwf-yxrwef;pm;)                           wpfvkH;              95
    d f
vkuwhJ tuf&ivnf;ygwJum;      S f             h     Munfaeonf/ avmavmq,f                                                                                                                Jul(20)                   815           870          890             910
                                                                                                   tkwf (ukef;tkwf-'kwd,wef;pm;)                         wpfvkH;              78
                  f
awGBuKd uw,f/ o&Jum;awGukd                         jrefrmEkdifiHü a':aqGZifxkduf                                                                                                      yk*¾vdupufokH;qDqdkifrsm;rS      aps;EIef;rsm;jzpfygonf/      aps;EIef;ajymif;vJrI
                                                                                                   tkwf (8 ayguftkwf) (txkdifaps;)                       wpfvkH;              90      tenf;i,f &SdEdkifonf/
uRefrtBudKufqHk;yJ}}[k qkdyg                       wkdYacwfrsm;uJhodkY ½kyf&SifNcHqdk              10 ayguftkwf txkdifaps;(rif;ukef;puf½Hk)              wpfvHk;              80
onf/ tcspfZmwfum;rsm;u                             onfrSmr&SdbJ tdrfrsm;udkom                      10 ayguftkwf txkdifaps;(yef;wifpuf½Hk)                wpfvHk;              75        Note Book
vnf; q,fausmfoufrsm;Mum;                           ½dkufuGif;tjzpf oHk;ae&onf/                     oJ (tMurf;)                                           wpfusif;         11ç000        Lenovo
0,f a&yef;pm;aeao;onf[k                                   jrefrm½kyf&Siftpnf;t½Hk;                 oJ (tEk)                                              wpfusif;          7ç000        Intel Core i5 1.7 GHz, 4GB DDR3,750GB HDD,1GB VGA,14" 616,000
oDoDu ajymonf/                                     EkdifiHwumqufqHa&;aumfr                         ausmuf                                                wpfusif;         56ç000        Intel Core i5 2.5 GHz,4GBx1slot DDR3,1TB HDD,2GB VGA,14" 714,000
          xm0& rEÅav;½kyoZmwf            f H       wDtwGi;f a&;rSL;taejzifh urÇm                   umvmpwD;trkd;jym; 4 angle(0.3mm)                        1 ay              550        Intel Core i7 2.2 GHz, 4GB DDR3, 1TB HDD, 15.6"                      861,000
vrf ; wG J w G i f ol e mjyKq&mr                   wpf0ef;u vlrsm;udk a':aqGZif                    umvmpwD;trdk;jym; 4 angle(0.312mm)                      1 ay              620        Intel Core i7 2.3 GHz, 8GB DDR3, 1TB HDD,2GB VGA,15.6" 1,028,000
tjzpf o½kyfaqmif&efapmifhae                        xdkuf trSmpum;yg; vdkufcsif                     umvmpwD;trdk;jym; 4 angle(0.36mm)                       1 ay              830        Dell
onfh o½kyfaqmif pkpE´D0if;url                      onfuatmufygpum;wpfce;f                     G    umvmpwD;trkd;jym; 4 angle(0.346mm)                      1 ay              800        Intel Core i3 1.8 GHz, 6GB DDR3, 500GB HDD, HD, 13"                  485,000
]]o½kyfaqmifwmu uRefr&JU                           wnf;om/                                         umvmpwD;trdk;jym; 4 angle(0.4mm)                        1 ay              880       Intel Core i5 1.8 GHz, 4GB DDR3, 1TB HDD, 14"                         714,000
0goemyJ/ tJ'gaMumifh armf',f                              ]]uRefrwdkY jrefrm½kyf&Sifudk            Posco Mu,fpdrf;                                       1 ayEIef;           440       Intel Core i5 1.7GHz,8GB DDR3,500GB HDD+8GB SSD,HD,14" 841,000

uae ajymif;vkyfwm/ uRefru                          vmNyD;ulnDMuyg&Sif}}                                                                                                                 Intel Core i7 2.2 GHz, 8GB DDR3, 750GB HDD, HD, 15.6"                975,000
                                                                                                   ½dk;½dk;oGyfrdk;jym;(ae&Sife,f 9/10 ay)                 1 ay              300
tcsdefjynfhvkyfcsifwm}}                                                                                                                                                                 ASUS
                                                   (bef a umuf y d k Y p f o wif ; pmyg            ½dk;½dk;oGyfrdk;jym;(ae&Sife,f 11/12 ay)              1 ayEIef;           310        Intel Core i3 1.8 GHz, 4GB DDR3, 500GB HDD, 14"                      489,000
          olu Zmwfyo½kyaqmifc    Ykd   f           Can Myanmar Get a second                        xkH;(8 ydómtdwf)                                      wpftdwf           1ç100        Intel Core i5 1.8 GHz, 4GB DDR3, 500GB HDD, 14"                      606,000
tjzpf wpfaeYudk jrefrmusyfaiG                      chance? aqmif;yg;udk xm;xm;
                                                                                                                             dk f
                                                                                                  txufygaps;EIe;f rsm;rSm Zlvi(20)&ufwif aumuf,xm;aom aps;EIe;f rsm;jzpfNy;D
                                                                                                                                      G        l                                        Intel Core i5 1.8 GHz, 8GB DDR3, 750GB+4GB SSD, 15.6"                871,000
wpfaomif;cGJcefY&ygonf/ odkY                       jrifh bmomjyefqkdonf/)                                                                                                              Intel Core i7 2.4 GHz, 16GB DDR3, 1TB HDD, 15.6"                    1,616,000
                                                                                                  ajymif;vJrItenf;i,f&SdEdkifonf/
20

Interview                                                                                                                                                                                                              Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     acs;aiGjyefqyfcsdefudk owfrSwf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             f G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     xm;NyD;aqmvsipm ta<u;jyef
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     qyf&onfh pdkufbPfaMumifh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     oD;ESHaps;EIef;tedrfhjzifh aps;ESdrfcH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     a&mif;cs&onfh tajctaersKd;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     BuH K awG U ae&onf q k d o nf h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     aqmif;yg;yg t,ltqonf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     rSm;,Gif;aeonfudk od&Sd&efvdk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     tyfygonf/ jrefrmhv,f,mzGHU

    0g;vHk;&SnfBuD;jzifh ,rf;í r½dkufoifhyg                                                                                                                                                                                          NzdK;a&;bPftaejzifh acs;aiG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     rsm;udk jyefvnfaumufc&mwGif
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     aemufqHk;xm;ay;qyf&efum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             H

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     vudk rwfv 31 &uf owfrSwf
       dk                k
Zlvif 10 &ufxwf 7 Day New-                       acs;ay;cJ h N yD ; 2012-2013            &ygonf/                                  jrefrmhv,f,mzGHUNzdK;a&;bPfrS                     ponfhtcsufoHk;csufudk awGU                       xm;í pyg;pkdufysKd;onfh awmif
                 G
s *sme,fwif tcseveraiGacs; d f G f S             b@ma&;ESpfwGif 557 'or                         jrefrmhv,f,mzGHUNzdK;a&;          vnf; jrefrmhpD;yGm;a&;bPfodkY                     jrif&onf/ awmifolv,fo                            ol v ,f o rm;rsm;taejzif h
&qkdonfh owif;aqmif;yg;udk                       85 bDvD,HrS ,ckESpfwGif usyf                        JG
                                                                                         bPfctaejzifh awmifov,f          l        acs;aiGjyefvnfray;qyfEkdifcJh                                          f   kd f d f G
                                                                                                                                                                                    rm;rsm; xGe,ufpuysK;d csewif                     xGuf&SdvmonfhoD;ESHudk vuf
zwf½Ivdkuf&onf/ awmifol                          aiG 1ç461 bDvD,Htxd wkd;jr§ihf          orm;rsm;udk acs;aiGxwacs;&m k f          jcif ; jzpf y gonf / acs;aiG r sm;                                d
                                                                                                                                                                                    acs;aiG&&Sa&;twGuf awmifol                       0,foHk;vcefY udkifaqmifxm;
v,form;rsm;taejzifh ,ckEpf                   S   xkwfacs;ay;&ef EkdifiHawmfu             wGif rdrdudk,fydkifaiGjzifh rvHk         xkwfacs;&mwGifvnf; t"du                           v,form;rsm;rS rdrwxwacs;     d Ykd k f           EkdifNyD; yJpdkufawmifolrsm; tae
wGif pdkufysKd;xGef,ufcsdeftrD                   cGifhjyKxm;aMumif;udk Zlvkdif 3         avmufíjrefrmhp;D yGm;a&;bPf              tcef;u@rS vkyfudkif&aom                           xm;onfrsm;udk bPfrS owf                          jzifhvnf; tenf;qHk;ESpfvcGJoHk;
pdkuf^bPfacs;aiGr&&Sdao;í                                      T f
                                                 &ufu vGwawmfwif v,f,m        G          rS acs;iSm;í jyefvnfxkwfay;&             jrefrmhv,f,mzGHUNzdK;a&;bPf&Sd                           f
                                                                                                                                                                                    rSwxm;onfh umvtwGi;f ay;                         vcefY udkifaqmifxm;Edkifonfh
tcuftcJjzpfaeaMumif; od&&                 dS     pdkufysKd;a&;ESifh qnfajrmif;0ef        jcif;jzpf&m acs;aiGEIef;xm;t             wpfEiiv;kH 0efxrf;tiftm;rSm
                                                                                                                                           dk f H                                                      k
                                                                                                                                                                                    qyfMuzdYk vdtyfonftjyif acs;   h                 taetxm;wGif&Sdygonf/
onf/                                             BuD;Xme 'kwd,0efBuD; OD;tkef;           opfjzifh wGufcsufí acs;aiGudk                            S
                                                                                                                                  1978 ckEpf 0efxrf;zGUJ pnf;yHtif        k         aiGxkwfacs;&mwGif t"du t                                 jrefrmhv,f,mzGHUNzdK;a&;
            awmifolv,form;rsm;                   oef;u ajymMum;cJhNyD;jzpfonf/           jrefrmhpD;yGm;a&;bPfrS xkwf,l            tm;twkdif; 3ç357 OD;om&SdcJhNyD;                  cef;u@rS vkyfudkifaeaom                          bPfcGJrsm;udk wpfEkdifiHvHk;wGif
oD;ESHpdkufysKd;xGef,ufvkyfudkif                        awmifolv,form;rsm;               &&Sda&;twGuf pDrH0efBuD;Xme              acs;aiGxkwfacs;ay;&onfhudpö                       jrefrmhv,f,mzGHUNzdK;a&;bPf                      zGifhvSpfay;xm;Ekdifjcif;r&Sdao;
&mwGif oGif;tm;pkrsm;rSm aps;                    udk acs;aiGxkwfacs;&mwGif t"d                             G f d§ dI
                                                                                         ESihf qufo,nEi;f aqmif&uf            G   wGif 1978 ckESpfu xkwfay;&                        0efxrf;tiftm;udkvnf; wkd;                        yg/ jrefrmhv,f,mzGHUNzdK;a&;
              h
EIe;f jrifrm;aeaomaMumifh EkiiH        d f       utcef;u@rS vkyfudkifay;&                &ygonf/ 2013-2014 b@m                    onfxuf usybv,aygif;rsm;   f D D H                 jr§ihfay;rS tqifajyrnfjzpfyg                     bPftaejzifh awmifolv,f
                   f
awmfrS xkwacs;ay;onfaiGjzifh         h           aom jrefrmhv,f,mzGHUNzdK;a&;            a&;ESpftwGuf acs;aiGrsm;xkwf             pG m wk d ; jr§ i h f x k w f a cs;ay;cJ h & yg   onf/                                             orm;rsm;xHrS acs;aiGjyefvnf
          k
rvHavmufí jyifyrS twk;d EIe;f                                        dS l
                                                 bPfrS wm0ef&orsm;taejzifh               acs;Eki&ef jrefrmhp;D yGm;a&;bPf
                                                                                                 d f                              onf/                                                         jrefrmhv,f,mzGHUNzdK;a&;              aumufcH&mwGif oD;ESHay:csdef
jrifhrm;pGmjzifh acs;iSm;vkyfudkif               2013-2014 b@ma&;ESpft                   rS xkwfacs;xm;aom 2012-                             2013 ckESpf pdkufysKd;p&dwf            bPfudk EkdifiHydkifbPfrS trsm;                   aiG&TifcsdefwGif aumufcHcJhyg
ae&onfudk od&Sd&í EkdifiHawmf                    wGuf acs;aiGrsm; tcsdefrDxkwf           2013acs;aiGrausao;íbPf                   acs;aiG xkwfacs;&mwGif aESmifh                    ydibPftjzpf ajymif;vJEivsS if
                                                                                                                                                                                      k f                                 dk f                        k
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     onf/ tqdygtcseonfawmif    d f
tpdk;&rS oD;ESHacs;aiGEIef;xm;                          k f                   S f k
                                                 acs;Edi&ef 2013 ckEpf ESpO;D ydi;f      acs;aiG&&Sda&;twGuf tcuf                 aES;MuefMY um&jcif; taMumif;udk                   taumif;qHk;yJ[k aqmif;yg;                        olv,form;rsm; pdkufysKd;xm;
rsm;wk d ; jr§ i h f x k w f a cs;ay;cJ h y g                      S        H I
                                                 rSpí ,cifEpf oD;ESEe;f xm;rsm;          tcJ j zpf c J h N yD ; txuf t zG J U t   prf;ppfMunfhvQif (1)EdkifiHawmf                   wGifyg&Sdygonf/ EkdifiHtawmf                     onfh oD;ESHrsm;vIdifvIdif ay:csdef
onf/                                             twkdif; wGufcsufí &efyHkaiGcGifh        pnf;tqifhqifhodkY wifjyNyD;rS            rS awmifolv,form;rsm;udk                          rsm;rsm;wGif awmifolv,fo                         jzpfí ukefonfyGJpm;taejzifh
             pyg;wpf{uudk ,cifu                  jyKcsuf&&Sda&;twGuf txuf                acs;iSm;cGifh&&SdcJhygonf/ jrefrmh       vHkavmufaom acs;aiG&&Sda&;                        rm;rsm;udk EkdifiHawmfydkifbPf                   aps;EIe;f csí 0,fonfrm "r®wm          S
usyf 50ç000 EIef;rS ,ckESpfwGif                  tzGJUtpnf;tqifhqifhudk wif              pD;yGm;a&;bPfrS acs;aiG&&SvQif    d      twGuf acs;aiGEIef;xm; wkd;jr§ihf                  rsm;uom acs;aiGrsm;udk xkwf                      jzpfygonf/ jrefrmhv,f,mzGHU
usyf 100ç000 EIef;jzifhvnf;                      jyaqmif&GufcJhNyD;jzpfum EkdifiH            d
                                                                                         &&Scsi;f jrefrmhv,f,mzGUH NzKd ;a&;      ay;vkdufíxkwfacs;ay;&rnfh                         acs;ay;vsuf&SdaMumif; awGUjrif                   NzdK;a&;bPfrS acs;aiGjyefvnf
aumif;? yJrsKd;pHkESifh qDxGufoD;ESH             awmftpdk;&rS awmifolv,f                 bPfcGJtm;vHk;rS ZGef 17 &ufrSp           &efyHkaiG&&Sda&;twGuf topf                        &onf/ jrefrmhv,f,mzGUH NzKd ;a&;                 aumufcHaeí aps;ESdrf0,f,l
rsm;udk ,cifu wpf{uusyf                          orm;rsm; xGef,ufpdkufysKd;vkyf          í wpfNydKifwnf;awmifolv,f                wpfzef jyefvnfa&;qGJ&jcif;?                       bPf o nf trsKd ; om;acgif ;                                         f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     aejcif;r[kwyg/ NrKd Ue,f bPfcJG
10ç000 EIef;rS ,ckESpfwGif usyf                  udkif&mwGif pdkufysKd;p&dwfaiG vHk      orm;rsm;vuf 0 ,f t a&muf                 (2)2012-2013 b@ma&;ESpf                           aqmifBuD; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;                    rzGifhEdkifao;aom NrdKUe,frsm;
20ç000 EIef;jzifh wkd;jr§ihfxkwf                              G d dk f
                                                 avmufpm&&SEi&ef acs;aiGEe;f      I      xkwfacs;ay;cJhygonf/                     twGuf jrefrmhpD;yGm;a&;bPf                        csrSwfcJhonfh vrf;ñTefcsuft&                     udk oGm;a&mufMunfhvQif oD;ESH
                                                                          S f
                                                 xm;rsm;udk ,cifEpuxuf ESpf                     jrefrmhpD;yGm;a&;bPft             acs;aiG rajyausín§ d E I d i f ;                  jzpfay:vmaom bPfwpfcjk zpf                       vdIifvIdifay:csdefwGifaps;EIef;
                                                 qwdk;í xkwfacs;ay;&ef vrf;              aejzifh ,cifESpfxkwfacs;xm;              aqmif&Gufae&jcif;? (3) jrefrmh                    onfhtjyif ESpfaygif; 60 cefY                     avQmhcs0,fjcif;onf pdkufbPf
                                                 ñTefonfhtwGuf jrefrmhv,f                aom acs;aiGajyausrS jyefvnf              pD ; yG m ;a&;bPf r S acs;aiG & &S d              awmifolv,form;rsm;udk aiG                        aMumif h v m; 0d o ravmb&S d
                                                 ,mzGHUNzdK;a&;bPf taejzifh              xk w f acs;ay;aompepf j zpf í            onfESifhwpfNydKifeuf bPfcGJ                       a&;aMu;a&; taxmuftuljyK                                         f     JG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     aomukeonfypm;aMumifvm;                    h
                                                            l
                                                 awmifov,form;rsm;udkxkwf                awmifolv,form;rsm;rS t                   tm;vHk;rS acs;aiGxkwfacs;cJh                      vsuf&Sdaom bPfwpfckjzpfcJh                       uG J u G J j ym;jym;od & S d E d k i f r nf j zpf
                                                 acs;ay;&rnf h a iG x yf r H w G u f     aMumif;trsK;d rsK;d aMumifh 2012-        aomfvnf; 0efxrf;tiftm;                            onf/ ESpfpOftjrwfoef;aygif;                      onf/
                                                 csufí txuftzGJUtpnf; t                  2013 acs;aiGudk bPfcGJodkYjyef           enf;yg;rIaMumifh xifoavmuf                        rsm;pGmudk EkdifiHawmfodkY xnfh0if                       jrefrmhv,f,mzGHUNzdK;a&;
                                                 qif h q if h x H xyf r H w if j ycJ h   vnfay;qyf&ef aESmifhaES;í                acs;aiGxkwfacs;ray;Ekdifjcif;                     Edkifaom bPfwpfckvnf;jzpf                        bPftaejzifh pwifxlaxmif
                                                                                                                                                                                    onf/                                             csdef 1953 ckESpfrS 2012 ckESpf
                                                                                                                                                                                               awmifolv,form;rsm;                    txd awmifolv,form;rsm;
                                                                                                                                                                                    udkvnf; rnfonfh txl;jyK                          vuf 0 ,f pd k u f y sKd ; xG e f , uf
                                                                                                                                                                                             Ü
                                                                                                                                                                                    ukrP?D rnfonfbPfrS xkwrh                     f   pdkufysKd;csdeftrD arvqef;wGif
                                                                                                                                                                                    acs;onfh aiGwpf&mvQif wpfv                       xkwfacs;ay;EkdifcJhaomfvnf;
                                                                                                                                                                                    twk;d EIe;f 0 'or 71 jym; twd;k                  2013 ckESpfusrSom taMumif;
                                                                                                                                                                                    EIef;jzifh xkwfacs;aeaom bPf                     trsKd;rsKd;aMumifh xkwfacs;Ekdif
                                                                                                                                                                                    wpfckvnf;jzpfonf/                                jcif; r&Sdonfhudpöudk taMumif;
                                                                                                                                                                                                trsm;ydkifbPfjzpfygu                 jyKí 0g;vHk;&SnfBuD;jzifh ,rf;í
                                                                                                                                                                                    pdkufysKd;p&dwfacs;aiGjyefqyfcsdef               r½d k u f o if h a Mumif ; ud k 7
                                                                                                                                                                                    &ufa&GUqkdif;jcif;ESifh oD;ESHay:                Day News *sme,frSwpfqifh
                                                                                                                                                                                        d f G
                                                                                                                                                                                    csewif vuf0,facwåuixm;              kd f         wifjy&jcif; jzpfygonf/
                                                                                                                                                                                       d f            d f
                                                                                                                                                                                    Eki&ef tcseay;jcif; aqmif&uf               G
                                                                                                                                                                                    EkdifNyD; jrefrmhv,f,mzGHUNzdK;a&;                         pdkufbPf0efxrf;wpfOD;
                                                                                                                                                                                    bPfonf tpd;k &ydibPfjzpfí  k f
                                                                                                        Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2010
                                                                                                       Vol.9, No.29  OCtObeR 7,2013




qufoG,fa&;Oya'Murf;wGif jynfolukd zdESdyfonfh tcsufryg[kqdk                                                                                                                                                 *l;*JvfukrÜPD
&efrsdK;Ekdif                                 tqifheJY nDatmif uRefawmfwkdY              Murf;a&muf&dSwJh tcsdefupNyD;                a&;twGuf qufoG,fa&; Oy              &ufxdvma&mufaqG;aEG;Ekdif         tGefvkdif;ü
           &efukef?Zlvdkif-18                            dk f
                                              twwfEiq;kH vkyxm;ygw,f}}
                                                                 f                       awmh uRefawmfwkdY aumfrwDt                   a'Murf;ukd tacsmowfekdifa&;         aMumif; jynfolYvTwfawmfydkY

                                                                                                                                                                                                            tcaMu;aiGjzifh
jynfolYvTwfawmfwGif aqG;aEG;                  [k OD;odef;aqGuajymonf/                                   G f
                                                                                         aeeJY 'Dqufo,a&;Oya'Murf;                    twGufjyifyrS uRrf;usifynm           aqmifa&;? qufoG,fa&;ESihf
awmhrnfh qufoG,fa&;Oya'                             qufoG,fa&;Oya'Murf;                  tay:rSm tao;pdwfwpfykd'f                     &Sifrsm;? Oya'ynm&Sifrsm;ESifh      aqmufvkyfa&;qkdif&m aumfr
Murf;ü jynfovxuzEyonfh
                 l l k dk d dS f              onf trsdK;om;vTwfawmfwGif                  csif;avhvmNyD;rS jyefvnfjyif                                 Yl T f
                                                                                                                                      vnf;jynfovwawmfyaqmif     Ykd       wDu aMunmcsuxwjf yefxm;
                                                                                                                                                                                             f k
tcsufrsm; xnfhoGif;xm;jcif;                   aqG;aEG;NyD;jzpf&m jyifqifcsuf             qifoihfwmawG? jznfhpGufoifh                  a&;? qufoG,fa&;ESifh aqmuf          cJhonf/
r&dSaMumif; jynfolYvTwfawmf
ydkYaqmifa&;? qufoG,fa&;ESihf
                                              rsm;jzihf jynfoYlvTwfawmfodkY
                                              ay;ykdYxm;onfukd jynfolYvTwf
                                                                                         wmawG? y,fzsufoifhwmawG
                                                                                         ukd aqmif&ucygw,f}}[kquf
                                                                                                    G f hJ
                                                                                                                                      vkya&;qki&m aumfrwDuawGU
                                                                                                                                           f      d f
                                                                                                                                      qHk rIrsm;jyKvkyfaeonf/
                                                                                                                                                                                  qufoG,fa&;Oya'Murf;
                                                                                                                                                                          ukd qufoG,fa&;ESihf owif;
                                                                                                                                                                                                            ½kyfoHjyo&ef
aqmufvkyfa&;qkdif&m aumfr                     awmfykdYaqmifa&;? qufoG,f                  oG,a&; Oya'Murf; vkyaqmif
                                                                                               f                          f                    tm;enf;csufrsm;&dSae                f
                                                                                                                                                                          tcsutvufenf;ynm0efBu;D
wD Ouú| OD;odef;aqGuajym
onf/
                                              a&;ESihf aqmufvkyfa&;qkdif&m
                                              aumfrwDu jynfolYvTwfawmf
                                                                                         aejcif;ukd OD;odef;aqGu ajym
                                                                                         onf/
                                                                                                                                      aMumif; oufqkdif&me,fy,frS
                                                                                                                                      a0zefaeMuonfh qufo,a&;        G f
                                                                                                                                                                          Xme a&;qJGum jynfaxmifpk
                                                                                                                                                                          vTwfawmfokdY NyD;cJhonfh 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                                            pDpOf
       ]]qufo,a&;Oya'Murf;
                  G f                         wGif aqG;aEG;Ekdif&ef aqmif&Guf                    vmrnf h & uf y d k i f ; twG i f ;   Oya'Murf;udk tBuHjyKaqG;aEG;            S f      G
                                                                                                                                                                          ckEpu wifoi;f cJjh cif;jzpfonf/
rSm jynfolawGukd xdef;csKyfzdkY               aejcif;jzpfonf/                            usif;yrnfh jynfolYvTwfawmf                   vkdygu aejynfawmf&dS vTwf                                                 e,l;a,muf? Zlvkdif-20
zdESdyfzdkYxuf tifwmae&Sife,f                          ]]qufoG,fa&;Oya'                  tpnf;ta0;wGif aqG;aEG;Ekdif                  awmf½Hk;okdY Zlvkdif 12 &ufrS 15                                      tar&duefEkdifiH&Sd tifwmeuf
                                                                                                                                                                                                            0efaqmifrIukrÜPD *l;*Jvfonf
                                                                                                                                                                                                            tGefvkdif;ü tcaMu;aiGjzifh ½kyf

HTC                          ukrÜPD HTC ONE tao;pm;xkwfvkyf                                                                                                                                                 oHjyo&ef pDpOfaeaMumif; jyo
                                                                                                                                                                                                            rnfh½kyfoHukrÜPDtcsKdUESifh vkdif
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   k f
                                                                                                                                                                                                            pifxway;&ef awGUqHcaMumif;k hJ
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wall Street Journal u azmfjy
        vef'ef? Zlvkdif-20                                                                                                                                                                                  onf/
                       k
HTC ONE ESihf omref toH;jyKykH                                                                                                                                                                                    tu,fí *l;*JvurPt   f k Ü D
wlnND y;D Beats Audio enf;ynm                                                                                                                                                                               aejzif h ,if ; tpD t pOf u d k t
ESifh tjyifydkif;'DZdkif;yHkpHwlnD                                                                                                                                                                          aumif t xnf a zmf y gu tG e f
onfhtpdwftydkif;rsm; tm;vHk;                                                                                                                                                                                vkdif;rSaeí ½kyfoHyHkpHxkwfvTifh
vG , f u l p G m toH k ; jyKEk d i f a om                                                                                                                                                                   jyovdkonfh ukrÜPDrsm;pGmESifh
HTC ONE Mini udk HTC ukrPD              Ü                                                                                                                                                                   qufoG,fyl;aygif;oGm;zG,f&Sd
rS xkwfvkyfvdkufonf/                                                                                                                                                                                        aMumif; azmfjyonf/
      HTC ONE ESihf omreftm;                                                                                                                                                                                      Inter Corp ESihf Sony Corp
jzifh wlnDrI&Sdaomfvnf; t&G,f                                                                                                                                                                               uvnf; ,if;odkY tGefvdkif;wDAD
tpm;ao;i,f a omaMumif h                                                                                                                                                                                     tpDtpOfrsm; vkyfaqmifaeMu
HTC ONE Mini wGif twGi;ydi;           f k f                                                                                                                                                                 aMumif; NyD;cJhonfh 2 ESpftwGif;
yg0if r I t csKd U ajymif ; vJ x m;                                                                                                                                                                         Apple Inc ukrÜPDu ½kyfoHvdkif
onf/                                                                                                                                                                                                                               D
                                                                                                                                                                                                            pifcsxm;ay;a&; rD',mukrPD      Ü
                           d
       RAM 1 GB yg&Sonfh HTC
                                                                                                                                                                                                            trsm;tjym;ES i f h aqG ; aEG ; cJ h
ONE Mini \ rsufESmjyift
                                                                                                                                                                                                            aMumif; od&onf/
us,frSm 4 'or 3 vufr&SdNyD;                                                                                                                                                                                       *l;*JvfukrÜPD\ ,ckBudK;
Dual core 1.4 GHZ y½dkquf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           f I
                                                                                                                                                                                                            pm;tm;xkwrom atmifjrifyg
qmyg0ifonf/                                                                                                                                                                                                 u vuf&SdtoHk;jyKaeonfh tc
      Google Play wGif vwf
                                                                                                                                                                                                            aMu;aiGay;í Munfh&aom ½kyf
wavm&&SdEkdifonfh rnfonfh
                                                                                                                                                                                                            oHpepfudk tm;enf;oGm;apEkdif
Application ud k r qd k HTC
                                                                                                                                                                                                            aMumif; ,if;*sme,fwGif azmfjy
ONE Mini wGif toH;jyKEirnf   k dk f
                                                                                                                                                                                                            xm;onf/
jzpfonf/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                —Ref: AFP
        HTC ONE xufaps;EIef;
vnf; ydkrdkoufomrnfjzpfum
oHk;pGJolydkrsm;vmap&ef HTC                           k        f
                                              oifye;f uGeysLwmwpfrsK;d vnf;
ONE Mini udk xkwvyjf cif; jzpf
                         f k                  xkwfvkyfaeaMumif; aumvm
onf/                                          [vowif;rsm; xGufay:ae
       Samsung Galaxy S4 Mini                 onf/
ESihf Sony Xperia ZR zke;f rsm; t                    HTC ONE Mini udk Mo*kwf

ygt0if vG,fulpGmtoHk;jyKEkdif                 vtwG i f ; 0,f , l & &S d E d k i f r nf
aom tao;pm;ud & d , mrsm;                     jzpfaMumif; Zlvkdif 18 &ufu
e,f y ,f u s,f 0 ef ; vmrI w G i f            vef'efNrdKUwGif jyKvkyfcJhonfh
HTC ONE Minionf aemuf                         jyyG J w pf c k ü ,if ; uk r Ü P D u
qHk;ay:ypönf;jzpfvmonf/                       ajymMum;onf/
               Ü D
       HTC ukrPu HTC ONE
Version udk tqifhwdk;jr§ihfNyD;
22

tech
pm;aomufqkdif? aq;qkdifESifh vkyfief;okH; Application rsm; aps;ydkoufomvm[kqdk
aqmhzf0Jtopfrsm; xGuf&Sd
ary,fvf
     &efukef? Zlvkdif-20             jzpfonf/
ta&mif;qkdifokH; Multi POS                                      dk f
                                                pm;aomufqio;Hk aqmhzf
System, pm;aomuf q k d i f o k H ;   0JwGif pm;yJGxkd;rsm;u Android
Restaurant Master ? aq;ESifh         Tablet jzifh Counter PC ESifh
aq;ypön f; ta&mif;qkdifokH;          csdwfqufEkdifjcif;? rD;zdkaqmifodkY           e,l;a,muf? Zlvkdif-20
Pharmacy Shop POS System             Order Slip xkwfay;Ekdifjcif;
                                                                               Application aps;EIef;rsm;onf
           f J        dk f k d
ponfh aqmhz0rsm; Zlvi'w,             ponfh Functions opfrsm;yg0if
                                                                                    f hJ
                                                                               vGeconfh av;ESpwmumvtf
ywfrSpíaps;uGufü&&dSNyDjzpf          NyD; Menu Transfer uJhokdY tokH;
                                                                               wGi;f odompGmusqif;vmaMumif;
aMumif; owif;&&Sdonf/                wnfhrnfh Feature rsm;vnf; yg
                                                                               rdkbkdif;zkef;avhvma&;vkyfief;
    aqmhzf0Jrsm;udk Excellent        0ifaMumif; od&onf/
                                                                               zvm&D\ aemufqHk;aumuf,l
Business Management                             aq;qkdifokH;aqmhzf0JwGif
                                                                                                  f
                                                                               xm;onfh tcsutvufrsm;t
               Ü D
Solution ukrPu xkwvyNf y;   f k D    ta&mif;qkdifokH; Functions
                                                                               & od&onf/
t*Fvdyf-jrefrm ESpfbmomjzifh         rsm; yg0ifonfhtjyif aq;rsm;
                                                                                      zvm&Dvkyfief;u Zlvkdif
tokH;jyKEkdifum jynfwGif;pD;yGm;                     f
                                     &uf vGerjzpfrD BuKd wifowday;
                                                                               18 &uf w G i f xk w f j yef c J h o nf h
a&;vkyfief;rsm; vG,fultqif           jcif;pepfrsm;? aq;rsm;udkvnf;
ajyap&ef vkyfief;obm0ESifh           (bl;? ykvif;? uwf? tvkH;) ykHpH           okawoejyKcsufwGif Appli-
                                                                                              J l
                                                                               cation a&;qGorsm;onf vGechJ         f      EIe;f rSm tcrJay;jcif; (odr [kw)
                                                                                                                                          h        Yk      f               Application pkpkaygif;\    oHk;jyKcJhMuaMumif; ,if; okaw
     k f D            dk
udunatmif 'DZi;f jyKvyxm;    k f                                          dk
                                     rsK;d pkjH zifh pm&if;oGi;f a&mif;csEif
onf[k qkdonf/                        jcif; ponfwdkY aqmif&GufEkdif             onfh av;ESpftwGif; Appli-                  ukefusp&dwfumrdap&ef aMumf            10 &mckdifEIef;rSm tcrJhay;jcif;      oejyKcsuf w G i f azmf j yonf /
                                                                               cation aps;EIef;rsm;udk ododom             jimaMu;&,lí ay;tyfcJhjcif;            r[kwfbJ iPad y½dk*&rfrsm;rSm                                 J l
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Application a&;qGorsm;onf
        ta&mif;qkdifokH; aqmhzf0J    rnf jzpfonf[k qkdonf/
wGif ukefa&mif;? ukef0,f? vuf              Excellent Business Man-
                                                                               omavQmhcsvmMuNyD; trsm;pk                  jzpf o nf / 2012 ck E S p f w G i f   aps;tBuD;qHk;jzpfNyD; ysrf;rQaps;     aMumf j imrsm;rS 0if a iG u d k o m
usef? ta<u;? &if;ESD;aiG? tjrwf      agement Solution rS vkyfief;
                                                                                          h
                                                                               rSm tcrJay;Muonf (odr[kw)     Yk      f    Application tcrJhay;a0rIrSm           uefa':vm 0'or 06 &Sonf        d       tm;xm;vmMuaomaMumif h
aiG? 0efxrf;vpm? aiGpm&if;yki;f ?d   okH;aqmhzf0Jrsm;jzpfaom t*F               aMumfjimp&dwf&,lum tcrJh                   80 &mckdifEIef;odkY usqif;cJhaomf     [kqonf/ kd                            A p p l i c a t i o n aps;EI e f ; rS m

pm&if;csKyfydkif;wkdY yg0ifrnfjzpf   vdy-jrefrm ESpbmomok;H Mini
                                         f            f                        ay;Muonf[k od&onf/                         vnf; ,ckEpf {NyvtwGi;f url
                                                                                                                                        S     D                            Application a&;qGorsm;
                                                                                                                                                                                             J l      qufvufusqif;zG,&aMumif;  f dS
Ny;D vufv?D vufum;? vufiif;^         Seller ES i f h Restaurant Ma                       2010 jynf h E S p f t wG i f ;   Application rsm;tm;vHk;\ 90           onf ¤if;wk\ Application rsm;
                                                                                                                                                                                Yd                    zvm&Dvkyfief;u oHk;oyfxm;
ta<u;? vufaqmif? Discount            ster aqmh z f 0 J r sm; xk w f v k y f    t"du prwfzkef;e,fy,fESpfck&Sd              &mcdkifEIef;rSm tcrJhay;jcif;jzpf     tay: oHk;pGJol\ wHkYjyefrIudk od      onf/
wdkY yg0ifwJGzuftokH;jyKEkdifrnf     a&mif;csNyD;jzpfonf/                      Application rsm;\ 84 &mckdif               onf/                                  &SdEkdif&ef aps;EIef;prf;oyfrIudk t                          —Ref: AFP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  23

Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013                                                                                                                                                                                     Article
                                                                                                                                                                       urf;a0;orm;awGu vpfvQif                     BuD;rsm;rsm;rdvQif xkdcGrf;pufu

vGwfatmifr½kkef;Ekdifí jyKef;vmaom yifv,fig;rsm;                                                                                                                       vpfovkd urf;eD;wGif 0ifa&muf
                                                                                                                                                                       ckd;zrf;Muavh&dSonf/ urf;eD;ig;
                                                                                                                                                                       zrf;ykdufrsm;ukd ykdufuGufBuD;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   rrEkdifawmhay/ xkdtcgrsdK;wGif
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   atmufqHk;u ydkuftao;ukd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   azmufcsum ig;ao;awGukd pGefY
                                                                                                                                                                                f S f
                                                                                                                                                                       owfrway;xm;jcif;rSm urf;eD;                 vTwf&onf/ uka#aygif;rsm;
  pdkif;bm;'kdif                                                                                                                                                       wGif ig;i,frsm; BuD;xGm;cGihfukd            pGmaom ig;uav;awG a&xJ
                                                                                                                                                                       ay;xm;jcif;jzpfonf/                         taoarsmygoGm;&awmhonf/
                           G
jrefrmhyifv,fjyifwifig;oavmuf                                                                                                                                                    0gvwf? 0gwef; ig;zrf;avS                     ig;zrf;ydkufukdqJGwifvkduf
rsm;&Sm;yg;vmojzifh ,cifESpfu                                                                                                                                          BuD;rsm;ukd urf;a0;tjzpfom                  Ny;D aemufig;trsKd ;tpm;? t&G,f
xufrsm;pGm avsmhenf;zrf;qD;rd                                                                                                                                          cGifhjyKxm;aomfvnf; urf;teD;                tpm;ukdcJGum ig;uefuav;
onf[laom owif;awGukdMum;                                                                                                                                               uyfum 0ifa&mufckd;zrf;ojzihf                rsm;wGif a&cJpGwfí a&cJuefxJ
ae&onf / ig;oavmuf o nf                                                                                                                                                ig;BuD;? ig;i,f? ig;zsif;uav;               wGif wef;pDí xyfícs&onf/
t&om&dSaom ig;rsdK;jzpfojzifh                                                                                                                                          awGu tp bD;pdyfwkdufoGm;Mu                  aemufqHk;ykdufuGufurdaom
ig;oavmufykdufrsm;jzifh zrf;qD;                                                                                                                                        avonf/ ig;avScGifhjyKcsufukd                ig;uav;awGuawmh a&cJuefdk
umtpdk? tajcmuf? qm;e,frsm;                                                                                                                                            tBuHtzefjyKvkyfum zrf;qD;rI                 wpfckwGif ig;wpfxyf? a&cJwpf
xkwfvkyfa&mif;csvsuf&dS&m onf                                                                                                                                          awGaMumifh xkdrormrIawGu                    xyfjzihf oGefcsxm;vkdufonf/
          dk   f
bufyi;f ESprsm;wGif ig;oavmuf                                                                                                                                          ae EkdifiHawmfu &oifh&xkduf                 ,if;ig;uav;awGukd yguifig;
ukda&cJ½dkufí jynfyaps;uGufodkY                                                                                                                                        aom b@maiGawGvnf; qHk;                      [kac:onf/ iHjym&nfcsufvkyf
wifydkYa&mif;csrIrsm;vm&m ig;o                                                                                                                                         ½I H ; ? jref r mh i g;o,H Z mwawG          &mwGif ukeMf urf;tjzpfo;kH onf/
avmufzrf;orm;awGvnf;wkd;                                                                                                                                               vnf; qHk;½HI;&avonf/                                   jrefrmha&atmufuig;rsm;
vmonf/                                                                                                                                                                               yifv,fjyifpdk;rkd;a&;ukd      rSm xkdokdYykdufpdyfwkdufum t
             f      Ydk
        uReawmfwi,fi,fu awmh                                                                                                                                           tcsdefjynfhrapmifhMuyfEkdifjcif;            ao;trT m ;ygrusef z rf ; qD ; cH
ig;oavmufwkdY? ig;rnf;vHk;wkdYrSm                                                                                                                                      aMumifhvnf; rormrIawGuykd                   vmMu&m aemufqHk;wGif &Sm;yg;
aygvGef;í tajcmufcH? qm;odyf           pHjyig;aps;wGif a&mif;0,faeaom ig;rsm;                                                       "mwfyHk-a*sarmifarmif(tr&yl&)
                                                                                                                                                                       í rsm;jym;um xkdrormrIrsm;                  vmawmhonf/ urf;a0;wGif
NyD; ig;zrf;&moDr[kwfaom rkd;          jzpf&m oef;csDaom ig;o                                aps;uGufwGifjyefvnf a&mif;          tqDawG wpfaygufaygufus                wGif oufqkdif&m0efxrf;ykdif;u               &Sm;vmawmh urf;eD;0ifckd;zrf;
wGif;rSm pm;aomuf&ef okdavSmif         avmufi&pfrsm;uae uka#                                 cscJhMuojzihf aps;uGufxJwGif        um rD;aoG;cJawG rD;xawmuf             vnf; yg0ifywfoufrI&dSonf                    &if;jzihf ig;o,HZmwawG jyKef;
xm;&onftxd aygrsm;cJhonf/              aygif ; rsm;pG m aom ig;o                             ig;oavmufBuD;awGukd tpdk            onftxd jzpfwwfav&m o                  ukd ig;avSvdkifpif&zrf;qD;                         d f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   vkuvmawmhonf/ ig;awG arG;
xdkYaemuf wjznf;jznf;&Sm;&Sm;          avmufawG arG;zGm;cGifh qHk;½HI;                       a&mif;csNyD; tao;awGukdqm;          wif;pmpuúLcHí uif&onf/ o                                    d f dk f
                                                                                                                                                                       aeolrsm;uk,wiu ajymjy Mu                    cGifhr&awmh? BuD;cGifhr&awmh/
vmcJh&m ig;oavmuftajcmuf               cJ h & onf u k d jrif a wG U Ek d i f y g             e,fqm;odyfí a&mif;cscJhMu           wif ; pm puú L uqD a wG 0 NyD ;       onf/ ig;zrf;avSt&G,fwl? yHkpH                          yifv,fxJrSm ig;awGukef
awG aps;uGufxJuae aysmufo              onf/                                                  onfukd awGUcJh&onf/                 puúLay:wGif qDawGtkdifxGef;           wljyKvkyfum ig;zrf;avSyGm;í                 oGm;vQifawmif aemufqHk;usef
avmufjzpfvmovkd qm;e,fawG                       jrefrmhyifv,fjyifwGif                              ig;oavmufawGuvnf;             aeav&m qDESihf aMumfovkdyif           zrf;qD;rIawGukdvnf; awGU&                   aernf[kxifrSwfrxm;cJhaom
vnf; rjrifwmawmif awmfawmf             ig;oavmuf a wG a ygrsm;                               zrf;oavmuf aygufaeovm;/             jzpf aewwf o nf / bmtD ; u            onf/ 0gvwf? 0gwef;avSrsm;rSm                ig;oavmufrsm;yif wjznf;
MumNyDaygh[kqdk&avmufatmif             vGef;vSav&mig;oavmuf                                  e*kduyJ aygvGef;ívm;awmh r          awmh qD u av;wzspf z spf              jrefrmvkyief;&Sirsm;ukd vkif pif
                                                                                                                                                                                           f        f        d     jznf ; jyKef ; vk d u f v mum t
jzpfvmonf/                             avSwpfpD; ig;zrf;ykdufcsxGuf                          od? ig;oavmufavSwkdif; ig;          avmufomxGufonf/                       csxm;ay;aomfvnf; ig;zrf;                    aumifuvnf; ao;onfxuf
        pnf;rJhurf;rJhig;zrf;Mu&mu     vQif wpfae&mwnf;rSmyifEpf                     S       zrf;r&onfh avSr&dSoavmuf                  xdt&om&doavmuf yif
                                                                                                                                             k         S                          dk f S f
                                                                                                                                                                       avSyi&irsm;rSm xki;f Ekiiom;   d d f H      ao;vdkufvmaeonfukdawGU
ae jrefrmhyifv,fjyifwGif ig;awG                            k
                                       ql;oH;k ql;yduf csvuonfEifh      dk f           S     yif jzpfcJhonf/ vGefcJhonfh 10      v,fxJ azmazmoDoDjzpfae                awGjzpfavonf/                               vmae&NyD j zpf o nf / ig;o
&Sm;vmonf/ ig;cdk;zrf;Muonfh           avS j ynh f o G m ;awmh o nf [ k                      ESpfcefYuwnf;u aps;uGufxJ           onfh ig;oavmufawGukd ]]w                        xkdig;zrf;avSrsm;u oHk;           avmufrsm; ig;&pfxcsdefrSmyif
ydkufavSawGuvnf; yifv,fjyif            ig;oavmuf ykduform;awG                                wGif ig;oavmufawG ao;ao;            jcm;ig;awGom jyKef;oGm;r,f/           aom ig;zrf;ydkufrsm;rSmvnf;                 oJBuD;rJBuD;zrf;qD;aeMuonf
xJwGifaygvmonf/ ig;zrf;ydkuf           ajymMuwmukd Mum;zl;onf/                               vmvdkufonfrSm 40 usyfom;            ig;oavmufuawmh aemuf                  yifv,fxJ&dSorQ ig;awGig;zsif;               ukd rwm;jrpfEkdifvQifawmh ig;o
awGuvnf; owfrSwfxm;onfh                ig;oavmufqm;e,f aps;                                  yifaumif;aumif; rjynfhcsif                    f
                                                                                                                                 qH;k useae&pfr,fh ig;yJ}}[k wHig      rsm;ygrusef zrf;onfhtrsdK;t                 avmufawGvnf; rsKd ;wH;k oGm;Mu
twkdif; toHk;jyKjcif;r&dSojzihf vl     uGufaumif;vmNyD; xkdif;e,f                            awmhonfh taetxm;ukd awGU            onfawGajymMuwmukdvnf;                 pm;awGjzpfonf/ ig;zrf;ydkuf                 ayawmhrnf/
BuD;olrawGuMumvQif ig;ukd t            pyfokdY ydkYonfhtcsdefupí ig;                         vm&onf/                             jyefvnfMum;a,mifvmonf/                awGu oHk;xyf&dSNyD; tay:qHk;                           jrefrmha&jyifwGifaygrsm;
    f                          f
½kya&;jy&awmhrnf[k pd;k &drwBu;D       oavmufig;zrf;avSawG wkd;                                    ]]aps;xJrSm ig;oavmuf         olwkdY\ vufawGUusaom xkd              xyfu ykdufuGufBuD;onf/ 'kwd                 vSaom ig;oavmufrsm; rsdK;
ajymMuonfukd Mum;vm&onf/               yGm;vmvkdufonfrSm ig;o                                awGawGUcJhw,f/ ig;oavmuf            pum;u ig;oavmufjyKef;&if              ,u ykdufuGuftvwfjzpfNyD;                                                 d f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   rwH;k rD xde;f odr;f zkYd tcsewefay
        ]]ig;awGuvlpum;em;vnf          avmufaygufzm;EIe;f uyif r    G                        vm;? bmtD;vm; rcJGEkdifvkdY         awmh usefwJhig;awGjyKef;? rjyKef;     atmufqHk;u ydkufuGif;ao;                         D Yd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Ny/ xktwl tjcm;ig;o,H Zmw
&if oifwef;awmif ykdYcsay;csif         vkdufEkdifawmh[kvnf; ajymcJh                          r0,fcJh&bl;/ 'Davmufao;rS           ar;p&mrvkdawmhbl;[k ,lq&              onf/ ykdufuGufBuD;wGif ig;BuD;              awGukdvnf; pepfwus? Muyf
w,f/ nnf;wkdYawG ykduform;             Muonf/                                                awmh b,fqlawmhrSmvJ/ BuD;           awmhrnfjzpfonf/                       awGrdNyD; ykdufuGufvwfwGif ig;              Muyf r wf r wf v k y f & Mu&awmh
awGem;wJh rkd;OD;avOD;us rS arG;Mu                            h
                                                ,if;uJoYdk ajymcJonfrm       h           S   awmfajymovkd ig;oavmuf                     jrefrmhyifv,fjyifwGif          tvwfpm;awGxyfrdum xkd                       rnfjzpfonf/
[JhvkdY/ usefwJh tcsdefatmifhxm;              f hJ
                                       vGecaom 15 ESpausmausmf        f        f             t½k y f a &;jy&awmh r ,f e J Y wl   urf;eD;urf;a0;ig;zrf;avSt             ykdufuGufESpfuGufu vGwfaom                                     D l dk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ]acwfrowi;f yifv,fig;
MuvkdY/ vlawGu ig;OawGqkdBudKuf        avmufu jzpfonf/ ig;qm;                                w,f}}                               ao;? tvwf? tBuD;awG rsm;pGm           ig;awG yd k u f u G u f t ao;us             pm;Muonf}[k aqmifyk'fxkwf
wwfvkdufMuwm/ ig;oavmuf                e,fjynfyydkY&muae aemuf                                     vGefcJhaom oHk;ESpfavmuf                      f Sd
                                                                                                                                 ig;zrf;vsu&avonf/ ig; avS             awmh ajy;rvGwfawmhay/                       um q&modef;azjrifhwkdYpnf;½Hk;
Orsm;qkd&if qm;odyfNyD; rkd;a&m? aEG   ydkif; wGifig;oavmufrsm;ukd                           u aps;xJwGif awGUcJh&onfh ig;       90 &mckdifEIef;ausmfonf ig;zrf;                 ]]0gvwf? 0gwef;avSawG             cJ h M u&onf / yifv ,f i g;rsm;
a&m Nrdef&nf&Suf&nfpm;Mu/ ig;O         a&cJ½dkufí wifykdYa&mif;cs                                          S
                                                                                             oavmufEifh ywfoufí tpfr             ydkufjzihf ig;zrf;Mujzihf ig;zrf;Mu   cGifhjyKvkdufwkef;uqdkig;awGu               onf jrefrmh0ifaiGudk jznfqnf;    h
awGjrif&if igawmh&ifawGwkef            aom aps;uGufay:xGef;vm                                ajymaom pum;ukd owd&rd              onfh avSrsm;jzpfNyD; 10 &mckdif       aygovm;rar;eJY/ wpfcgw                      ay;rnfh aiG0ifaygufBuD;jzpfae
w,f/ Mum&if ig;oavmufukd               onf/ ,if;aps;uGufwGif OD;                             onf/ tpfrajymonfh bmtD;             EIef;cefYom ig;rQm;? jrm;pBuFm        avaemufq;kH yduu rdwyguif  k f     hJ       NyjD zpfonf/ tpmauR;p&mrvk?d
t½kyfa&;jy&vdrfhr,f}}                  aygifh[kac:aom ig;ckd;avS                             [laom ig;u ig;oavmufESihf           ig;zrf;avSawGjzpfavonf/ ig;           awGudk a&xJyutwazmufNy;Dkd f d f            aq;xk;d p&mrvk?d aq;auR;p&m
        uRefawmhfBuD;awmfBuD; ajym                        k f I
                                       rsm;u &mcdiEe;f tm;vH;k eD;yg;                        ykHpHwl&mwGif t½dk;rsm;wmygwl       zrf;ydkufuig;rsm;ukd odrf;usHK;       oGefcsypf&w,f/ ig;BuD;awG                            d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   rvkbJobm0tavsmufayguf
ovkdyif uRefawmfwkdY i,fi,fu             S hJ
                                       &dconfudk vnf; awGU&onf/                              aom ig;rsdK;jzpfonf/ xkdig;u        zrf;,ljcif;jzpfNyD; ig;rQm;wmu        trdrsm;awmh cGrf;pufu rrEkdif               zGm;&Sifoefum EkdifiHwumu
ig;oavmufOukdqm;odyfNyD; rkd;                      tk y f p k v k d u f a eNyD ; rsm;        ig;oavmufvdkrBuD;ovkd? ig;                                     d
                                                                                                                                 awmh wpfaumifcsi;f ukyJ zrf;,l        awmhbl;/                                    rsufpdusaeaom yifv,fig;
a&m? aEGygtqufrjywfpm;Ekdif            rsm;pm;pm;zrf;rdaom ig;o                              oavmufxufvnf;ydkí jym;              jcif;jzpfum? jrm; pBuFmuawmh                    vGecaom 15 ESpausmu
                                                                                                                                                                                        f hJ            f      f   rsm;wkd;yGm;vma&; pDrHcsufcs
cJhav&m xdkig;oavmufOawG               avmuf awGxu70usyom;        J                f         csyfonf/ ig;oavmufvkdrql            rQm;wef;awGcsum 0ifw;dk rdonfh        0gwef;ig;zrf;avSwGifvkyfudkif               vk y f a qmif & awmh r nf u k d t
aps;xJ w pf a eY r S rjywf a tmif      uae80usyom;Mum;&daom     f                S           í vlBudKufenf;aom ig;rsdK;          aMu;cGHr&dSaom ig;(txl;ojzihf         zl;onhf ig;zrf;avSorm;awG                   csuf j yacgif ; avmif ; oH q l q l
a&mif;EkdifzkdYOygaom ig;odef;csD      ig;oavmuf r sm;uk d aps;                              vnf;jzpfonf/ t&G,ftpm;              ig;ref;) awGukdom zrf;,ljcif;         ajymaeus pum;jzpfonf/ ydkuf                 nHnHMum;ae&NyDjzpf&m em;ydwf
owfjzwfzrf;qD;cHcJh&onfukd t           aumif;ay;0,fMuojzihf ig;ck;d                          uvnf; 50usyfom; atmuf               jzpfonf/                              azmfonfhtcsdefwGif csdef;puf                             f S     T h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   í rsuEmrvJoifawmhaMumif;
      f                 dk f
vG,wulyifjrifEiygonf/ ig;o             avS a wG u vnf ; BuD ; vG e f ;                       avmufyJ tcsdefpD;onf/                     ig;zrf;ydu\ t&G,tpm;
                                                                                                                                                   k f         f       wyfqifxm;onfh cGrf;pufjzihf                 wifjyvkduf&ygonf/
                 kH G
avmufOwpfpwif axmifcsaom         D     aom? i,fvGef;aom? ig;awG                                    ig;oavmufu tvGefql                          S f
                                                                                                                                 ukd owfrwí urf;eD;? urf;a0;             d f
                                                                                                                                                                       ykuudk pufarmif;írumazmf&
ig;om;aygufawG qHk;½IH;&onf            ukd a&G;xkwfum jynfwGif;                                                    f
                                                                                             aom ig;rsKd ;jzpfojzihr;D uifvQif   owf r S w f a y;xm;aomf v nf ;        onf/ tay:ydkufrsm;wGif ig;
24

Article                                                                                                                                                                                           Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013




                                                                                          jrefrmjynfrSm [D;½dk;&Sdonf
      2013 ckESpf Zlvkdif 19 &ufaeY/                                                                                                                                                                                k f dk f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                vduEiaomfvnf; olwYdk olw/                                  Yk d
      (66)Budrfajrmuf tmZmenfaeY/                                                                                                                                                                               xkdxdkaom olwdkYonf uRefrwdkY
      uRefronf xdkaeY\ eHeufcif; 10 em&D 37 rdepfwGif rdrdae                                                                                                                                                    jynfolrsm;twGuf ordkif;xJu
tdrteD; aps;uav;wpfctwGi;f a&muf&aecJonf/ pdwEv;kH
    f                       k            dS h          f S                                                                                                                                                      ol&Jaumif;rsm;jzpfcJhonf/
rSmawmh vGefcJhaomESpfaygif; 66 ESpfuAdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh                                                                                                                                                             AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;um;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                jrefrmjynftwGuf EkdifiHa&;pGrf;
wuG tmZmenfudk;OD;wdkY vkyfBuH cHcJh&aom þtcsdefuav;udk                                                                                  r,faiGO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                &nftm;jzifh OD;aqmifvrf;ñTef
aqG;aqG;jrnfhjrnfh owd&aerdonf/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                olvnf;jzpfcJh? vuf½Hk;&nfjzifh
               f hJ
         vGecaom 66 ESpu onf         f        pHkwkdYonf Zlvkdif 19 &uf eHeuf                                                                                                                                                        hJ l
                                                                                                                                                                                                                OD;aqmifcovnf;jzpfcaMumif;                     hJ
vd k a eY & uf ? onf v d k t csd e f r S m    10 em&D 37 rdepfwGif wpfcsdef                                                                                                                                     ordkif;u raqG;ao;ojzifh rdefY
jrefrm jynfvwvyfa&;twGuf
                    G f                       wnf; wpfNydKifwnf; xGufay:                                                                                                                                        cGe;f oufao? rSma>cpum; ouf
tpGrf;ukefBudK;pm;aeaomAdkvf                  vmcJhjcif;jzpfonf/                                                                                                                                                ao/ vkyfazmfudkifzufjzpfcJhol
csKyfatmifqef;ESifh ol\ tpdk;&                         ]]AdkvfcsKyfwdkY usqHk;csdef/ O                                                                                                                          vlyk*¾dKvfoufaorsm;jzifh wdwd
t zGUJ 0if0efBuD;rsm; 0efBuD;rsm;½H;k         MoqGJwm-OMoqGJwm}}                                                                                                                                                ususod&SdEkdifoljzpfonf/
tpnf;ta0;cef;rSm tpnf;t                                ]]OMooHr[kwfbl;/ armf                                                                                                                                              þae&muav;rSmAkvcsKyf                     d f
a0;usi;f yaepOf rormol?twå                    awmfum;awG [Gef;wD;NyD; *kPf                                                                                                                                      ajymcJhaom 'óerSma>cpum;
udk,fusKd;pD;yGm;Munfh½Iwwfol?                jyKMuwm}}                                                                                                                                                                            k
                                                                                                                                                                                                                av;wpfcukd ñTe;f qdcsiygonf/            k f
vlwpfpu vkyBf uowfjzwfom;
             k            H               G            ]]AdkvfcsKyfudk tav;jyKMu                                                                                                                                          ]]vlrSm trSefw&m;jrwfEdk;
cJhonf/                                       a[h}}                                                                                                                                                                   f dS Ykd k f hf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                pdw&zeYJ ud,usiw&m;aumif;
         xdkaeY\ Zlvkdifrdk;uvnf;                      ]]tmZmenfacgif;aqmif                                                                                                                                     zdkYu ta&;tBuD;qHk;yJ}}[k qkd
NzdK;NzdK;ajzmufajzmuf&conf[k     dS hJ       BuD;awGukd tav;jyKMua[h}} t                                                                                                                                       aom pum;pkav;jzpfygonf/
qkdonf/ ,ckESpf Zlvkdif 17 &uf                p&Sdaom aps;uav;twGif;rSm                                                                                                                                                     Ad k v f c sKyf a tmif q ef ; \
wG i f v nf ; rd k ; puf w k d Y o nf oJ      &Sdonfh aps;onf? aps;0,faeol                                                                                                                                      trSefw&m; jrwfEdk;pdwfudkum;
vnf;roJ/ pJonfvnf; rpJ/                       vltm;vH;k wk\ wpfa,mufwpf
                                                                   Yd                                                                                                                                           ol\ vGwfvyfa&;&&Sdatmif,l
NzdK;NzdK;ajzmufajzmufwpfayguf                rsK;d atmf[pfajymqdorsm;onf       k H                                                                                                                             EkdifpGrf;? &efole,fcsJU zufqpf
ayguf&SdaecJhonf/ wlnDaom                     NrdKifNrdKifqdkifqkdifyif xGufay:                                                                                                                                 acgif;aqmifrsm;\ todtrSwf
&moDOwk\ wlnDaomtcsdef                        vmcJhonf/ wpfNydKifeufwnf;                                                                                                                                        jyK wefz;kd xm;cH&jcif;wku ouf              Yd
umvav;rSm wki;f jynftwGuf
                        d                     rSmyif aps;onf? aps;0,fvt               l                                                                                                                         aot&m wnfaeapvdrfhrnf
toufudk y"merxm;? arwåm                       csKUd onf tav;wif;awmif;rsm;                                                                                                                                      xifrdonf/
ESifh apwemw&m;udkom vuf                      udk vufrcsvsu?f ukeypön;f rsm;
                                                             S                    f                                                                                                                                        udk,fusifhw&m; pm&dwå
udkifxm;vsuf tvkyfvkyfoGm;                    ypfcsvsuf? 0kef;ceJ rwfwwf&yf                                                                                                                                     ydkif;rSmaum/
ol tmZmenfyk*¾dKvfBuD;rsm;udk                 vsuf tav;jyKMu? cg;ñTwfMu                                                                                                                                                    Ad k v f c sKyf a tmif q ef ; t
vGrf;qGwfwo ESajrmwo rd                       vnf;jzpfukefonf/                            wGif; *kPfjyKvkdaom pdwfqE´         BuHowfjzwfrI? trnf*kPfo                         jrefrmEdkifiHordkif;udk jyef      ouf (27)ESpft&G,f *syefjynf
           S
onfrm ajymjy&efvrnfrxif/       kd                      aMomf tHri;f aeaom &moD
                                                                      Yk dI                          hf
                                                                                          rsm;udk yGivif;vGwvyfpm azmf
                                                                                                             f     G          wif; arS;rSdefapvdkrIwkdYudk jyefr   ajymif ; awG ; Munf h c J h r nf q d k y g   odYk ppfynmoGm;a&mufoif,p                                l
         uRera&muf&aeaom &ef
                f           dS                Owkudk ausmfvGefvsuf avmu                   xkwfjyo&ef r0Hhr&J jzpfcJhMu        ajymvdkawmhyg/ rjzpfoifhaom          vQif jrefrmEkdifiH[laom trnf                        d f G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                tcsewif *syefwu trsK;d orD;         Ykd
ukeNf rKd Uv,f? prf;acsmif;&yfuuf       G     wpfckvHk; yGifhxGufoGm;cJhavNyD/            onfrSm ESpfumvtwefMumcJh            taMumif;jcif;&mrsm;[kom xif          emrudk ordi;f pmrsuEmrSm pwif
                                                                                                                                                                                     k      f S                 taysmfr,frsm;jzifh {nfhcHcJh&m
rS aps;olaps;om;rsm;rSm aeYpOf                uRerpdwrm þodomvQif od&dS
                                                     f         f S           Yk           NyDr[kwfygvm;/                      jrifrdonf/                           í urÜnf;wifEkdifcJhaom yk*H                  olu jiif;y,fcJhonf/ ]]usKyf..
xrf;aqmifaeus? b00rf;pm                       cHpm;vdkuf&onf/                                  jynfolvlxk\ vGwfvyf                  rnfodkYyifqkdap/               acwfrSpí jrefrmhol&Jaumif;                                                f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                'grsK;d awGeYJ raysmwwfb;l / usKyf
a&;twGuf a&mif;Mu-0,fMu                                trSefpifppf jrefrmjynfol           a&;zcifAdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk             uRefawmfwkdY jynfolwkdY\       rsm;pGm ay:xGef;cJhonf[k qkd&                tck touf (27)ESpftxd 100
jzifh yHkrSeftaetxm;&SdaepOf                  jynfom; uRerwkjYd ynforsm;t
                                                                        f           l     cspfcifjrwfEdk;av;pm;*kPfjyKvdk     &ifwGif; tonf;rSm AdkvfcsKyf         rnf/ yxrjrefrmEkdifiHacwfu                   &mcdkifEIef; vlysKdppfppf}}[k udk,f
armfawmfum;[Gef;oHrsm; ½kwf                   zdkY onf,aeYuJhodkY tmZmenf                 aom pdwfqE´awGudk rnfonfh           atmifqef;&SdaeNrJ/ xdkenf;wl         ol&aumif;rsm;jzpfaom taemf
                                                                                                                                                                          J                                     wkdifa&;tw¬KyÜwådrSm jywfom;
w&uf x G u f a y:vmcJ h o nf /                rsm;udk vGwfvyfayghyg;pGm *kPf              t&mu wm;qD;xm;cJhygvdrfh/           ol\ vkyfazmfudkifzuf tmZm            &xm? usefppfom;? 'kwd,jref                   pGm ajymqdkoGm;cJhonf/
[Gef;oHrsm;u &Snfvsm;NrdKifqdkif              jyKvdkaom pdwfqE´awG&SdcJhMu                &Sdapawmh/                          enfrsm;vnf; &SdaeqJqkdonf            rmEkiixaxmifol bk&ifaemif?
                                                                                                                                                                            d f H l                   h                       rS w f o m;avmuf a om
vSonf/ armfawmfum;rsm;\                       onfrm MumcJMh uNy/ odaomfjim;
                                                         S                  D Yk               twdwf\ EkdifiHa&;orm;          udk ,ckESpftmZmenfaeYrSm jrif        wwd,jrefrmEkdifiHudk xlaxmif                 a,musfm;aumif;? a,musfm;
[Gef;oHwdk-vwf-&Snf oHpOfrsKd;                vnf; ,ckESpfrSmuJhodkY rdrd&if              tcsif;csif; remvdk0efwdkrI? vkyf    awGUcJhMu&ayNyD/                     cJhol tavmif;bk&m;OD;atmif                   jrwfygay/
                                                                                                                                                                   aZ,s? xkdol\ aemufrSmawmh                              EkdifiHwpfckrSm trSefw&m;
                                                                                                                                                                   pwkw¬jrefrmEkdifiHtjzpf wkdif;               jrwfEdk;pdwf&Sdol? rdrdudk,fusKd;pD;
                                                                                                                                                                   wpfyg;e,fcsJUzufqpfwkdYvuf                                          f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                yGm;udk vspvsL½IEio?l ud,usihf   kd f             k f

    d                       G fI               kd k f
  wki;f &if;om; pnf;vH;k nDñwrukd tpOfjrifawGUvaom AdvcsKyfatmifqef;                                                                                               atmufrS vGwfajrmufap&ef
                                                                                                                                                                   OD;aqmifcJhol AdkvfcsKyfatmif
                                                                                                                                                                                                                w&m;vnf; aumif;rGefol pHjy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  d f H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ekiiom;wpfa,muf&jdS cif;onf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                EkdifiHwpfcktwGuf *kPf,lxdkuf
                                                                                                                                                                   qef;/
                                                                                                                                                                              þtjzpf þorkdif;onf                aom tvSw&m;[kom qkdcsif
                                              jcif; tm;enf;vsuf&Sdaom jref                í ykefukefonf/ bk&ifhaemif\                    'kwd, tif;0acwf r[m       jiif;y,fí r&Ekdifaomordkif;                  onf/ txufuqdkcJhaom t
arNrdKUcspfaqG
                                              rmEkdifiHudk taemf&xmrif;apm                nDrif;acgifuvnf; awmifilrS          "r®&mZm"dywd ([Hom0wDyg)             om r[kwfygavavm/                             aMumif;rsm;uyif 20 &mpkacwf?
     H
yk*acwf jrefrmEkiiwie,fpm;
                     d f H G f                onf wpfvHk;wpfpnf;wnf; pk                   woD ; wjcm; cG J x G u f a Munm     rif;vufxufwGif pnf;vHk;nD                       twdwfya'o&mZfacwf                 jrefrmjynfvGwfvyfa&;OD;pD;OD;
y,fpm; ya'o&mZf trsm;t                        pnf;nDñGwfapvsuf tiftm;                     onf/ jynfrif;owdk;olESifh jrpf      ñGwa&;onf avsmyg;tm;aysmh
                                                                                                                                       f              h            ordi;f \ ol&aumif;rsm; EkiiH udk
                                                                                                                                                                        k                J              d f     aqmif? pwkw¬jrefrmEkdifiHxl
         Yd
jym;wkonf wjcm;woD;xD;NyKd if                 awmifhwif;aom yxrjrefrm                     0uRef ; ay:a'orsm;uvnf ;            vsufaeonf/ ya'o&mZfrsm;?             rnfornfyxaxmifconfukd
                                                                                                                                                                                 Ykd   kH l      hJ                             kd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                axmifEijf cif;\ t&Siocifjzpf              f
            f
eef;NyKd iwefc;kd tmPmNyKd ivsuf
                               f              EkdifiHawmfudk wnfaxmifcJhay                jcm;em;vmonf/ rkwår? tif;0          e,fpm;y,fpm;rsm;olwpfvl ig           rl tao;pdwfwduspGmvkduf&ef                   ol AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf
&Sdonf/                                       onf/ ]]wyifa&TxD; ewf&GmpH                       Yk S
                                                                                          wdrmvnf; opömrcH ykeuefjyef f       wpfrif;ESihf tcsi;f csi;f ppfcif;í               J S
                                                                                                                                                                   cufcvonf/taemf&xmbk&if                       uRerwdYk jrefrmjynfojl ynfom;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        f
       jynfwGif; rNidrfoufrIudk               uHukefavNyD}} [laom owif;                                  f d f T T k
                                                                                          onf/ tpdwpwt`rm`rm z½dz&J           pnf;vHk;jcif;r&Sd? nDñGwfrIrjyK      rif;jrwfu jrefrmjynforsm; udk    l           rsm;\ tonf;ESv;kH rSm pHjyEkiiH                        d f
csufaumif;,lum 'Gm&m0wD                       ay:xGufvmonfESifhwpfNydKif                  NyKd uGJaeaom jrefrmEkdifiHudk [H   Ekdif? tkyfpkwkdufyGJ qifETJaeaom    rnfodkY rdefYrSmcJhrnfenf;/ usef             om;/ ol&Jaumif; Hreo tjzpf
jynfrS *Rrf;ppfonfrsm;uvnf;                   euf wpf0ufwpfysuf pkpnf;                    om0wDb&ifaemifonfwnDw
                                                                                                       k h                    jrefrmEkdifiHawmfudk tavmif;         ppfom;u jynfolwdkYudk rnfodkY                tpOf cdkifrmpGm &Sdaeygvdrfhrnf/
rMumcP EkdifiHawmfudk xdyg;                   xm;aom EkdifiHe,fajronf 0g;                 ñGwfwnf; pnf;vHk;ckdifrmapí         bk&m;onf jyefvnfpkpnf;nD             pnf;½Hk;odrf;oGif;cJhrnfenf;/ bk                                            S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          jrefrmjynfrm [D;½d;k &Sonf/               d
                   h S f
pGufzuf aESmif,u&ef jyKvsuf                   tpnf;ajyouJhodkY tufuGJNydK                 tm&Sta&SUawmifwpfvTm;rSm                   f          d f H
                                                                                                                              ñGwapvsufEkiitrsm;uav;               &ifhaemif\ pGrf;&nfwdkYu jynf                xdkolonfum; AdkvfcsKyfatmif
&Sd onf/                                      vJvmonf/ wpfrk[kwfcsif;t                    Mo ZmysHUESHYvsuf cHhnm;BuD;us,f    pm;cñTwfthHaom wwd,jref              olwkdYtwGuf rnfodkYpHjytjzpf                 qef;/
       Nidrf;csrf;rIavsmhyg;? pD;yGm;            d f G f
                                              csewiordeapmxGwuvnf;
                                                             f         f                             d          d f H
                                                                                          aom 'kw,jrefrmEkiiawmfukd           rmEkdifiHawmfudkwnfaxmifcJh          wnf&SdcJhrnfenf;/                                       rSwpfyg; tjcm;r&Sdol[k
a&;usyfwnf;? pnf;vHk;nDñGwf                   yJcl;udk tckdiftvHkjyK BuHUBuHUckdif        wnfaxmifcJhonf/                     onf/             pmrsuEm(32) okYd
                                                                                                                                                        f S                     twdwfudk tao;pdwfr              om wifpm;vkdufyg&ap/                                       /
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             25

Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013                                                                                                                                                                                 Article
                 (wpf)                                                                                                                                                                                                                    d d f d f
                                                                                                                                                                                                               qdk usyf ckepfoe;f / pkucseuae
        orkdif;ynm&Sif q&mBuD;                                                                                                                                                                                 cl;csdeftxd av;voufwrf;/
a'gufwmoef;xGef;\ ]]ysLawG                                                                                                                                                                                     onf h t jyif igef ; jrmom;awG
b,faysmufoGm;ovJ}}pmtkyf                                                                                                                                                                                       uRrf;usifMuonfu MuufoGef
acgif;pOfudk pJGum ,ckvnf;                                                                                                                                                                                     jzL/
]]igef;jrmu vlawG b,faysmuf                                                                                                                                                                                               odkYjzifh 1997 ckESpfavmuf
oG m ;ovJ } }[l í vk y f x nf h r d                                                                                                                                                                            udk a&mufawmh igef;jrmjrpfa&
vkdfufaMumif; 0efcHvdkygonf/                                                                                                                                                                                   wif pDrHudef;qkdwm ay:vmyg
        igef;jrm ...wJh/                                                                                                                                                                                                               hf
                                                                                                                                                                                                               onf/ ,if;ESitwl pDrue;f oD;      H d
        i,fi,fuwnf;uyif pJG                                                                                                                                                                                    ESHpyg;pdkufzdkY qdkwmvnf;ygvm
aeaom trnfwpfctjzpf xyf  k                                                                                                                                                                                     ygonf/ onfrSmwGif igef;jrm
qifh0efcHvkdygonf/ uRefawmf                                                                                                                                                                                    om;wdkY pyg;pdkufMu&ygonf/
wdkYvdkyJ ausmif;om;jzpfcJhMu?                                                                                                                                                                                            ]]pyg;u udk,fruRrf;bl;
uRefawmfwdkYvkdyJ [dkpm onfpm                                                                                                                                                                                  q&m&JU/ NyD;awmh ajruvnf;
udk vSefvSefavSmavSm zwfcJh                                                                                                                                                                                    pyg;eJ Y rud k u f b l ; / 0if a iG u
Muonf h ol a wG t zd k Y igef ; jrm                                                                                                                                                                            vnf; aq;&GufBuD;udk rrDbl;}}
onf rpd r f ; aom trnf e mr                                                                                                                                                                                               onfpum; wpfcGef;wnf;
t rSwfwHqdyfwpfck jzpftHhEkd;                                                                                                                                                                                  ESifhyif igef;jrmom;wdkY igef;jrm
uRefawmfxifygonf/ igef;jrm                                                                                                                                                                                     uae a0;&modkY xGufcGmí &Sm
ygaom uAsmwkduav;wpfyk'f                                                                                                                                                                                       azGpm;aomufMujcif;taMumif;
ud k uRef a wmf w d k Y xd a wG U cJ h M u                                                                                                                                                                                        d f Hk
                                                                                                                                                                                                               w&m;u ckiví aeygonf/ odYk
&zl;onf r[kwfvm;/                                                                                                                                                                                              aomf ,ck t cg bmoD ; ES H p d k u f
        ]]wHwm;OD;u uGr;f Ek0g? igef;                                                                                                                                                                          rS nmoD;ESHpkdufrS qkdwmBuD;u
jrmuaq;? uGrf;oD;awmifileJY                                                                                                                                                                                    jyif ; jyif ; xef x ef B uD ; r[k w f
udkif;xkH;jzL? jynf&Sm; om0g;vkdY                                                                                                                                                                              awmhaomfvnf; igef;jrm\ aq;
awG;}}wJh/                                                                                                                                                                                                     &GufBuD; vdyfjymu vGifhpifoGm;
        uAsmu a'G;csKd; uAsmu                                                                                                                                                                                  ykH&ygonf/


                                             igef;jrmuvlawG b,faysmufoGm;ovJ
av;/ jrefrmh"avh uGrf;ESifhywf                                                                                                                                                                                            {&m0wDjrpfurf;yg; wpf
oufonfh uAsmuav;/ ,ck                                                                                                                                                                                          avQmuf u yd e f ; yd w f a eonf h
rEÅav; tjynfjynfqkdif&mav                                                                                                                                                                                      aq;&GufBuD;cif;rsm;udk odyfr
qdyf vkyfxm;onfh wHwm;OD; t                                                                                                                                                                                    awGU&awmh/ wpfcgwpfcgrSom
&yfu Ekí0gaom uGrf;? igef;jrm                                                                                      armifomcsKd                                                                                 ykef;vQKd; uG,fvQKd;pkdufysKd;xm;
t&yfu aq;&GufBuD;? awmifil                                                                                                                                                                                     onfh aq;&GufBuD;cif;rsm;udk
t&yfu uGrf;oD;? ppfudkif;t&yf                vkyfcif; vkyfuGufawG rsm;jym;        taemufbufurf;yg; jrif;rlNrdKU                cspfOD;ndKESifh/                     igef;jrm/ [d;k taemufbufurf;               awGU&wwfygonf/
u xkH;? jynft&yfu &Sm; ponf                  vGef;aomaMumifh ]]ief;rsm;}}[k       urSwpfqifh ta&SUbufurf;&Sd                         igef;jrmu igef;jrmBuD;yif                             kd S
                                                                                                                                                                    yg;qDu ajrmifuvr;f arQmawmh      f                    usef ; rma&;u@ud k t
wdkYudk aygif;pyfum uGrf;wpf                 ac:Mu&mu aemiftcg igef;              igef;jrmodkY pufavSjzifh jyefvm/             jzpfí aeygNyD/ atmifr*Fvm?           rD ; awG v if ; vuf v d k Y / 0gqd k 0 g   av;ay;um aqmif&GufvmMu
,mavmuf tom0g;NyD; axG;                      jrmjzpfoGm;&avowJh/ toH              igef ; jrmem;u om;usif w G i f               atmifaZ,s? AE¨Kv? atmifo'?¨d   d     acgif r d k Y x if y g&J U {&m0wD u        onfh acwfumvBuD;xJü uGrf;
ypf&aomf t&om&Sdygayh[lí                     xGufawmh ijrm/ uRefawmfhpdwf         a[monfhyJG/                                  tajccH ? od r f a wmf ? &G m opf ?   azmifazmifBuD; pD;qif;aevkduf              pm;jcif ; ES i f h aq;vd y f a omuf
a&;xm;onfh uAsmjzpfygonf/                    xJ iudk a&;csxnfhxm;ykHESifh r              bmjzpfvYkd ta&SUbufurf;               ozef;om? usDukef;? awmif&Gm?         wm/ igef ; jrmom;trsm;pk u                 jcif;udk tEÅ&m,fwpf&yftjzpf
uAsm[lonfrSm uAsmzJGUol\                     udk &&pfxm;ykHBuD;u qef;ovdk         yg;a'o&Sd igef;jrmodkY oGm;onf               pnfom? bk&ihfaemif ponfh &Gm         tck x d w k d i f u d k {&m0wD u d k       owd a y;wm;qD ; vmMuaom
cH p m;csuf r S xG u f t ef u svm            jzpfaeonfuawmh trSefyJ jzpf          udk taemufbufurf;odkY wpf                    awG &yfuGufawGudk pkNyD;pnf;         aomufMuqJ jzpfygonf/                       aeY&ufrsm;xJ0,f pDrHudef;oD;ESH
wwfaom tEkynm[kqdkvQif                       ygonf/                               auGUwpfywfBuD;oGm;NyD;umrS                   vkduf&m igef;jrmBuD;jzpfoGm;ykH               ]]a&xJudk qif;NyD;cyfMuwJh        pdkufrS bmpdkufrS [lonfhowf
jzifh onfuAsmudk uAsm[kem                         igef;jrmuae txufudk             pufavSjzifh wpfcgjyeful;vm&                  &ygonf / ,cif u {&m0wD               tcg cg;avmuftxd qif;cyf                    rSwfcsufwdkY r&Sdonfhwkdif aq;
rnf w yf z d k Y awmf a wmf u av;            enf;enf;wufvkdufawmh igef;           avovJqdkonfudk yxrawmh                       oabFmrsm; qkdufuyf&m &GmBuD;         &if okH;a&aygh q&m&,f/ &if                 &GufBuD;\ wefcdk;MoZmuawmh
cufvdrfhrnf uRefawmf xifyg                   ZGefqdkwm&Sdygao;onf/ v,f            uRefawmfaumif;aumif; em;r                    wpf&Gmjzpfaomfvnf; tck {&m           acgif;avmuftxd qif;cyf&if                  usqif;oGm;rSm trSefyJ jzpfyg
             Yd      f
onf/ okaom rnfozUGJ qkcre;fl d hJ S          ,mvkyfief;cGif vkyfuGif;vkyf         vnf/ aemufawmhrS rEÅav;u                     0wDu &GmESifh a0;oGm;ygNyD/ odkY     awmh a omuf a &aygh / a&u                  onf/
rodonfh rnfonfhtcsdefu zJGU                  uGufwkdY\ tpGeftzsm;wGif &Sd         ae {&m0wD j rpf t a&S U buf                  aomf uRefawmfwdkY a&mufoGm;          aemufawmh tenfxdkifatmif                              igef;jrmu jyefawmh vrf;
   k hJ S
qdcre;f rodonfh onfuAsmwdk                   aomaMumifh ief;pGefwJh/ aemuf                          d
                                                                                  urf;yg;twki;f wHwm;OD;wdYk igef;             pOfurl {&m0wDjrpfa&wdk;onfh          awmhvkyf&ygw,f}}                           aumif ; oG m ;NyD q k d o jzif h uRef
uav;ud k um&ef a Mumif h                     awmhrS igef;ZGefwJh/ toHxGuf         ZGew?Ydk igef;jrmwd?Yk qD;rD;ckw?Ykd jrif;
                                                                                      f                           H            &ufrsm;jzpf&m uRe;f awG? aomif                igef;jrmu tdrfajc 1ç700           awmfwdkY jrpfudk jyefrul;awmh/
uRefawmfwkdY trSwf&cJhMuykH&yg               awmh iZGef/                            H d
                                                                                  NcwYdk &S&mbufqoYkd pkeqif;vm
                                                                                                          D     f                                      k
                                                                                                                               awG? ajrEkuRe;f awG? udi;f awG yg                 f
                                                                                                                                                                    0ef;usiavmuf&rnfh wkue,f dS    d f         igef;jrm-igef;ZGef wHwm;OD; vrf;
onf/                                              a'oESpfckpvkH; {&m0wD           aom vrf;rSm awmfawmhukd Murf;                a&atmufrSm jrKyfaeNyD; &Gmt          a'oBuD;yJ jzpfygonf/ odkYaomf                       d
                                                                                                                                                                                                               twki;f {&m0wDukd ,SOí vmcJh       f
        onfuAsmuav;u wpf                     jrpfBuD;\ ta&SUbufurf;yg;            wrf;cJcufonfh vrf;jzpf&m c&D;                ajca&mufatmif {&m0wDu                igef;jrmrSm vlodyfr&Sdawmh/ vl             Mu&m wH w m;OD ; tjynf j ynf
qifh igef;jrm[laom trnfudk                   ay:ü &Sdaomfvnf; taemuf              vrf;yef;oufaomifhoufom                       vma&mufNyD; yGwfoD;yGwfoyf           ok;H ykwpfyavmufu tjyifrm/
                                                                                                                                                                           H       Hk                      S   qkdif&m avqdyfodkY ESpfem&DESifh
uRefawmfwdkY xdawGUcJhMu&jcif;               buf u rf ; ud k oG m ;NyD ; rS onf                              dk
                                                                                             Yk
                                                                                  jzpfapzdtwGuf ppfui;f bufoYkd                vkyfae jyefawmh pufavSay:            a&Munf&m jrufE&mqDoYkd xGuf k              a&mufaom um;vrf;yJ jzpfyg
jzpfygonf/ b,fae&mrSm &Sre;f       d S       bufudk pufavSjzifh jyeful;&          ul;um {&m0wDudk taemuf                       u vSrf;qif;vkdufonfESifh &Gm         cG m oG m ;Muum aps;a&mif ; ol             onf/
vJ rod/ b,favmufBuD;rSef;                                         f
                                             onfh c&D;pOfukd uReawmftrSwf         bufurf;yg;uae jrif;rltxd                     v,fvrf;r/                            a&mif; 0efxrf;vkyfolvkyf BuHK                               f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          uReawmf uGr;f rpm;yg/ xkYd
vJ rod / a&muf r nf h a&muf                  &aerdonf/                            pkefarmif;vmNyD; aemufjrpfudk                      txufwef;ausmif;ESifh?          &musyef;/                                                        f
                                                                                                                                                                                                               jyif aq;vdyvnf; raomufyg/
awmh wpfESpfwpfacgufeD;yg;                        2010 wkef;uvm; 2011             jzwful;um ta&SUbuf&Sd igef;                  wkdufe,faq;½kHESifh? pmMunfh                  ,if ; onf aq;&G u f B uD ;        od k Y a omf igef ; jrmuay;vk d u f
qufwkdufBuD;/                                wkef;uvm; uRefawmfaumif;             jrmod k Y jyef v mcJ h M u&jcif ; jzpf       wkdufESifhjzpfaomfvnf; vQyfppf       acwfarS;rSdefazsmhawmhoGm;jcif;            onfh vufaqmiftxkyfxJu
                  (ESpf)                     aumif; rrSwfrd/ udkae0if;jrifh?      aMumif; &dyrom;ygonf/ tcsef
                                                                                                 f d G                   d     rD;r&/ udk,fydkifrD;pufawGESifh      ESifhvnf; oufqkdifygvdrfhrnf/              aq;&G u f B uD ; xk y f u av;uk d
        igef;jrmqdwm bmt"dym,f
                   k                Ü        rcifcifxl;wdkYESifhtwl {&m0wD        awGukefvkdufwm/                              wkdif;wkdif;wdwd vif;&onfh &Gm       aq;&GuBf uD;acwfaumif;pOfu                 awmh &efukefa&mufonftxd
vJ[k a'ocH ok;H av;a,mufukd                  jrpfta&SUbuf urf;yg;NrdKUjzpf                            (okH;)                   BuD;yJjzpfygonf/ jrif;NcHc½kdifxJ    aq;&GufBuD; pdkufcif;wpf{u                 ,lvmrdygonf/ vTivnf; rypf     hf
uRefawmfar;MunfhcJhzl;ygonf/                 aom rEÅav;uae taemuf                        2013 ckESpf tmZmenfaeY                         h       d        kd d
                                                                                                                               rSm xnfxm;vku?f ppfui;f wki;f        udk tyif 7ç000 eD;yg; xnfoi;f      h G     &uf/ bmvkyf&rSef;vnf; rod/
ief;qdkwmu vkyfcif;vkyfuGuf                  bufurf;&Sd ppfudkif;odkY ul;? xdkY   rSmvnf; igef;jrmodkY uRefawmf                xJrSm oGif;xm;vkduf? a[mtck          pdkdufysKd;xm;av&m ydóm 700                a'o&JU trSwfwHqdyfuav;
aumufief;wJh/ pdkuf&ef ysKd;&ef              aemuf jrif;rlodkY quf? wpfzef        a&mufae&jyefygonf/ q&m                       usjyefawmh rEÅav;wkdif;xJu           qkdwm ajy;rvGwf/ ydóm 700                  wpfck r[kwfvm;/ /
26

Opinion                                                                                                                                                                              Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013




                                                                      'ge&Sifrsm; cifAs
                                                                                                                                                                                                 twGufb,fí tm[m&wpf
                                                                                                                                                                                                 cG u f t wG u f b ,f r Q[k q d k u m
                                                                                                                                                                                                             f
                                                                                                                                                                                                 vdrvnftvSLcHjcif; ponfjzifh
                                                                                                                                                                                                 jrefrmvlrsKd;rsm;\ ukodkvf,l
             t,f'DwmcsKyf aomif;pkNidrf;                                                                                                                                                         wwfaom? tm;emwwfaom
                                                                                                                                                                                                 pdwfukd tcGifhta&;,lum om
      trIaqmift,f'Dwm tm;rmef? Nidrf;Nidrf;Ekdif                                                                                                                                                 oemawmfudk npfEGrf;atmifjyK
      pmrsufESmzGJUpnf;rIESifh apmpnfolrdk;                                                                           Anm;vdIifOD;                                                               vkyfaeolrsm;vnf; &Sdygonf/
          'DZdkif;t,f'Dwm                                                                                                                                                                                          wpf c gu pma&;ol t d r f
                                                                                                                                                                                                 teD;&Sd "r®m½HkrS vlBuD;wpfOD;ESifh
         owif;t,f'Dwm at;jrausmf? oD[?
                                                                                                                                                                                                 pum;ajymjzpfygonf/ ,if;"r®m
                      aevif;atmif? ar0if;rGef
                                                                                                                                                                                                 ½Hkonf 0gwGif;oHk;vumvywf
                bmomjyef &Jrif;? ausmfrsKd;OD;                                                                                                                                                   vHk;qGrf;avmif;yGJtwGuf tvSL
          pmjyift,f'Dwm csrf;Nidrf;                                                                                                                                                              cHNyD; 0guRwfonfESifh uxdefyGJ
                                                                                                                                                                                                 twG u f quf v uf t vS L cH y g
        owif;axmufcsKyf atmifol&
                                                                                                                                                                                                 onf/
      'k-owif;axmufcsKyf aevif;xGef;? jynfodrf;?                                                                                                                                                                     tvS L 'geonf rG e f j rwf
                         AdkvfAdkvf0if;                                                                                                                                                          aomudpöjzpfonfhtwGuf pm
tBuD;wef;owif;axmuf tdjzLrGef? tdjzLvGif? odrfhodrfhpdk;?                                                                                                                                        a&;oltaejzifh uefuu&efr&Sd                  Y G f
                    0wf&nfatmif? Ouúmudkudk?                                                                                                                                                     yg/ odkYaomf eHeufrdk;rvif;cifrS
                                                                                                                                                                                                 pum avmfpyDumBuD;ESpv;kH jzifh                         f
                    at;olpH? oef;aX;? oef;xl;
                                                                                                                                                                                                 ql n H p G m oD c sif ; awG z G i f h v d k u f ?
            owif;axmuf at;jrwfol? cdkifxGef;?                                                                                                                                                    edAÁmefaqmfrS a&mufwwf&m&m
                       atmifcdkif? &efrsdK;Edkif?                                                                                                                                                awG a vQmuf a tmf a evd k u f j yK
                       rdk;ndK? rif;[def;ausmf?                                                                                                                                                  vkyfjcif;onfrSmum; ywf0ef;
                       MuLMuL[ef? cdkifcsdKEG,f                                                                                                                                                  usif & S d ouf B uD ; &G , f t d k r sm;?
                                                                                                                                                                                                 ruse;f rmolrsm;? uav;i,frsm;
ti,fwef;owif;axmuf cefYxuf? ckdifckdifpdk;? aqGrGef?
                                                                                                                                                                                                 udk taESmifht,Sufay;&musyg
                   &Jaemif? atmifopfvGif? ZJGÓPf?
                                                                                                                                                                                                 onf/
                   tdrGefausmf                                                                                                                                                                                     od k Y j zif h avmf p yD u moH
     "mwfyHkowif;axmuf a*sarmifarmif(tr&yl&)                                                                                                                                                                       h
                                                                                                                                                                                                 avQmay;zd?Yk owfrwtcseav;                 S f d f
                       ausmfZifoef;                                                                                                                                                                                  hf
                                                                                                                                                                                                 ESihf zGiay;zdYk ajymjzpfygonf/ ol
                                                                      jrefrmvlrsKd; Ak'¨bmom0ifrsm;        uyfvSLEdkifygonf/                              ,uH? 0pDuHudk apmifhxdef;jcif;?        jyefajymonfhpum;rSm ]]cifAsm;
     rEÅav;owif;axmuf pdkif;omatmif? nDnDaZmf?
                                                                      \ tvSL'gejyKvkyfMu&m? Oykof                  xkdYtjyif EdkifiHt0ef; &yf             twlaeyk*¾dKvfrsm;ESifh oifhwifh              ¨
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ak'bmom0ifr[kwb;l vm;}}[l                    f
                      armifwm
                                                                      oDvapmifhxdef;&m 0gwGif; um          uGuf? aus;&Gm? "r®m½Hkrsm;&Sd 0g               nD ñ G w f p G m aexd k i f w wf í t   \/ avmfpyDumzGifh&eftwGuf
        e,fowif;axmuf rsdK;rif;OD;? apm&efEkdif?                      vodkYa&muf&SdcJhNyDjzpfonf/ rkd;     wGif;qGrf;avmif;toif;rsm;rS                    csif;csif;tay: jiLplrIuif;NyD;         Oya'ESifhtnD NrdKUe,f tkyfcsKyf
                            qef;ñGefY(a&eHacsmif;)? armifuH           Owkonf jrefrmvlrsK;d wdtwGuf Yk      vnf; bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm;? pm                  omoemawmfudk ckwHk;vkyfí               a&;rSL;xHwGif ygrpf,l&aMumif;
                   pmjyif wifZmOD;? xGef;odef;jrifh                   xl;jcm;aom0daoo wpfckjzpf            oifwkdufBuD;rsm;odkY MunfndK                   [efaqmifyvTm;0g<um;rIrjyK              ajymygu pma&;oludkrnfuJhodkY
           pDeD,m'DZdkifem cspfAkdvfAkdvf? &Sdef;&Sdef;xdkuf                                     k
                                                                      \/ pHy,f? *rke;f ? Muuf½e;f ? cwåm   o'¨gyGm;rsm;pGmjzifh tywfpOf                   jcif;wdkYyg0ifygonf/                   vkyfrnfrodyg/
                                                                      ESifh oZifyef;rsm;u tvScsif;         rysuf q G r f ; avmif ; vS LMuav                      rMumao;rDu owif;pm?                               taMumif;wdkufqdkifwkef;
                               f G                k f             l
                  'DZdkifem EG,reNf zKd ;? eE´? Edivif;xGe;f ? &Jo&
                                                                      NydKifaeMuonf/ awmifavt              onf/                                           *sme,frsm;wGif t&ufaopm                        Á
                                                                                                                                                                                                 edAmefaqmfwpfa,muf\ aqmf
           uGefysLwmpmpD pef;pef;? aZmf0if;atmif?                     aemhwGif pyg;yifrsm;uvnf;                     Oyk o f a eY r sm;wG i f v nf ;       aomufpm;aom &[ef;wk? &                 MoyH k u d k a jymcsif y gao;onf /
                            ,OfrsKd;ydkif? oufydkifa|;?               b,f,drf;nmEGJYESifh/                 bk&m;? ausmif;uef? apwDykxkd;                  [ef;a,mifrsm;owif;ESifh c½dkif                   Á
                                                                                                                                                                                                 edAmefaqmfqonfrm ]bGaEÅm.        kd            S
                            atmifrsK;d oef;? auoDr;dk ?                      0gqd?k 0gacgif? awmfovif;?    rsm;ü oD v aqmuf w nf M u                      omoema&;rSL;wpfOD;\ rzG,f              .. qGrf;csuf&efxawmf rlygh}
                            wifZmvif;                                 oD w if ; uRwf u mvrsm;um;           onfh &[ef;&Sivl jynforsm;ESihf
                                                                                                                                  f           l           r&mowif ; wk d Y u d k zwf ½ I & yg    tp ]'geoDv bm0emjzifh edAmef                             Á
                  o½kyfazmf     pkd;aomfwm                            &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm; 0gqkd0g            pnfum;aeonfudk jrifawGUEdkif                   onf/                                                   kd f
                                                                                                                                                                                                 r*fzvoYkd &ufwwjdk zifavQmuf           kd            h
                                                                      uyfMuonfh 0gwGif;oHk;vyif            ygonf/ Oykofonfrsm;udk t                              Ak'¨bmom0ifrsm;twGuf            vSrf;Ekdifyg&ef}ponfjzifh aqmf
                 vkd*dk'DZdkif; ausmufqnf                             jzpf o nf / xk d u mvtwG i f ;       auR;tarG ; rsm;jzif h vS L 'gef ;              pd w f r csrf ; ajrUzG , f & mowif ;   Moolrsm;[k twkdaumuft"d
                 b@ma&; uvsmatmif? oJodrfhodrfhNzdK;?                 &[ef ; oH C mawmf r sm;onf           {nfhcHjcif;? w&m;yGJrsm;usif;y                 rsm;yifjzpfonf/ omoemh0ef              yÜm,fzGifh&ygrnf/ wpfa,muf
                                NzdK;olZmatmif? Zifrmat;              nOfhtdyfnOfhae c&D;roGm;MubJ         ay;jcif ; wd k Y j zif h 0gwG i f ; oH k ; v   xrf;aqmifMuolrsm;taejzifh              rSmawmh ]'DaeY tvSLcH½Hku owf
          aMumfjimwm0efcH       rdk;yy? vif;vif;OD;? ESif;a0a0        wpfae&mwnf;wGiom oDwif; f            onf jrwfAk'¨\tqHk;trrsm;                       tjcm;olrsm;xuf um,uH? 0pD              rSwfxm;wJh tmpdPÖuHu ig;
                                                                      oHk;um 0dyóemw&m; yGm;rsm;           jzif h xH k r G r f ; aeaomumv[k               uHudk ykdrkdapmifhxdef;&efvdktyf       aomif;jzpfygw,f/ ,ck tvSLcH
                xkwfa0ol        OD;rsdK;vdIifatmif                                                                                                                                               ½H k y d w f c geD ; rS m av;aomif ; eJ Y
                                                                      Muavonf/ bk&m;? w&m;? oH             vnf; ac:qdkEdkifyg\/                           ygonf/ qGr;f uGr;f rsm;csujf yKwf
                 yHkESdyfpuf    ok0PÖod*ÐyHkESdyfwdkuf                Cm&wemoHk;yg;udk jrwfEkd;pGm                 ]'geESifhoDvrygvQif ao                 Mu&if;jzpfap? tkd;pnfAHkarmif;         ig;axmif&&SdNyD;jzpfygw,f/ vdk
                       zvif     Sunn Colour Separation                qnf ; uyf u d k ; uG , f a om Oyg    cgrS odr,f }[lonf h,HkMunfrI                   rsm;ESifh vSnfhvnftvSLcH&if;           aewJhig;axmiftwGuf tjref
                 apmifa&        35ç000                                          Yk
                                                                      oumwduvnf; 0gwGi;f oDwif;            jzifh jrefrmvlrsKd;Ak'¨bmom0if                 jzpfapt&ufaopmrsm;aomuf                vSL'gef;Mur,fqdk&ifjzifh edAÁmef
                a&mif;aps;      450 usyf                              oHk;awmfrlMurnfhq&mawmf t            rsm;onf oDvudk twwfEiq;kH            dk f      pm;rl;,pfjcif;? tvSLwGifvm                           kd f
                                                                                                                                                                                                 r*fzvoYkd &ufwwjdk zifh avQmuf      dk
                                                                      &SifoljrwfwdkY0wf½Hk &ef&nfrSef;     cg;0wfykqkd;uJhodkY pGJNrJpGmapmifh            a&muf pm;aomufMuaom {nfh               vSrf;EdkifrSmjzpfygw,f}}[k t
 7Day News *sme,fwkduf       - Diamond Centre (G-12)                  í jrwfaomo'¨g pdwjf zifhouFe;f       xdef;usifhBuHMuNyD; 'gejzifhvnf;               y&dowfrsm;tm; ydwfyifuJh&JU            BudrfBudrfaqmfMoaeygonf/
 ajrnDxyf? wdkuf (B)? trSwf(497)? jynfvrf;? (8)&yfuGuf?               rsm;udkvSL'gef; qufuyfMuav           tvS L a&puf v uf E S i f h r uG m &S d         jcif;? tdrfrsm;? wkdufcef;rsm;odkY     olajymaeyHkrSm edAÁmefaqmfESifh
 urm&GwfNrdKYe,f? &efukefNrdKY/                                       onf/                                 wwfMuavonf/ Oygoum\                            wHcg;acgufí tvSL&Sif\ap                rwlbJ avvHyGJ aMunmolwpf
 zkef;- 512887? 513515~519? 09 73224541/                                     xdkouFef;rsm;udkvnf; 0g       t&nf t csif ; rsm;wG i f o'¨ g                                  f G
                                                                                                                                                          wemudkrsuu,jf yKvsuausmif;    f        OD;ESifhwlaeygonf/ jrwfAk'¨u
 zufpf - 513519                                                       qdk ouFe;f [kac:qdMk uygonf/         w&m;ESifh oDvjynfhpHkjcif;onf                  aqmuf&ef[kqdkum bdvyfajr               'getBuD ; tao;jzif h ed A Á m ef
 Website : www.7daynewsjournal.com                                    wcsKdUu 0gqdkouFef;tm;0gqdk                f
                                                                                                           xdyq;kH rSyg0ifNy;D 4if;wdEpcr&Sd
                                                                                                                                          Yk S f k                 d         f
                                                                                                                                                          wpftw?f oGywpfcsy?f wHcg;wpf           a&mufrnf[k ra[mMum;cJhyg/
 E-mail : editor@7daynewsjournal.com                                  vjynfhaeY ("r®pMumtcgawmf            jcif;onf OygoumysufpD;jcif;                    &Gufponfjzifh twif;tusyf               "r®y'xJrS okwåefwpfckudk udk;
                                                                      aeY)üom uyfvSL&onf[kxif              wGifyg&Sd\/ rdvdE´yO§mü Oygo                   tvSLcHjcif;? rdbrJhuav;rsm;            um;csifygonf/
              Hotline : 0973032006                                    Mu\/ r[kwfyg/ wpf0gwGif;vHk;         um\*kP&nf (10)yg;wGif um
                                                                                                                            f                             twGuf[kqdkum xrif;wpfeyf                                               pmrsuEm(32) okYd f S
                                                                                        Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2010
                                                                                       Vol.9, No.29  OCtObeR 7,2013




jrefrm-w½kwfe,fpyf qefta&mif;t0,fat;                                                                                                                ,lepf
                                                                                                                                                                  jynfwGif;aiGvJEIef;
                                                                                                                                                                                0,f      a&mif;
                                                                                                                                                    1 a':vm (tar&duef)          976       986         usyf
                                                                                                                                                    1 a':vm (pifumyl)           769       781         usyf
                                                                                                                                                    1 ,l½dk (Oa&myor*¾)        1274      1292         usyf
                                                                                                                                                    1 bwf (xdkif;)             32.2      32.4         usyf
                                                                                                                                                    1 ,Grf (w½kwf)              160       163         usyf

                                                                                                                                                            2013 Zlvdkif 21 &uf aygufaps;EIef;jzpfonf/



                                                                                                                                                   1 a':vm           0.655        aygif      (NAdwdef)
                                                                                                                                                   1 a':vm           0.7609       ,l½dk      (Oa&myor*¾)
                                                                                                                                                   1 a':vm         100.64         ,ef;       (*syef)
                                                                                                                                                   1 a':vm           6.1377       ,Grf       (w½kwf)
                                                                                                                                                   1 a':vm          59.33         ½lyD;      (tdEd´,)
                                                                                                                                                   1 a':vm           1.2652       a':vm      (pifumyl)
                                                                                                                                                   1 a':vm       1ç120.43         0rf        (udk&D;,m;)
                                                                                                                                                   1 a':vm           3.1925       &if;*pf    (rav;&Sm;)
                                                                                                                                                   1 a':vm          30.99         bwf        (xdkif;)
                                                                                                                                                   1 a':vm      10ç080.00         ½lyD;,m;   (tif'dkeD;&Sm;)
                                                                                                                                                   1 a':vm      21ç200.00         a'gif      (AD,uferf)
aps;uGufodkYwifydkYrnfhqeftdwfrsm;                                                                               "mwfyHk - a*sarmifarmif(tr&yl&)   1 a':vm          43.25         yDqdk      (zdvpfydkif)
                                                                                                                                                   1 a':vm           7.7578       a':vm      (a[mifaumif)
jynfodrf;                            qefpyg;vkyfief;toif;rS qef             enf;oGm;aMumif; jrefrmEkdifiH       ykodrf? ajrmif;jrqefrSm ,aeY
                                                                                                                                                   1 a':vm           1.0896       a':vm      (MopaMw;vs)
       &efukef? Zlvkdif-20           ukefonfOD;rif;odef;u Zlvkdif           qefpyg;toif;csKyf wGJzuft           wGif ,Grf 140 0ef;usifomaps;
                                                                                                                                                   1 a':vm           1.2602       a':vm      (e,l;ZDvef)
w½kwfukefonfrsm;u aps;EIef;          20 &uf wGif ajymMum;onf/               wGi;f a&;rSL; a'gufwmpd;k xGe;f u   &Sdonf/
                                                                                                                                                   1 a':vm           1.0367       a':vm      (uae'g)
qufwkduf avQmhcs0,f,lrI                   w½kwfaps;uGufodkY jrefrmh         qdkonf/                                  vuf&Sd w½kwf-jrefrme,f
                                                                                                                                                   1 a':vm          32.3725       ½lb,f      (½k&Sm;)
aMumifh rlq,faps;uGufwGif            qefxuf t&nftaoG;jrifh                         vuf&Sd w½kwfaps;uGuf         pyfodkY aeYpOfqefum; tpD; 40
                                                                                                                                                   1 a':vm           3.6729       'g&rf      (UAE)
qefta&mif;t0,f &yfwefYae             onfh AD,uferfqefrsm;0if                wGif jrefrmhqefaps;rSm vqef;        cefYom 0ifa&mufaeNyD; qefuGJ
aMumif; rlq,fqefpyg;toif;                                    G
                                     a&mufaejcif;? jynfwi;f aps;jrifh       ydkif;ESifh EIdif;,SOfygu wpftdwf   rSm 75 &mckdifEIef;ausmfyg0if
rS owif;&&Sdonf/                                       f dk f H
                                     wufaeNy;D w½kwEiioYkd wifyYkd          vQif oHk;,GrfrS ig;,GrfMum; aps;                       f
                                                                                                                onf/ vuf&dS w½kw-jrefrme,f
     ]]qef t a&mif ; t0,f u          rnfqkdygu BudKwif0ifaiG cGef2          usvmonf/ Zlvkdifvqef;wGif           pyfqefuGJaps;rSm wpftdwfvQif       ypönf;              ,lepf                        aps;EIef;
r&SdoavmufyJ/ qefuGJyJenf;           &mckdifEIef;ay;&ojzifh aps;r                    d f
                                                                            wpftwvQif 145 ,Gr0ef;usif  f        106 ,GrfrS 102 ,GrfMum;aps;&Sd                                                    (uefa':vm)
enf;a&mif;&w,f}}[k rlq,f             vdkufjcif;aMumifh wifydkYrIavsmh       &Sd t&nftaoG;aumif;onfh             onf/                               a&T                 atmifp                     1ç290.70
                                                                                                                                                   a&eHpdrf;           pnf                          108.52

zkef;vdktyfcsufjznfhqnf;&ef qufoG,fa&;taqmufttHkrsm; wnfaqmufrnf                                                                                   aiG
                                                                                                                                                   aMu;eD
                                                                                                                                                                       atmifp
                                                                                                                                                                       aygif
                                                                                                                                                                                                     19.47
                                                                                                                                                                                                      3.15
                                                                                                                                                   obm0"mwfaiGU        mmbtu                          3.77
aqGrGef                              ESihfenf;ynmyl;aygif;í Xme\            OD;0if;oef;u ajymonf/               &dSbJ cJGwrf;pepf? rJEIdufonfh
       &efukef? Zlvdkif-21           &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrIrsm;jzihf qufoG,f          vuf&dSwGif jynfwGif;ü        pepfrsm;aMumihf tcsdefukef
usyf 1500 wefqif;rfuwfrsm;           a&; taqmufttHkrsm;wnf                  vufvkyfvufpm;vkyfudkifol?           vlyef;jzpf&um vkdtyfonfh
aps;uGuf0,fvkdtm;jynfhrD&ef          aqmufoGm;rnf[k qufoG,f                 aus;vufjynfoltrsm;pkjzpf            jynfolrsm;tm;vHk; rkdbkdif;zkef;
twGuf jynfwGif;jynfy quf             a&;ESihf owif;tcsuftvuf                Ny;D wefz;dk enf;qif;rfuwfrsm;cs    0,f,lEkdif&eftwGuf EkdifiHawmf          2013 Zlvdkif 20 &uf urÇmhaygufaps;EIef;jzpfonf/
oG,a&;0efaqmifrurPrsm;
     f                I k Ü D        enf;ynm0efBuD;Xme'k0efBuD;             xm;ay;&mwGif vkHavmufrIr                         pmrsufESm( 28) odkY
28

business                                                                                                                                                                   Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013




w,fvDaemukrÜPD qif;rfuwf0,f,l&&dSEkdifrnfhae&m ckepfaomif;cefY xm;rnfqkd
aqGrGef                                    Telenor Group rS jrefrm     uwfukd 0,f,lekdifr,hfae&mukd        vkyfaqmifoGm;rnfjzpf&m wpf                        G f
                                                                                                                                                      qufo,a&;uGe&ufrsm; f                                      h
                                                                                                                                                                                       wGuf aemufq;kH tqiftaejzifh
           &efukef? Zlvdkif-21      EkdifiHqkdif&m trIaqmift&m&dS      wpfEkdifiHvHk;rSm ckepfaomif;eD;      d f H              f
                                                                                                           Ekiiv;kH wGif uGe&ufEprsK;d pvH;k
                                                                                                                                  S f           aqmif&urNI y;D pD;ygu rkbi;f vf
                                                                                                                                                         G f               d dk        tpdk;&tmPmydkifrsm;ESihf ouf
quf o G , f a &;atmf y a&wm         csKyftjzpf cefYtyfjcif;cHxm;&      yg; aqmif&GufzkdYpDpOfxm;yg         wyfqifoGm;rnfjzpfNyD; 3G t           qif;rfuwfrsm;ukd usyf 1500             qkdif&mt&m&dSrsm; aqG;aEG;ae
   d f          S
vkipif&&dxm;aom ukrPwpf       Ü D   onfh rpöwm Petter Furbergu         w,f/ qif;rfuwfudk 0,fNy;D xyf       oHk;jyKrIrsm;onfh ae&mrsm;om         atmufjzifh a&mif;csay;oGm;             onfh tajctaejzpfaMumif;
ckjzpfonfh Telenor Group u          jrefrmEkdifiHwGif qufoG,fa&;       NyD;awmh aiGjznfhuwf0,f,lEkdif      ru tifwmeuftoHk;jyKrIukdyg           rnfjzpfNyD; zkef;ajymqkdctae           owif;&&dSonf/
wpfEiiv;kH wGif qif;rfuwf0,f
       dk f H                       uGef&uf0efaqmifrIrsm;ukd &Spf      zktwGuudk ae&muk;d aomif;u
                                                                         dY      f                         toHk;jyKoGm;Ekdifrnfjzpfonf/         jzifvnf; wpfrepfvQif 25 usyf
                                                                                                                                                    h            d                            quf o G , f a &;atmf y a&
,l&&dEirnfh ae&mckepfaomif;
         S dk f                     vtwGif; vkyfukdifoGm;rnfjzpf       ae wpfoe;f xdvyaqmifom;zkYd
                                                                                   d     k f        G              ig;ESpftwGif; qufoG,f                   h
                                                                                                                                                xufavsmenf;onfh aps;EIe;f jzihf        wm vkdifpifvkyfukdifcGifhtwGuf
eD;yg;ESihf aiGjznhfuwfrsm;t                   f                dk f
                                    Ny;D ig;ESptwGi;f jrefrmwpfEiiH    uRefawmfwkdY &nf&G,fygw,f}}         a&;0efaqmifrIrsm;ukd wpfEkdifiH      0ef a qmif r I a y;oG m ;rnf j zpf     tqifhqifh a&G;cs,fcJh&mwGif
wGuf ae&m wpfodef;cefY aqmif        vHk;ü tqkdyg0efaqmifrIrsm;ukd      [k rpöwm Petter Furberg u           vHk;toHk;jyK&mwGif rkdbkdifvfzkef;   aMumif; Telenor Myanmar rS t                       d f H      d
                                                                                                                                                                                       aemfa0;Ekiitajcpkuf Telenor
&GufoGm;&ef pDpOfxm;aMumif;                      G d f
                                    toH;k jyKom;EkirnfjzpfaMumif;      ajymonf/ &SpfvtwGif; quf            toHk;jyKrIrsm;omru tifwm                             S f
                                                                                                                                                rIaqmift&m&dcsKyu ajymonf/             GroupESifh umwmEkdifiHtajc
Telenor Myanmar \ trI               ,aeY ajymMum;cJhonf/               oG,fa&; uGef&ufcsdwfqufrI                           I kd
                                                                                                           euftoH;k jyKruyg toH;k jyKom;  G           vuf&dSwGif qufoG,fa&;              d
                                                                                                                                                                                       pkuf Ooredoo(Qatar Telecom)
aqmift&m&dcsKyu ajymonf/
                  S f                      ]]uRefawmfwkdY&JU qif;rf    wGif 2GESihf 3G ESpfrsdK;pvHk;ukd   EkdifrnfjzpfaMumif;od&onf/           atmfya&wmvkdkifpif&&dS&eft             wdkYrS &&dSxm;jcif;jzpfonf/

                                                                                                                                                pmrsufESm( 27) rS


                                                                                                                                                zkef;vdktyfcsufjznfhqnf;&ef qufoG,fa&;
                                                                                                                                                taqmufttHkrsm; wnfaqmufrnf
                                                                                                                                                                      G f
                                                                                                                                                rS rnfoYdk aqmif&uay;oGm;&ef           uwfrsm; a&mif;csay;&mwGif
                                                                                                                                                  S                        f
                                                                                                                                                &daMumif; jynfoUl vTwawmfwif       G   uwf 10 odef;cJGa&mif;csNyD;
                                                                                                                                                Zlvkdif 17 &ufuar;jref;cJhonfh         jzpf&m pufypönf;rsm;wyfqif
                                                                                                                                                ar;cGe;f ESihf ywfoufí 'k0efBuD;       NyD;jzpfonfhae&mrsm;ESihf wkd;csJU
                                                                                                                                                u jyefvnfajzMum;chJjcif;jzpf           wyf q if x m;onf h a e&mrsm;
                                                                                                                                                onf/                                   wGif tvHk;a&trsm;tjym;
                                                                                                                                                          usyf 1500 wefqif;rf          cJG wrf;jzihf a&mif;csay;aomf
                                                                                                                                                uwf r sm;a&mif ; csay;&mwG i f         vnf; tcsdKUaom aus;vufa'
                                                                                                                                                oufqkdif&m jynfe,fESihf wdkif;         orsm;wGif pufypönf;wm0g
                                                                                                                                                        d
                                                                                                                                                tvkuf vlO;D a&? pD;yGm;a&;tajc         wkdifrsm;r&dSjcif;aMumifh vuf&dS
                                                                                                                                                taeESihf wyfqifxm;onfh rkd             a&mif ; csay;rI r sm; r&d S a o;
                                                                                                                                                      d      k d
                                                                                                                                                bki;f vfze;f vki;f tm;rsm;tay:         aMumif; owif;&&dSonf/
                                                                                                                                                                          S d
                                                                                                                                                tajccHum jynfe,fEihf wki;f a'                 usyf 1500qif;rfuwfr&
                                                                                                                                                oBuD;tpdk;&tzJGUrsm;u vt               &dSonfh tcsdKUaom NrdKUe,frsm;
                                                                                                                                                vkdufcJGa0a&mif;csay;jcif;jzpf                        d f S
                                                                                                                                                                                       ESihf wm0gwkir&donfh a'orsm;
                                                                                                                                                NyD; qufvufívnf; a&mif;cs              wGif vlOD;a&? ajrjyiftajct
                                                                                                                                                ay;oGm;rnfjzpfaMumif; 'k0ef            ae? ta0;qufaMumif;rsm;ukd
                                                                                                                                                BuD;uajzMum;cJhonf/                    uGif;qif;avhvmpdppf&ef pDpOf
                                                                                                                                                          qufoG,fa&;taqmuf             rIrsm;&dSNyD; tpdk;&tzGJUrsm;ESihf
                                                                                                                                                ttHkrsm; xyfrHwnfaqmufNyD;             yl;aygif;í tapmqHk;pDrHudef;
                                                                                                                                                              f    dk
                                                                                                                                                aps;uGu0,fvtm; jznfqnf;        h       wGif xnfhoGif;aqmif&Guf&ef&dS
                                                                                                                                                aqmif&GufNyD;ygu rkdbkdif;vf           aMumif;vnf; qufoG,fa&;
                                                                                                                                                           D k
                                                                                                                                                w,fvze;f rsm;ukd tvG,wul         f     ESihf owif;tcsuftvufenf;
                                                                                                                                                0,f,lEkdif&ef vkyfaqmifay;             ynm0efBuD;Xme 'k0efBuD;OD;
                                                                                                                                                oGm;rnf[k ajymMum;cJhonf/              0if;oef;u Zlvkdif 18 &ufu
                                                                                                                                                          vuf&dSwGif a'otcsKdUjzpf     jynfolYvTwfawmfwGif ar;jref;
                                                                                                                                                onfh aejynfawmf? &efukef?              rI ukd jyefvnfajzMum;cJhonf/
                                                                                                                                                u&ifjynfe,f? rGejf ynfe,f? &Sr;f                    f       k f
                                                                                                                                                                                              vTwawmfü ud,pm;vS,f
                                                                                                                                                jynfe,f(ajrmufydkif;)? {&m0wD          rsm;u usyf 1500 wefqif;rf
                                                                                                                                                    d                        d
                                                                                                                                                wki;f a'orsm;wGif zke;f vki;f usyf     uwfr&&dSonfh NrdKUrsm;ESihf tcsdKU
                                                                                                                                                jcif;rsm; jzpfay:rIaMumifh puf         aom aus;vufa'orsm;wGif rkd
                                                                                                                                                ypönf;rsm; wkd;csJUaqmif&Guf           bkdif;vfwm0gwkdifrsm; r&dSjcif;
                                                                                                                                                vsuf&dSNyD; aqmif&GufrIrsm;jyK         aMumifh qufoG,fa&; cufcJrI
                                                                                                                                                vkyfcsdefwGif rkdbkd;vfqif;rfuwf       rsm;&dSaeNyD; eD;pyf&mNrdKUrsm;rS
                                                                                                                                                a&mif;csrIukd avQmhaygha&mif;cs        aps;BuD;ay;0,f,l oHk;pJGae&
                                                                                                                                                rnfjzpfaMumif; qufoG,fa&;              jcif;rsm;aMumifh wm0gwkdifrsm;
                                                                                                                                                ESihf owif;tcsuftvuf enf;              aqmufvkyfay;NyD; cJGwrf;jzifh
                                                                                                                                                ynm0efBuD;XmerS owif;xkwf              a&mif;csay;&ef tpDtpOf&dS? r&dS
                                                                                                                                                jyefxm;onf/                            ar;jref;&m jyefvnfajzMum;cJh
                                                                                                                                                          usyf 1500 wefqif;rf          jcif;jzpfonf/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             29

Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013                                                                                                                                                  News Analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                           k h            Yf
                                                                                                                                                                                90 qdi;f iHxm;&ef trdeay;jcif;            tG e f v k d i f ; bavmh * f a y:wG i f


tEÅ&m,fMum;u ol&Jaumif;rsm;
                                                                                                                                                                                ESihf rD;avmifaeaMumif; aemuf             "mwfyHkrsm;wifqufxm;aom
                                                                                                                                                                                cef;0efxrf;rsm;u ajymMum;rS               qpf'eDNrdKUtajcpkduf c&D;oGm;
                                                                                                                                                                                om u,fq,fa&;vkyfief;rsm;                  vkyfief; twdkifyifcH *sifumrD
                                                                                                                                                                                pwifjcif;twGuf at;&Sm;em;                 vmvif;u olwkdYwufcJh&aom
                                                                                                                                                                                av,mOfr,frsm;wGif txufyg                  oDwif;wpfywfMum avhusihfrI
                                                                                                                                                                                vkyfykdifcGihfrsm;&Sdonfvm; qkd           rSm jyif;xefaMumif;ajymjyonf/
Munfae0if;rif;                                         ,mOftzGJUom;rsm;tm; ,if; r                                                                                                                  f
                                                                                                                                                                                onfukdrpöpb&ifvif*gudkawG;                                         S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ]]a&xJrm taoaumifvkd
                                                       awmfwqrItaMumif; ajymcGifh                                                                                               awmrdaponf/                               rvIyfr,SufjzpfaewJh vlwpf
                                                       rjyKawmhay/                                                                                                                             Ykd S         h
                                                                                                                                                                                         ]]olwrm uGjJ ym;wJtxuf           a,mufukd vufwpfzufuqGJ
          at;&Sm;em;avaMumif; c&D;                              ,if;odkYaom vkyf&yfrSm r                                                                                        trdefY tqihfqihfvkdufemrIwpf              a&ul;NyD; uRefrwdkYukd,f uRefr
pOf (214) qefz&efppöuNkd rKd U av                      MumcPqkdovdk ¤if;wkdY\ ½kyf                                                                                              rsdK;&Sdw,f/ av,mOfrSL;cGihfjyK           a&m? tJ'DrvIyfr,Sufukda&m
qdyfwGif qif;oufpOf ysufusrI                                    l         h
                                                       &nf½yumESifc&D;onf0efaqmif                                                                                               csufr&bJ bmrSvkyfvdkYr&bl;                avSay:qGJwifwmrsdK;awG avh
rwkdifrD ,if;udk&D;,m;av                               rI uRrf;usifrItwGufom tod                                                                                                qkdwm aocsmygw,f}}[k rpöpf                usihfcJh&w,f}}[k rpöpfvif;u
aMumif;vdkif; av,mOfr,frsm;                                           H
                                                       trSwjf yKc&aom av,mOfr,f                                                                                                 b&ifvif*guqdkNyD; ]]uRefr&JU              ajymonf/
owif;rsm;zefw;D cJaom aemuf     h                      vkyfief;twGuf *kPf,lp&m t                                                                                                pdwfxJrSmawmh av,mOfukd                           ½kyf&nf½lyumESihf tjyif
qHk;tBudrfrSm ,ckESpf apmapm                           wkdif;twmwpfckjzpfygonf/                                                                                                 u,f q ,f a &;csuf c sif ; vk y f &        tqifhpHEIef; owfrSwfrIrsm;
ydkif;ujzpfNyD; av,mOfr,frsm;                                   ]]tcuftcJaygif;pHkeJY BuD;                                                                                      r,fqdkwm oHo,r&Sdbl;}}[k                  vnf; jrihfrm;ygonf/ touf
abmif;bD&Snf0wfcGifh&a&; ¤if;                          rm;wJh zdtm;awG&ifqiae&csefdk f        d                                                                                 ¤if;uqufvufajymonf/                       23 ESpfwGif tvkyfoGm;avQmuf
    Yk
wdor*¾ awmif;qdcsejf zpfonf/   k d                     rSm olwdkYwpfawG[m udk,fxnf                                                                                                       rpöpfb&ifvif*grSm ,ck                               f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          aom rpöpvif;ukd tpyxrwGif
          odkYaomf qefz&efppöudk                       us,fav,mOfBuD;wpfckvHk;u                                                                                                        d f G k
                                                                                                                                                                                tcsewif ud&;D ,m;avaMumif;                at;&Sm;em;½Hk;u toufBuD;
av,mOfysuusrwif av,mOf     f I G                                               d f kd
                                                       c&D;onfawGukd tcsewtwGi;f                                                                                                rS av,mOfr,frsm; rnfocpm;         Ydk H   vGef;onf[k qdkcJhonf/ vlawGU
r,f 12 OD;teuf xuf0ufcefY                              u,fq,fa&;vkyfNyD; olwdkYt                                                                                                ae&Ekdifonfudkvnf; cHpm;Ekdif             ppfaq;csdefwGif rpöpfvif;rSm
'Pf&mrsm; &&SdaecsdefwGif usef                         vkkyf olwdkYvkyfcJhMuygw,f}}[k                                                                                           ygonf/ ¤if;udk,fwkdifvnf;                 puwfwkdwkdukd rnfonfhajc
av,mOfr,frsm;u ta&;ay:                                 tvufpumavaMumif;vkdif;                                                                                                   1989 ckESpfu ypdzdwfork'´&m                      f S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          tdwrrygbJ 0wfjy&onf/ av
u,f q ,f a &;vk y f i ef ; rsm;ud k                    av,mOfr,fESihf EkdifiHwum                                                                                                ay:wGif ysHoef;&if;av,mOf                 ,mOfr,foifwef;ausmif;wGif
       J
ol&aumif;qefqef vkyaqmif                   f           av,mOfarmif^r,frsm; t                                                                                                    ukefpnfcef;wHcg; yGifhxGufí               qHyif? rdwfuyfESihf taetxdkif
cJhjcif;twGuf csD;usL;cH&aom                           pnf;t½Hk;Ouú| rpöpfAD'g&Twfu                                                                                             c&D;onfukd;OD; vGihfpOfaoqHk;cJh            k H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          yHprsm; avhusionf/ av,mOf  hf
tcg trsm;jynfoltm½HkpdkufrI                            ajymonf/ ]]'g[m wu,fhudk                                                                                                 aom bkd;&if;-747 av,mOf                   c&D;pOftwGif; av,mOfaemuf
               Ykd
rSm olw\ ,leazmif;udprS ol   D                 ö       awmufywJh erlemygyJ/ av                                                                                                  ay:wGif &SdaecJhzl;onf/                   cef; refae*smu av,mOfr,f
                       f
&Jaumif;vky&yfrsm;qDoYkd a&muf                         ,mOfarmif;wJhtzGJUomr[kwf                                                                                                         ,lEkdufwufavaMumif;              rsm;0wfpHkESihf vkdufzufaom
&SdoGm;onf/                                            bJ av,mOfarmif^r,fawG[m                                                                                                  av,mOfc&D;pOf (811)\ aMuuGJ               vufonf;qk;d aq; qk;d xm;jcif;
                   kd
          Zlvif 6 &uf av,mOfysuf                       vnf; ta&;ay:wkHYjyefa&;t                                                                                                 p&mjzpf&yftNyD; rpöpfb&ifvif              &Sd? r&SdESihf cg;pnf;t0wfrsm;udk
         I G
usrwif av,mOfr,ftzJUG om;                              wGuf ta&;Bu;D w,fqwm jyo      dk                                                                                         *grSm ,if;rawmfwqrItNyD;                  pepfwusrD;ylwkdufxm;jcif; &Sd?
oHk;OD;rSm xdkifcHkwGif vHkNcHKa&;cg;                  aeygw,f}}[k rpöpfAD'gu quf                                                                                               pdwf'ku©a0'emaMumifh av                   r&Sdutp ppfaq;onf/
ywfwyfqifxm;&if; jywfxGuf                              vufajymygonf/                                                                                                            ,mOfay:jyefwuf&ef tcsdef                          av,mOfr,frsm;rSm tjrif
oGm;aom av,mOftNrD;ydi;f t                       k              a&S;OD;olemjyKpkjcif;ESihf rD;                                                                                  av;ESpfausmf MumjrihfcJhonf/              wifhw,fzkdY vkdtyfygonf/ okdY
wGif; ygoGm;cJhonf/ xdktawm                            Nid§rf;owfa&; avhusifhrIrsm;t                                                                        YONHAPNEWS/EPA
                                                                                                                                                                                ]]ta&;ay:tajctaeudk ukdif                 aomf qefz&efppöudkwGif av
                                                                                                  at;&Sm;em;avaMumif;av,mOfr,ftBu;D tuJ rpöpfvD,Gef[kdif;
twGi;f rusK;d ryJh use&orsm;u      f dS l              jyif av,mOfaemufcef;tzGJU                                                                                                wG,f&wmu tvG,fulqHk;t                     ,mOfrawmfwqrIü rD;avmif
c&D;onfaygif; 300 ta&;ay:                              om;rsm;rSm av,mOfay:rS c&D;                pOfu av,mOfaemufcef;0ef                ,mOfaemufcef;0efxrf;rsm;\              pdwftydkif;yJ/ bmjzpfvkdYvJqkd            oGm;aom av,mOfjyifywGif
u,fq,fa&;udk BuD;MuyfcJh&                              onfrsm;tm; puúefYukd;q,ft                  xrf;rsm;rSm ta&;ay:tajct               tcef;u@ ododomomus,f                   awmh rif;udk 'DtwGuf avhusifh             puwfrsm;ESihfawGU&aom av
onf/ ,if;wGif c&D;onf vHkNcHK                          wGif; u,fq,fEkdifa&; tpDt                                      dk f
                                                                                                  aersm;wGif yg0ifEiaom tcef;                Y       h               dk k
                                                                                                                                         jyefvmcJonf/ aemufyi;f pHprf;          xm;w,fav/ u,fq,fa&;                       ,mOfr,frsm;udk awGU&csdef at;
a&;cg;ywfrsm;udk "m;rsm;jzihf                          pOfrsm;udk ESpfpOfavhusifhMu&              u@trsm;tjym; r&SdvSay/                 ppf a q;rI t & av,mOf t                vkyf½HkyJ}}[k ¤if;uqkdNyD; b0ukd          &Sm;em;or*¾u awmif;qdkaom
jzwfjcif;? av,mOftwGif; rSm;                                            f D
                                                       aMumif; rpöpA'guajymygonf/                        ,lEkdufwuf avaMumif;                      H
                                                                                                                                         awmifywpfcay:wGif a&cJrsm;
                                                                                                                                                        k                       a&SUquf&efyif ½ke;f uefc&onf   hJ                                S f d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          abmif;bD&nupö atmifjrifap
,Gif;yGifhxGufvmaom ta&;                               tcsdefrSwftprf;avhusihfrIrsm;              vkdif;wGif 31 ESpfMum av,mOf           udk av,mOfr,fwpfOD;u jrif              [k rpöpfb&ifvif*guajym                    vkdaMumif; rpöpfumrDvmvif;
ay:avtdwavQmrsm;udk ykqeff                         d   tjyif av,mOfarmif^r,frsm;                  r,ftjzpf vkyfukdifcJhol rpöpf          awGUcJhaomfvnf; av,mOfrSL;             onf/                                      u ajymygonf/
jzihf ckwxpfí rGe;f usyaeaom
             f                         f               rSm 0½kef;okef;um;tajctae                  avmf&mb&ifvif*gu 1972                        S
                                                                                                                                         odrmyJ[k ,lqNy;D xkwajymjcif;
                                                                                                                                                                   f                     at;&Sm;em;av,mOfc&D;                     ]]wu,fvom puwf0wf          Ydk
taygif;yg av,mOfr,frsm;                                                       f l H H
                                                       ESifh av,mOftif*siqnorsm;                  ckESpfu jzpfyGm;cJhaom ¤if;\           rjyKcJh/ xdktcsdefrSpí tar&d           pOf (214)ay:wGifaemufcef;0ef              xm;wm[m abmif;bD0wfwm
tm; u,fq,fjcif;? rD;owfjcif;?                          tMum; atmf[pfajymqkdjcif;?                 yxrqH k; av,mOf ta&;ay:                uef zuf'&,favaMumif;tm                 xrf; av,mOfr,f 11 OD;ESihf                xufydkNyD; vlawG&JU toufudk
aMumuf&GHU xdwfvefYaeaom                               taMumufw&m;jzihf Muufao                    qif;oufrI tawGUtBuHKukd jyef           PmydkiftzGJUu av,mOft                  av,mOfarmifwpfOD;yg0ifNyD;                u,f w if E k d i f r ,f q k d w J h t
uav;i,frsm;udk o,fxkwf                                 aoaeaom c&D;onfrsm;udk                     ajymif;ajymjyonf/ ta&;ay:              aemufcef;0efxrf; t&if;tjrpf            ¤if;wdkY\ touft&G,frSm 21                 axmuftxm;&Sd&if olwdkYukd r
jcif;rsm; yg0ifonf/ ,if;udk                            ajymqkdqufoG,fjcif;? usyfae                tajctaeNyD;qHk;NyD; av,mOf                H Y JG
                                                                                                                                         pDrcefcrI tpDtpOfudk owfrwf      S     ESihf 42 ESpfMum; &Sdonf/ rawmf           jzpfjzpfwJhenf;eJY puwfyJ0wf
puúefYydkif;? rdepfydkif;twGif; vkyf                   aom wHcg;rsm;? jywif;aygufrsm;             rSL;\ rsufESmukd jrifawGUcsdeft        usihfoHk;í ¤if;wdkY\ pkd;&drfylyefrI   wqrIudk pHkprf;ppfaq;rIrsm;                  d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          cki;f xm;&ygvdrr,f/ tu,fí       hf
aqmif&jcif;jzpfonf/                                    udk zGihfjcif;rsm;udk avhusihfMu&          xd tajctaernfrQ qdk;&Gm;               rsm;udk av,mOfrSL;cef;odkY t           vkyfaqmifaepOftwGif; rnf                  rsm; uRefr rD;avmifaewJh av
          ]]wu,fvnf; uRer bmrS           f             onf[k ¤if;uqkdonf/ &nf                     aMumif; avmf&mwpfa,muf                 aMumif;Mum;jcif;ESihf 0g&ifhav         onfhowif;tcsuftvufrS                      ,mOfxJrSm ydwfrdaew,fqkd&if
awG;raebl;/ uRefr cE¨mukd,f                            &G,fcsufrSm ,if;udpörsm;udk t              oabmraygufcJh/ ]]tJ'Dwkef;u            ,mOfrSL;rsm;tm; pdefac:cGihfrsm;       rQ a0jcif;rjyK&ef trsKd ;om;o,f           awmh uRefrukd u,fq,fzkdY vkyf
u u,fq,fa&;tvkyfawGudk                                 vkdtavsmufwkHYjyefEkdifa&;jzpf             qkd&if acgif;av;ukdykwfNyD; oGm;       yif ay;cJhonf/                         ,lydkYaqmifa&;vHkNcHKrIbkwftzGJU          aewJh av,mOfr,f[m olY&JU
                      f G
pwifNy;D vkyom;wmyJ}}[k tBu;D                          onf/ ]]'gawGudk uRefrwdkY rSwf             aemufcef;jyefoGm;NyD; vlawGudk                 ,if;tawG;tac:rSm t             u ñTefMum;xm;í at;&Sm;em;                                      S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          oGm;awGrm EIwcrf;eDawGayae    f
tuJ av,mOfr,f rpöpfvD,Gef                                            k f G
                                                       ÓPfxJ ½duoi;f xm;wmyg}}[k                  aumif;aumif;rGefrGef NyHK;jyae         a&;ay: tajctaersm;wGif                 av,mOftrIxrf;rsm;\ ta&;                   vm;? qHyifawG royfr&yfjzpf
[kdif; (40)ESpfu owif;pm&Sif;                          rpöpfAD'guajymonf/                         vdkufqdkwmrsdK;}}[k avmf&mu            u,fq,fa&;vkyfcGihfukd av               ay: tajctaeavhusihfrI em&D                                 d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          aevm;qkwmudk uRer Munhae               f f
vif;yGJwpf&yfwGif ajymMum;yg                                    ,if;rSm av,mOfaemuf               ajymjyNyD; ,cktcg rsm;pGmwkd;          ,mOfaemufcef; 0efxrf;rsm;              yrmPudk xkwfrajymEkdifyg[k                rSm r[kwfygbl;}}[k rpöpfumrD
onf/ ]]aemufc&D;onfwpf                                 cef; trIxrf;rsm;tm; trsKd ;orD;            wufvmcJhNyD[k qufajymyg                tm; tyfESif;xm;onf/ odkY               avaMumif;rS ajymcGihf&trsdK;              vmvif;u tqH;k owfpum;qkd
a,muf u,fq,fa&;ukyJ uRef                     d         rsm;csnf; jzpfcJhNyD; av,mOfr,f            onf/                                   aomf at;&Sm;em;av,mOfc&D;              orD; vD[kdrif;uqkdygonf/                  onf/
r pOf;pm;aew,f}}[k ¤if;u                               rsm; (odkYr[kwf) av,mOfay:                                       dk f H G
                                                                                                         tar&duefEiiwif 1989             pOf(214) qefz&efppöukdav                        odkYaomfvnf; vGefcJhaom
qufajymygonf/ aemufykdif;                              wGivnf; wnfcif;{nhcorsm;
                                                              f                         f H l     ckEpf tkum&D,avaMumif;c&D;
                                                                                                      S d          dk                    qdyfü qif;oufpOf ysufus&m              &SpfESpfu at;&Sm;em;av,mOf                             —Ref: Asiana flight
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    attendents make news
wGif tar&duefzuf'&,fvHkNcHK                            [k odjrifcJhaom acwfESihf rsm;             pOf (1363)avxJysHwufpOf                wGif av,mOfrSL;rsm;u u,f               wGif wpfESpfMumtvkyfvkyfcJhNyD;                              with bravery
a&; pHkprf;ppfaq;olrsm;u av                            pGma0;uGmoGm;NyDjzpfonf/ xdk                    f         G
                                                                                                  ysuusrjI zpfym;cJNh y;D aemuf av       q,fa&;vkyfief;rsm;udk puúefY           c&D;oGm; tawGUtBuHKrsm;udk
30

Knowledge                                                                                                                                                  Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013




7DAY                                   BOOK
                                         R E V I E W



                                                                                                                            Zlvdkif 24 &ufrS Zlvdkif 30 &uftxd

                                                                                                           ARIES                         rdó&moDzGm; (rwf21-{NyD20)
                                                                                                           tcuftcJrsm; ausmfvTm;Edkifrnf/ &yfwefYxm;aom udpörsm; jyefvnfaqmif&GufEdkifonf/ twdkuf
                                                                                                           tcH tcuftcJrsm;Mum;rS tvdk&Sdoavmuf aqmif&Gufatmifjrifrnf/ vlrsKd;uJG? vlrsKd;jcm; tusKd;
                                                                                                           ay;rnf/ &oihf &xdkufonhf tcGifhta&;rsm; jyef&rnf/ jr§KyfESHxm;onfrsm;rS aumif;aom tusKd;
                                                                                                           qufrsm; &&Sdrnf/ tdrfwGif;a&;? vlrIa&;udpörsm; ajz&Sif;Edkifrnf/

                                                                                                           TAuRuS                        Nydó&moDzGm; ({NyD21-ar21)
                                                                                                           &nfrSef;xm;onfESihf vufawGUjzpfay:rI uGm[rnf/ pdwftaESmihft,Suf&Sdrnf/ uwdrwnfaom
                                                                                                           olrsm;? pum;½IyfaxG;aom olrsm;&Sdrnf/ twGif;vl'ku©ay;í vkyfief;aqmif&GufrIt&Sdefusrnf/ aiG
                                                                                                           ukef? pdwfyef;jzpfrnf/ tvkyfudpörsm; a&SUwdk;&efxuf aemufaMumif;jyef&Sif;ae&rnf/ twlyl;wJG
                                                                                                           aqmif&Gufolrsm;\ ½dk;om;rIuif;rJhjcif;aMumihf pdwfaomujzpf&rnf/ arwåma&;wGif tnHh&Sdonf/

                                                                                                           GEmINI                        arxkef&moDzGm; (ar 22-ZGef 21)
                                                                                                           tvkyfpD;yGm;wdk;wufrnf/ tcuftcJrsm; ausmfvTm;Edkifrnf/ ta&;BuD;aom qHk;jzwfcsufrsm; csrSwf
                                                                                                           &rnf/ tqihfjrihfaom wufvrf;rsm; ay:aygufrnf/ csufcsif;vufiif;aqmif&GufrIrsm;rS wdk;wuf
 ausmif;om;ta&;awmfykH                                   uRefawmfrSwfrdorQ                                 rIrsm; &&Sdrnf/ ae&mxdkifcif;udpörsm; aqmif&Gufatmifjrifrnf/ vkyfief;OD;wnfcsufopfrsm; t
                                                                                                           aumiftxnfazmf atmifjrifrnf/ arwåma&;uHaumif;onf/ a0;uGmaeolrsm;ESihfjyefqHkrnf/
 1953-54 (armif0if;armifoef;)                            (a'gufwmomvS)
                                                                                                           CANCER                        u&u#f&moDzGm; (ZGef 22-Zlvkdif 22)
                                                                                                           &if;ESD;aomolrsm;ESihf pum;rsm;&rnf/ olrsm;jyóem udk,fhjyóemjzpfwwfonf/ remvdkolrsm;ESihf
1953 atmifwkdbmvwGif &efukefwuúokdvf w                 1953 atmufwkdbmausmif;om;oydwftwGif;                xdyfwdkufawGUrnf/ ysKd&G,folrsm; arwåma&;tnhH&Sdonf/ tdrfaxmifonfrsm; tdrfaxmifzufESihf
aumif; ausmif;aqmifae ausmif;om; armifwif                      k f       dk f      f f hJ
                                                       &efuewuúovudk tkycsKycaom ygarmu©csKyf              pum;rsm; &efjzpf&rnf/ vkyfief;cGifrSolrsm; rajymif;vdkaomt&yf ajymif;&jcif; roGm;vdkaomc&D;
at;ukd taqmifrS xkwy,fíaeYausmif;om;t
                             f                         a'gufwmomvS\ uk,a&;tw¬Kywdå pmtkyjf zpf
                                                                               d f           Ü             oGm;&jcif;rsm;&Sdrnf/
jzpf wufaponfh udprpí wuúovtmPmykif
                         ö S
rsm;u atmufwkdbmausmif;ydwf&uf wpfvt
                                        dk f       d   onf/ a'gufwmomvSonf 1936 'kw, ausmif;     d
                                                       om;oydwfBuD;twGif; udkEk? ukdatmifqef;? ukd
                                                                                                            LEO                            od[f&moDzGm; (Zlvkdif23-Mo*kwf23)
                                                                                                           tcuftcJrsm; uif;pifoGm;rnf/ tvkyftBuH&nf&G,fcsufrsm; atmifjrifrnf/ tNydKiftqdkifrsm;
pm; 15&uftjzpf jyifqifowfrSwf&mrS ausmif;              ausmfNidrf;wkdYESifhtwl yg0ifqifETJcJhaom ausmif;        f T                             G           f                                         f k
                                                                                                           ausmvm;atmifjrifjcif;rsm; jzpfxe;f rnf/ vkyief;tqihf wd;k wufrnf/ Opömwd;k yGm;rnf/ tNyKd itqdif
                     f S
om;xktwGi;f vIy&m;rIrsm;jzpfvmNy;D wuúovf     dk       om;acgif;aqmifwpfOD;jzpfNyD; t*FvefokdY oGm;        rsm;tm; tEdkif&rnf/ &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrIrsm;rS aumif;aomtusKd;tjrwf &&Sdrnf/ ysKd&G,faomolrsm;tzdkY
orki;f wGif oydwtjzpf ay:xGuconf/ tqkyg
      d            f               f hJ          d     a&mufynmoifMum;&mrS a'gufwmbGJU&&Sdum               tcspfa&;? arwåma&; uHaumif;rnf/ tvkyfpD;yGm;atmifjrifrnf/ Opöm"ewdk;yGm;rnf/
ausmif;om;oydwftaMumif;ukd xkdumvu
ausmif;om;wpfOD;jzpfol ,ckpma&;olu rSwf
                                                                   G
                                                       aemifwif &efuewuúovygarmu©csKyf jzpfvm
                                                                           k f       dk f
                                                       onf/ a'gufwmomvS\ ,ckpmtkyfonf ¤if;r
                                                                                                            VIRGO                         uef&moDzGm; (Mo*kwf24-pufwifbm22)
                                                                                                                                  kd                                                 ö
                                                                                                           jyóemrsm; qufwujf zpfrnf/ aiGaMu;udpö pum;ajym&rnf/ olwpfyg;udprsm; apwemESifh aqmif
wrf;wifxm;cJh&mrS pmtkyftjzpf xkwfa0jcif;                     f G f                       f
                                                       uG,verD touf(80)ausmuse;f rma&;csKUd ,Gi;f          &Gu&if; pdwtaESmift,SuBf uHKrnf/ tcuftcJrsm;BuHKrnf/ &eftwdutcHrsm;tm; &ifqiajz&Si;f
                                                                                                                f        f           h                                         k f             kd f
jzpfonf/ yxrtBudrfxkwfzl;aomfvnf; ,ck                  aeonfhMum;rS tywfwukwfa&;om;cJhaom                  &rnf/ aqGrsKd;a&;udpörsm; pdwfaomua&muf&rnf/ wpfyg;oluwdysufí aiGaMu; uoduatmuf
'kwd,tBudrfwGif xyfrHjznfhpGufcsuftrSm o               tw¬KyÜwdåvnf;jzpfonf/ ppftpkd;&vufxuf               jzpfjcif;? ajz&Sif;&jcif;rsm;&Sdrnf/ arwåma&;wGif tnhH&Sdonf/ usef;rma&;*½kpdkufyg/
abmouf0ifonfh xkdpOfutjzpftysufrsm;ESifh
csdefxkd;í jrefrmhEkdifiHa&;orkdif;wGif vyf[mae
                                                       q,fpkESpfwpfckausmfMum rxGuf&SdEkdifcJhbJ ,ck
                                                       tcgwGifrS pmtkyftjzpf ay:xGufvmjcif;jzpf
                                                                                                            LIBRA                                G
                                                                                                                                          wl&moDzm; (pufwifbm23-atmufwbm23)
                                                                                                                                                                      dk
                                                                                                                   k f          d               dS         S           S
                                                                                                           &eftwdutcHrsm;&Srnf/ t&m&mowd&&rnf/ &nfre;f xm;onfEifh vufawGUjzpfay:rI toGirwl      f
                           f
aomtaMumif;tcsutcsKUd ukd xnfoi;f a&;om;  h G          onf orkdif;0ifukd,fawGYjzpf&yf tajrmuftjrm;         jzpfaernf/ aiGaMu;udpö? tvkyfudpörsm;wGif twdkuftcHrsm;&Sdrnf/ udk,hftay: 'ku©ay;olrsm; &Sd
xm;onf/                                                yg&SdNyD; vltrsm; rod&Sdao;aom EkdifiHa&;um;        rnf/ tdrfwGif; rdom;pktwGif; tukeftusrsm;jcif;? taysmuft&Srsm;jcif; &Sdrnf/ vkyfief;twGif;
        1936ausmif;om;oydwftNyD; ygvDref'Drkd          csyftcsKdUudk½Ijrif&rnfjzpfonf/ txl;ojzifh          vl,Hk 'ku©ay;jcif;? vufatmufi,fom;tcsif;csif; y#dyu©jzpfaeonfrsm; ajz&Sif;ay;&rnf/
ua&pDtpkd;&vufxufwGif ay:aygufcJhaom
wuúokdvfausmif;om;rsm;\ vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;ukd
                                                       wpfzufyg pmtkyfwGifazmfjyxm;aom ausmif;
                                                                     f S
                                                       om;vIy&m;rIrsm;ESihf ,SOwí wuúovt"dywd
                                                                                    f JG       dk f
                                                                                                            SCORPIO                       NAdpäm&moDzGm; (atmufwkdbm24-Ekd0ifbm22)
                                                                                                           tajymif;tvJESihfwdk;wufrnf/ vlrsKd;uJG tusKd;ay;rnf/ tcuftcJMum;rS tvdk&Sd&m aqmif&Guf
,ckpmtkyfwGif tao;pdwfa&;om;xm;NyD; xkd                wpfOD;\ ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;tay:xm;&Sd          atmifjrifrnf/ rdwfaqGtBuD;tuJtultnD&rnf/ tvkyfpD;yGm;a&;&mrsm; txl;tqifajyrnf/
umvu oydwfwkdufyGJxJ yg0ifqifETJcJhaom                 onfh tjrifESifh&yfwnfrIudk rwluGJjym;zwf½I&yg       Opöm "ewdk;yGm;rnf/ ½kwfw&ufay:aygufvmaom tBuHÓPfrsm;? pdwful;rsm; vufawGUtoHk;csyg/
ausmif;om;wpfOD;\ cH,lcsufukdodjrif&ygrnf/             rnf/ t*Fvdyf-jrefrmESpfbmom ½kdufESdyfxm;NyD;       tvkyfopf ae&mopfrsm; csJUxGifíaumif;onf/ tNydKiftqdkiftm;vHk;udk ausmfvTm;Edkifonf/
oHvGifNidrf;csrf;pmtkyfwkdufu wefzkd; 3ç000usyf        pmtkyfudk jrefrmEkdifiH blrdodyÜHtoif;u wefzkd;      SAGITTARuS "Ek&moDzGm; (Ekd0ifbm23-'DZifbm21)
jzifh jzefYcsdonf/                                     2ç000usyfjzifhjzefYcsdonf/                          tcuftcJrsm;ausmfvTm;í &nfrSef;csufopfrsm; vufawGUtaumiftxnfazmfEdkifrnf/ vdkufvH
                                                                                                           aESmifh,Sufaomolrsm;ESihf awGUwwfonf/ trsKd;orD; rdwfaqGwpfOD;xHrS aumif;aomtaxmuft
                                                                                                                d            f                        G f kd f                        f
                                                                                                           ul&&Srnf/ tvkyp;D yGm;wd;k wufatmif aqmif&uEirnf/ Nc?H um;? tcef; tvJtvS,tajymif;tvJ
                                                                                                           &Sdrnf/ aiGacs;jcif;a&Smifyg/ aiGvufvGefwwfonf/ &nfrSef;xm;oavmufatmifjrifrnf/

                                                                                                            CAPRICORN rum&&moDzGm; ('DZifbm22-Zefe0g&D20)
                                                                                                                    f       f k f                 kd       k dS
                                                                                                           taESmiht,SutwdutcHrsm;ESifh &ifqiNf y;D tvd&&m atmifjrifrnf/ jyóemr&Sd jyóem&Smaom
   urÇmrSm b,fEkdifiHawG tmZmenfaeYusif;yovJ                                                               olrsm;? csufcsif;vufiif;vkyf&rnfhudpötm; tcsdefqJGaomolrsm;? wpfpHkwpf&m wdk;wufoGm;rnfudk
                                                                                                           remvdkr½Ipdrfhaomolrsm;ESihfawGUrnf/ aiGracs;&/ qHk;wwfonf/ wpfyg;oludpMö um;0ifí wm0ef,l
   ol&Jaumif;tmZmenfrsm;twGuf trSwfw&usif;yaom tmZmenfaeYac: Martyrs' Day qkd                              jcif;? tmrcHjcif;rsm; a&Smif&rnf/ arwåma&;wGif tnHh&Sdonf/ ynma&;uHaumif;rnf/
   onfrSm EkdifiH\ tcsKyftjcmtmPmukd umuG,f&if;toufay;oGm;cJhonfh ppfonfol&Jaumif;
   rsm;? acgif;aqmifrsm;ukd atmufarh*kPfjyKjcif;[kqkdEkdifonf/ urÇmhEkdifiHrsm;wGif aeYwpfaeYukd
                                                                                                            AquARIuS                         f    G
                                                                                                                                          ukr&moDzm; (Zefe0g&D21-azazmf0g&D18)
                                                                                                           t&m&mwdk;wufí aqmif&GuforQatmifjrifrnf/ aiGaMu;udpö? pD;yGm;udpörsm;wGif twdkuftcH?
   tmZmenfaeYtjzpf oufqkdif&mEdkifiHorkdif;tvdkuf owfrSwfMuNyD; urÇmay:wGif tmZmenfaeY                                           kd f                       f
                                                                                                           tcuf tcJrsm;ESifh &ifqiajz&Si;f &rnf/ pkaygif;vkyief;tusK;d ay;rnf/ tBu;D tuJrsm;xHrS taxmuf
   owfrSwfusif;yaom EkdifiHaygif; 17 EkdifiH&dSaeonf/ ,if;EkdifiHrsm;wGif jrefrmEkdifiHtygt0if             tul&rnf/ vkyfief;opf? pD;yGm;opfrsm; aqmif&GuftusKd;ay;rnf/ tNydKiftqdkiftm;vHk;udk ausmf
   tdrfeD;csif;EkdifiHjzpfaom b*Fvm;a'h&fS?tmqD,HESifh tm&SEkdifiH rsm; jzpfaom AD,uferf? tmz*ef?          vTm;í atmifjrifrIrsm; tqufrjywfjzpfxGef;rnf/ pkaygif;wJGzufvkyfief;rsm;rS wdk;wufrI&rnf/
   ygupöwef? tZmbkdif*sefwkdYyg0if onf/ tmZmenfaeYusif;yaom EkdifiH 17 EkdifiHrSm (1) tmz*ef                PISCES                        rdef&moDzGm; (azazmf0g&D19-rwf20)
                                                                   d f
   epöwef? (2) t,fvf ab;eD;,m;? (3) tmar;eD;,m;? (4) tZmbki*se?f (5) b*Fvm;a'h&?fS (6) jrefrm?             tcuftcJrsm;udk ausmfvTm;í &nfrSef;csuftm;vHk;udk vufawGUtaumiftxnfazmfEdkifrnf/ c&D;
   (7) tdEd´,? (8) vufbEGef? (9) vpfAsm;? (10) rmvm0D? (11) ygupöwef? (12) yem;rm;? (13) qD;&D;            oGm;í tusKd;&Sdrnf/ rdwfaqGaumif;tultnD&rnf/ c&D;&SnfoGm;&if; bmoma&;udpörsm; aqmif
   ,m;? (14) wkd*kd? (15) wleD;&Sm;? (16) AD,uferf? (17) ,l*ef'gwkdYjzpfMuonf/                             &Guf&rnf/ bmoma&;? vlrIa&;udpörsm;wGif aumif;aomtaxmuftul&rnf/ armifESrom;csif;
                                                                                                           rsm;twGuf pdwfaomujzpf&rnf/ pef;yGifhrnf/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             31

Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013                                                                                                                      Puzzle&Classified




  Free Classified                                                                                                                                                                                                             t c rJh a Mu mf ji m u @
       Sa Ya Henry (B.E)                         wkdufcef;a&mif;rnf                          qkdifcef;iSm;rnf                 wif)yg0grDwm 2 vH;k ? BudK;zke;f 2 vH;k ?   &if;&Sif;wrf;rsm;? vcsKyf? ESpfcsKyf                 Dream Paradise(DP)
Maths, SAT-1&2,IGCSE,GCE O &            *rkef;yGifh? Dagon Center, City         204 bwfpfum;ajy;vrf;ay: bm                    taqmufttHk 2 vHk;? ajrzkdYNyD;?             t½IH;tjrwfpm&if;rsm;? vufusef                  yk*H? ykyÜm;? aejynfawmf c&D;pOf
A ocsFmrSm pdwfylp&mrvkd&atmif          Mart teD; ajreDukef;(5)vTmwdkuf         wmrSwfwkdif? ay(5_15)? tus,f                  tkwfwHwdkif;cwfNyD; ajrtus,f                &Sif;wrf; rsm;a&;qJGonf/                       (18.7.13) tdrfta&muf vuf
oifMum;ay;onf/                          cef; (HK),axmifhcef;? Hall Type?        avScg;cGif? rD;rDwm? xyfckd;tao;?             wpf{ucJG/                                         zkef;-09-31033755                        rSwftcrJh ykdY aqmifay;onf/
    zkef;-09-421013498                  cef;vHk;jynfh a<ujym;cif;NyD;/          wpfv ESpfaomif;usyf/                                zkef;-09-5409290                                  0efaqmifrI                                  zkef;- 01 651745
       Edu.Study Guide                        zkef;-09-421063224                         zkef;-09-73049543                              a&mif;^iSm;rnf                     ]xGef;opf}tdrf? NcH? ajrtusdK;aqmifvkyfief;         Dream Paradise(DP)
(rlvwef;rS tv,fwef;txd )Int'I                     ajruGufa&mif;rnf                        tdrfESihfNcHa&mif;rnf               TOWNACE (*syef)6u^----- vkyf                &Srf;jynfe,fawmifykdif; awmifBuD;              NrdKUwGif;NrdKUjyif um;rsdK;pHk pif;vHk;iSm;
School,Teaching & Guide tdrf            tuGuftrSwf(527)? Akdvfatmif             qdwfNidrf&yfuGuf vHk;csif;wdkufESihf          ief;vkdifpifygonf/                          NrdKUESifh ausmufwvH;k vrf;ab;wpf              &ef&dSonf/ ,mOfydkif&Sifrsm;vnf;
ta&mufoifMum;ay;ygonf/                  ausmfvrf; (AdkvfcsKyfvrf;ESihf v,f      ajryg0if? ta&SUBudKUukef;? (5)vrf;                 zkef;-09-420031923                     0kduf tdrf? NcH? ajr a&mif;0,fvkdvQif          qufoG,fEkdifonf/
          zkef;-09-5412613              orm;vrff;axmifh)? tjyify'H? vIdif       ajrmuf? aps;eD;? bk&m;eD;? bkef;BuD;                        a&mif;rnf                     qufoG,fEkdifygonf/                                       zkef;- 09 73043408
           oifMum;ay;onf                om ,m? ay(40_60)? ygrpf&NyD;/           ausmif ; eD ; onf / ES p f x yf w k d u f ?   av;vom; uRef ; ysd K ;yif 387?                       zkef;-09-428372307                                      oifwef;
rlvwef;? tv,fwef;bmompHk                (207 odef;)                             Master Bed Room (3)cef;yg0if?                 qDtkef;vrf;? r^'*Hk/                                    q&marmifarmif                      EkdifiHwumtqifhrD a&cJrkefYtrsdK;
      f dk f
tdrvuoifonf/ urm&Gw?f vdif         I          zkef;-09-420032086                {nh f c ef ; (2)cef ; ? um;yguif y g&S d           zkef;-09-420023793                     wuúokdvf0ifwef; t*Fvdyfpmukd                   rsKd ;? udwre?Yf aygifreEihf acwfay:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      f k       k Yf S
NrdKUe,f? prf;acsmif;? Munfhjrifwkdif               tddrfa&mif;rnf              onf/                                                        a&mif;rnf                     Assignment pHkvifxl;jcm;pGmjzihf               pm;p&mrsm;tm; ukd,fwkdifxkwf
NrdKUe,ftwGif;/                         a&? rD;pHk? ESpfxyf BM ? ESpf 60 *&ef             zkef;-09-5417658                    4p 2008 Suzuki swift.manual                 trSwf aumif;aumif;&ap&ef oif                   vkyf qkdifzGifha&mif;csEkdifonftxd
        zkef;-09-31284993               udk,fwkdifa&mif;rnf/ odef; 1200?                        a&mif;rnf                     gear.alloy.skat eufjyma&mif 111             onf/ trSwf-36?138 vrf;? wm                     oifMum; ay;ygonf/
           oifMum;ay;onf                ay 40_60? ajrmuf'*H?k 33 &yfuu/   G f   ajrmuf'*Hk (44)&yfuGuf? a&Tpif                odef;/                                      arG NrKd Ue,f/ zke;f -09-421073145                       zkef;-09-5047314
5 wef;rS 10 wef;txd Teaching            zkef;-09-43055025                       vrf;? bk&ifhaemifausmuyf? Axl;                        zkef;-09-5062674                                Study Guide                          q&mrif;oka`E´(ref;wuúokdvf)
and Guide tdrta&mufoifMum;
                   f                                   a&mif;rnf                vrf;r BuD;ESihfeD;? ay(20_60)? ajr                   tcsdefykdif;pm&if;ukdif                          d     Yd
                                                                                                                                                                          8? 9 wef; 0ki;f (ok) Guide oifMum;             uav;trnfay;? vkyfief;trnf
ay;onf/ zkef;-09-43202014               r^'*Hk(14) &yfuGuf? qvHk'l;0g;          uGufoD;oefYa&mif;rnf/                         vlBuD;rif;wkdYvkyfief;rsm;\ pm&if;          onf/ 10 wef; Bio, Eng txl;oif                  0efaqmifrIay;onf/ i,f&G,fol
          q&maemifxG#f&Sdef             vrf ; ? ausmuyf (ay 80_ 60)                   zkef;-09-448008076                                          f f
                                                                                                                              rsm;tm; vcsKy?f ESpcsKyt½I;H tjrwf          Mum;onf/ trSwfaumif;&ef tm                     wkdY\ vufwGJazmfwdkY yHk&dyfukd azmf
(Study Guide for Grade 10 &11 )         axmifhuGufNcHpnf;½dk;cwfNyD;?                              iSm;rnf                    pm&if;rsm;tm; vkyfouf(8)ESpf                rcH o nf / Teacher Su B.C.Sc                   xkwfay;onf/
wpfbmomcsif;(odkYr[kwf) bm              odef; (600)(nd§EIdif;)                  ok0PÖ oGm;aq;wuúokdvfteD;                     &dSolrS wm0ef,laqmif&Guf ay;                (Hons:),                                                 zkef;-09-73234624
ompHk uRrf;usifykdifEkdifap&ef tdrf              zkef;-09-5181409               wkdufcef;opf iSm;&ef&dSonf/                   onf/                                                 Ph: 09-49753989                                   vrf;ñTefay;rnf
wkdif&ma&muf avhusifoifMum;                   qkdifcef;^½Hk;cef;iSm;rnf         ausmif;olrsm;om oD;oefim;rnf/  Y S                   zkef; -09-73090483                      {w'*f ynma&;0efaqmifrI                      0ufNcHjzpfay:aeaom rsufESmt
ay;onf/ zkef;-09-421140477              ay(13_55)? (ajrnDxyf)? jynfvrf;                  zkef;-09-73038810                                  0efaqmifrI                                                f dk
                                                                                                                                                                          8? 9? 10 ?11 wef; bmompHktdrvuf                wGuf"mwkaA'aq;0g; r[kwaom            f
   oifMum;ay;onf(a&TbkdNrdKU)           ay:? vSnf;wef;vrf;qHk/ txl;jyif                         a&mif;rnf                     Myanmar Escapade Travel & Tours             oif o nf / (q&mr a':eD v m                                       f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         obm0xGuypön;f jzihfaysmufuif;
ajcmufomom*kPx;l & q&meE´rS
                       f                                 G
                                        qifNy;D ? tJue;f ygonf/ wpfv (&Spf      &efueNf rKd UESihf rdif 90 twGi;f ? &efuef
                                                                                       k             k                  k     "r®c&D;pOf(Holy      Land)     tpöa&;       atmif OD;pD;onf)                               atmif vrf;ñTefay;rnf/ OD;ol&d
10 wef; bmompHk Guide vkyfay;           odef;)nd§EIdif;/                        -aejynfawmftjrefvrf;eHab;?                    (Nov ember 2013) c&D;pOfwGif                       zkef;-09-401540981                      ,vGif - zkef;-09-43043203
onf/ English 0kdif;oifonf/              zkef;-09-43083781                       100ay ywfvnf ajrwpfuGuf                       vkdufygvkdolrsm; ukd Myanmar                                 PSGG                                   MK B&B Co.,Ltd.
      zkef;-09-400425783                                   iSm;rnf              a&mif;&ef&dSonf/ (a&mif;aps;- 15              Escapade Travel & Tours rS                  Professional Study Guide Group                 pufBuD;jzifh xkwfvkyfaom t&nf
        wkdufcef;a&mif;rnf              wmarG? arwåmñGefY? ay 15_50?            odef;)                                        0efaqmifrIay;vsuf&dSonf/                    wpfOD;csif; (odkY) 0dkif; txl;oD;oefY          taoG;jrihf uGefu&pftkwfrsm;ukd
wkduf-10? tcef;-102? at;&dyf            ajrnDxyf? tdyfcef;wpfcef;yg? ESpf             zkef;-09-420747602                             zkef;- 01 660562                     tdrfwdkif&ma&muf txl;tmrcH                     aps;EIef;oufompGmjzihf vufvD
rGef- 4vrf;? vIdifNrdKUe,f/ 319 odef;   odef;usyf/                                              a&mif;rnf                           tcsdefykdif;pm&if;ukdif               oif Mum;ay;aeygNyD/                            vufum;a&mif;csay;aeygNyD/
           zkef;-01-536279                          zkef;-09-5188160            vdIifom,m Zkef 5 (vrf;rBuD;ar;                rSefuefwdusNyD;? jynfhpHkaom aiGpm                 zkef;-01-222267                               zkef;-09-73192187
32

Article                                                                                                                                                                                     Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013


       f S
  pmrsuEm(24) rS

   d                       G f I               k     d f f
 wki;f &if;om; pnf;vk;H nDñwrukd tpOfjrifawGUvdaom AkvcsKyatmifqef;
                                                                                                                                                                                           tcsdefr&dSol
         eef;wGif; ta&;awmfyHk                onf Ekii\ ta&;BuD;qH;k aom
                                                        d f H                            um ppfynmrsm;udk tyifyef;cH?                      AdkvfcsKyfonf wyfrawmf
aMumifh jrifuGef;ESifh jrif;cHkwkdif          y"meaomhcsufjzpfonf/ rjzpf                 tqif;&JcHvsuf cJ&mcJqpf oif                             d
                                                                                                                                    twGi;f wki;f &if;om;tcsi;f csi;f    txl;ukq&m0efwpfOD;vrf;ul;aepOfarSmf0ifzm;i,fav;
rif;om;wkdY ykefuef&m tdrfa&SU                rae wnfaqmuftyfaom vdk                     Mum;ae,lMuonfh tjrKawtm                    awGUqHk&if;ESD;cGifh&í pnf;vHk;nD                         dk S
                                                                                                                                                                        wpfaumifu ,ckvvr;f atmfonf/ ]]rif;igukd erf;vku&if      d f
pH uaemifrif;om; usqHk;cJh&                   tyfcsufvnf;jzpfonf/                        Zmenf &JabmfoHk;usdyfwkdYudk               ñGwfMuonfudk rsm;pGmvdkvm;          igu vSvSyy rif;orD;av;jzpfoGm;vdrfhr,f}}[lí/
onf/                                                      l l k
                                              -jynfovx\ pnf;vH;k nDñwf             G     pnf;vHk;ñGwfpdrfhaomiSm-                   onf/                                       q&m0efu zm;av;ukd aumufvkdufNyD; tdwfuyfxJ
        oDaygrif; tmPm&a&;                    rI pGr;f tm;jzifh trsm;wumu cHh                 ]]&JabmfoHk;usdyfwkdY[mEkdifiH                ESpfaxmif;tm;&í aus         xnfhxm;vkdufonf/ zm;av;uajymjyefonf/ ]]rif;ighukd
twGuf tEG,fawmf 40 ausmf                      nm;av;pm;tHaom pwkwj¬ ref
                                                                 h                       a&;tzGJUwpfzGJUwnf; r[kwfbJ                      S f      I      d
                                                                                                                                    eyfEpoufrvnf;&Sonf/ ,if;            erf;vkduf&if ig[m vSywJh rif;orD;av;jyefjzpfoGm;NyD; rif;
udk tmPmyg;uGuom;vufoYkd
                       f                      rmEkdifiHawmfudk rkcsraoG wnf              ocif*dkPf;BuD; ESpfckjzpfw,f/              tcsufESifh ywfoufí 1944             eJYtwl wpfywfaeay;r,f}}q&m0efu NyHK;íomaeonf/
0uGuftyfcJhonf/ EGm;uGJusm;                   axmifEkdifayrnf/                           tem*wfvGwfvyfa&; wkdufyGJ                  ckESpf *syefacwf vGwfvyfa&;         okdYjzifhzm;av;u ]]rif;ighukd erf;vkdY rif;orD;av;jyefjzpfoGm;
udkuf cdkuf&efjzpfyGm; pdwf0rf;                       trsK;d om;acgif;aqmifBu;D          rSm 'DoHk;usdyfnDñGwfzdkYvdkw,f/           aeYwGif-                            &if rif;cdkif;orQigvkyfay;r,f}}[kxyfajymonf/ þwGif
uGJjym;í tcsif;rsm;aeMujcif;                  AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf þ                   'grS vli,frsm;jzpfwhJ ocif*P;fkd                  ]]tJ'D tiftm;vufeuf&Sd       q&m0efu zm;av;ukd xkwMf unfNh y;D &Te;f &Te;f pm;pm;Munfumh
onf om;aumif u d k tvpf                       odkYjrifonf/þodkY,lqonf/                   ESpf *dkPf;vHk;nDñGwfr,f/ 'grS             wefoavmuf&SdwJh ppfwyf[m            tdwfuyfxJ jyefYxnfhvkdufjyefonf/ zm;av;rSm tm;rvkd
acsmif ; aeaom usm;twG u f                    þodYk r&raewnfaqmufcay            hJ       vlrsm;pkudkudk,fpm;jyKr,fh vl              vnf; jynfolYppfwyfvdkY ac:          tm;r&jzpfoGm;NyD; ]]bmjzpfwmvJ? ig[macsmarmvSywJh
tuGufaumif;jzpfcJhonf/ odkY                   onf/                                       awG wu,ftvkyfvkyfMur,fh                      d f
                                                                                                                                    EkiwhJ ppfwyfygyJ/ a&S;uvdk aMu;                        G                  Y
                                                                                                                                                                        rif;orD;av; jzpfom;rSmav/ rif;eJvnf; wpfvaer,f/ rif;
                                                       udkvdkeD pepfqkd;udk &GHrkef;     vli,fawG nDñGwfr,f/ 'grS                   pm; wyfoabmrsKd;r[kwfbl;/           ckdif;orQvnf; vkyfay;r,fav}}[k qkdjyef&m txl;ukq&m
ESifh e,fcsJUt*Fvdyf\ udkvdkeD
                                                                                         vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyGJ[m cdkifrm               'gwGifvm;qkd&if r[kwfao;yg                                                   G
                                                                                                                                                                        0efu ]]igu txl;uk q&m0efu/ &nf;pm;twGuf tcsef               d
EkdifiH b0odkY usqif;cJh&onf/                 vsuf&Sdaom jrefrmrsKd;cspf vl
                                                                                                                                                                        r&dSbl;/ pum;ajymwwfwJh zm;av;u ydkaumif;w,f}}[k
xD;okOf;eef;okOf;? NrdKUokOf; okn?            i,fwpfpkonf ESpfaygif; 100                 awmifhwif;r,f}} [lí tcsif;                 bl;/
                                                                                                                                                                        jyefajymvkdufonf/
okOf;oHk;0acwfESifh &ifqkdifcJh&              cefq;kH ½I;H cJaom vGwvyfa&;udk
                                                   Y         h          f                csif; aoG;pnf;nDñGwfa&;udk                         uRefawmfwkdY a&S;wkef;u
onf/                                          t&,lrnf[k oEéd|mefjyKvsuf                  tm;ay;rdefYMum;cJhonf/                     wkdif;&if;om;pkjzpfMuwJh Arm?
        vl r I a &;wG i f pG u f z uf c G J   NAwoQtmPmydirsm;\ rsupd
                                                 d d               k f               f           &JabmfoHk;usdyfudk trSL;jyK        &Srf;? u&if? csif;? ucsiftp&Sd                    t½l;,mOfarmif;
jcm;? pD;yGm;a&;wGif aoG;pkyft                atmufu taysmufcHí *syef                    í 1941 ckESpf 'DZifbm 26 &uf               wJh trsKd;om;rsm;[m wpfOD;eJY
jrwfxw?f tkycsKya&;wGif zdEyf
         k         f f                dS        d f H          f
                                              EkiioYkd wdwwqdwom;a&muf f G               wGif zGJUpnf;cJhaom ArmhvGwf               wpfOD; awGUqHk&if;ESD;aygif;oif;    trsdK;om;BuD;wpfOD; e,fbufokdY um;armif;xGufoGm;&m Z
n§Of;yef;vsuf vGwfvyfa&;qHk;                  cJhavonf/ pwif pDpOfolrSm                  vyfa&;wyfrawmfonf av;v                               H        hf
                                                                                                                                    qufqzYdk tcGitvrf;odyr&cJh  f       eD;jzpfolu zkef;vSrf;qufonf/ z&ufa&? um;armif;wm
½IH;ap½HkrQru vlrsKd;yg ysufokOf;             jrefrmhvwvyfa&;acgif; aqmif
                                                           G f                           ausmfausmf umvtwGif; jref                  Mubl;/ tckwmh 'DtcGifhtvrf;         owdxm;aemf/ &SifoGm;aewJh vrf;ay:rSm t½l;wpfa,muf
í tñGefYwHk;atmif ESdyfpufu                   BuD; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; (ac:)             rmEkdifiHwpf0ef;vHk;udk odrf;ydkuf                          D
                                                                                                                                    awG &vmMuNy/ 'D[m tifr wef                                            kd
                                                                                                                                                                        um;avQmufarmif;aew,fvYdk a&'D,uaMunmoGm;w,f}}
vljyKrlcJhaom e,fcsJU\'Pfudk                  AdkvfawZyifjzpfonf/                        EkdifcJhonf/ ,if;wyfrawmfudk               tzkd;wefwJh tcsufwpfcsuf yJ}}       [kqkd&m rpöwmz&ufu ]]pdwfrylygeJYuGm/ vrf;ay:rSm t½l;
jynfolwpf&yfvHk; cg;pnf;í cH                           vGwfvyfa&;twGuf t                 ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmf t                    [lí wyfrawmf\ *kPfudk t             wpfa,mufwnf;rubl;/ t½l;,mOfarmif;awG &meJYcsDNyD;
cJh&onf/                                      oufqHzsm; pGefYpm;oGm;a&muf                jzpf ajymif;vJzGJUpnf;cJhonf/              rTrf;wifum rdefYMum;cJhonf/         &dSaew,f}}[k jyefajymygonf/
       jrefrmhordkif;trSefudk a0
zefoHk;oyfrdonf/
                                                     f S
                                                pmrsuEm(26) rS
     d f H S
-EkiiEihf vlrsK;d twGuf wefz;kd t
xm;qH;k trGejf rwfq;kH onfum;
vGwfvyfa&;omjzpfonf/
                                                'ge&Sifrsm; cifAs
-vGwfvyfa&;udk jynfwGif;\
pnf;vHk;nDñGwfrI tiftm;jzifh                          &mZN*dK[fjynfteD; v,f              aom t&if;&Sif c½dkeDrsm;onf
om &,lEdkifayonf/                             orm;&GmBuD;ü olqif;&J v,fol                or® m tmZD 0 r[k w f o nf r sm;
-jynfwi;f ü pnf;vH;k nDñwa&;
             G             G f                rav;wpfa,mufonf oav;                       jzifh ae&mwumwGif vSL'gef;rI
        JG
NyKd utm;enf;vQium; EkiijH cm;
                    f     d f                 pyg;wdkYudk aygufaygufazmuf                rsm; jyKvkyfaeMuonf/ olwdkY\
rS ya,m*rsm; xdk;azmufaESmifh                 NyD; qif;&JpGmpm;aomufae&&Sm               tvS L onf rD ' D , m rsKd ; pH k w G i f
                                              onf/                                       awmh 'gejzpfaejyef\/ bkef;
,Sufvmonf/ aoG;xkd;ajr§muf
                                                      eda&m"ormywfrS xvm                 BuD;qGr;f cH<uvmvQif qGr;f av;
yifhay;í vGwfvyfa&;qHk;½IH;ap
                                                        l
                                              awmfronfh t&Sir[muóyf                      wpfcGufom avmif;Edkifonfh
Ekdifonf/ pD;yGm;a&;u rckdifrm
                                              rax&fjrwfBuD;onf olqif;&J                  qif ; &J o m; eif ; jym;b0jzif h
b@maiGvnf; avsmhyg;apEkdif
                                              v,folrav;xH qGrf;cH0ifvm                   rw&m; v,f a jrtod r f ; cH &
onf/
                                                              l
                                              &m v,forav;u rdrü&Sonfhd d                 onfh awmifolv,form;rsm;
- uspfvspfodyfonf;í pnf;
                                              aygufaygufrsm;udk avmif;vSL                udkawmh tMurf;zuform;[k
vHk; nDñGwfrIjynfh0aom EkdifiH                    k f
                                              vduavonf/ rajymyavmuf                      orkwjf yefonf/ rMumcifuyif
awmfonf wnfNidrfpGm MoZmc                     onfhukodkvfaumif;rIaMumifh                 oDw*lq&mawmfBuD;rS trsKd;
anmif ; onf / t&S d e f t 0gBuD ;                         f
                                              aovGeaomtcg ewfjynfwif        G            bmom omoem apmifh½Hkru
rm;onf/ EkdifiH\ pD;yGm;a&;udk                vmZma'0D (aygufaygufyef;                   EdkifiH ygapmifhEkdif&efvdkaMumif;
BuD;xGm;atmif aqmif&GufEkdif                  ewforD;) [k trnfwGifa v                    Mo0g'uxm csD;jr§ifhawmfrlcJh
pGrf;&Sdonf/ EkdifiH\ u@onf                   onf/                                       ygonf/
vnf; cdkifrmawmifhwif;apEdkif                         pma&;oltygt0if jrefrm                      uREfkyfwdk YAk'¨bmom0if
onf/ ,if;EkdifiHudk EdkifiHwum                              ¨
                                              vlrsK;d Ak'bmom0iftawmfrsm;                olawmfpif taygif;taeESifh
u av;pm;onf/ cHhnm;onf/                       rsm;rSm avmbBuD;onf[kqdk&                               f     dS
                                                                                         vnf; *kP&nf&aom Oygoum
- pnf;vHk; nDñGwfjcif;jzifhom                                            S
                                              rnfjzpfonf/ 'geavmufEihf yif               aumif; wpfa,mufjzpfEkdif&ef
vQif trsKd;om;umuG,fa&;udk                    edAÁmefr*fzdkvfodkY a&mufcsifMu            0gwGi;f umvtwGi;f 'geESi,Of      hf S
xda&mufpGm xdef;odrf;apmifh                   \/ ppftpkd;&ESifh yl;aygif;um              wGJaom oDvwdkYudkapmifhxdef;
a&SmufEdkifonf/                               v,fajr? NcHajrrsm;udk rw&m;                EdkifMuygapaMumif; qE´jyK&yg
-odkYjzpf&m pnf;vHk;nDñGwfjcif;               odrf;,lMuNyD; tjrwfxkwfoGm;                onf/           /
                                                                                                                Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2010
                                                                                                               Vol.9, No.29  OCtObeR 7,2013



opfcdk;ckwfrIumuG,fwm;qD;Edkifa&;
opfawmvHkNcHKa&;wyfzJGU
wkd;csJU zJGUpnf;rnf
tdjzLrGe?f &efrsK;d Edif    k                          Y T f
                                                   olvwawmfü ajzMum;cJonf/            h
                     k
          &efue?f Zlvi-18         kd f                    w&m;r0ifopfc;kd ckwrrsm;      f I
opfc;kd ckwrI wpfEpxufwpfEpf
             f                  S f            S   udk tpdk;&u zrf;qD;&mwGif
zrf;qD;&rIrsm;aeaom jrefrmEdif               k     2011 rS 2013 ckEptwGi;f uRe;fS f
iHwGif w&m;r0ifopfckd;ckwfrI                                                  d
                                                   ESifh opfrmwefcsef ckepfaomif;
rsm;udk umuG,fwm;qD;&eft                           cefY zrf;qD;&rdconf/  hJ
wGuf jynfxJa&;0efBuD;XmeESihf                             jynfy tzJGUtpnf;rsm;rS
yl;aygif;NyD; opfawmvHkNcHKa&;                     aumuf,laom pm&if;rsm;t&
wyf z J G U wd k ; csJ U zG J U pnf ; rnf j zpf              f kd f H
                                                   w½kwEiiwpfcwnf;odYk w&m; k
aMumif; ywf0ef;usifxdef;odrf;                      r0if opfwifydkYrIonf wpfESpf
a&;ESihf opfawma&;&m0efBuD;                                         d
                                                   vQif wefcsef wpfoe;f cef&onf     d Y dS
XmerS owif;&&Sonf/            d                    [k cefYrSef;xm;onf/ tpdk;&\                     w½kwfodkY w&m;r0ifwifydkYrnf opfvkH;wifum;wpfpD;udk ucsifjynfe,fwpfae&mwGif awGU&pOf                                                               "mwfyHk-tm;rmef
      ]]jynfxa&;0efBu;D Xme jref
                          J                                           f G
                                                   xkwjf yefcsuwif tpd;k & zrf;qD;
rmEdkifiH&JwyfzJGUu opfawmvHk                        k f I S           S f
                                                   Edirrm wpfEpvQif wefcseEpf              d f S   rdrI wpfEpxufwpfEpf rsm;jym;
                                                                                                              S f          S              aMumih f zrf ; qD ; &ef cuf c J a e       awmif;qdkxm;onhftjyif opf                    rlvvsmxm;csufatmuf uRef;
NcHKa&;wyfzJGUudk wdk;csJUzGJpnf;NyD;              aomif;ausmfrQ&SdaomaMumihf                      aeonf/ w&m;r0ifopfc;dk xkwf            aMumif; 0efBuD;Xme wm0ef&ol     dS                               kd
                                                                                                                                                                                    vH;k wifyYkd rI&yfqi;f rnhf 2013-                          k f I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 opf 17 &mcdiEe;f ? opfrm 20 &m
vmr,hfb@mESpfrSm taumif                            cefYrSef;xm;onfxuf enf;yg;                      rIrsm;udk zrf;qD;&mwGif 2012 ck        wpfO;D u ajymonf/                         2014 b@ma&;ESpfwGif vHkNcHK                  ckdifEIef;atmuf avQmhxkwfrnf
txnfazmfaqmif&GufoGm;rSm                           aeonf/                                          ESpfaemufydkif;wGif ucsifjynf                                      f I
                                                                                                                                                  w&m;r0if opfc;kd ckwrrsm;         a&;wd;k csUJ zGUJ pnf;&ef pDpOfaejcif;       jzpfNyD; 2013-2014 ckESpfwGif
jzpfygw,f}} [k ywf0ef;usixe;f            f d              trsKd;om;opfawmpDrHcefY                  e,fEifh e,ferwjf cif; xdpyfae
                                                                                                         S           d d                  t"du0,f,laeonhf w½kwf                     jzpfonf/                                     uRef;opf 41 &mcdkifEIef;ESihfopf
odr;f a&;ESihf opfawma&;&m 0ef                     cJGrI ESpfoHk;q,ftpD&ifcHpmwGif                                kd k
                                                                                                   onhf ppfui;f wdi;f a'oBu;D wGif        EdkifiH ,leefjynfrS ukefonfBuD;                 wpfzufu opfv;kH wifyrI           Ykd   rm 48 &mcdiEe;f avQmxwrnf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             k f I    h k f
                   d
Bu;D Xme 'kw,0efBu;D OD;at;jrihf                   q,fig;ESpfausmftwGif; w&m;                      trsm;qHk;zrf;qD;&rdNyD; ucsif          rsm;tm; xd e f ; csKyf ay;&ef 0ef                                            h
                                                                                                                                                                                    rsm;ESifh vHNk cKH a&;wd;k csUJ rnftjyif     jzpfonf/
armifu Zlvif 18 &ufwif jynf
                       kd              G           r0ifopfcdk;ckwfrIrsm; zrf;qD;&                  jynfe,fukd vHNk cKH a&;tajctae         BuD ; Xmeu w½kwftpdk;&tm;                 2012-2013 b@ma&;ESpwif               f G



  jrpf0uRef;ay:a'orsm; ZlvkdifaemufqkH;ywftwGif; a&BuD;rItEÅ&m,ftxl; owdjyK&efvkd
atmifopfvGif                                                      f
                                                   awmifw½kwyifvnfwivnf;     G f                   vkH;tESHY rkd;aumif;r,fh umv           avzdtm;enf; csKdifh0Srf;onf               csufrsm;t& b*Fvm;yifv,f                      &DESifh ppfukdif;wkdif;a'oBuD;t
        &efukef? Zlvdkif-18                           f dk
                                                   rkewi;f wpfv;Hk xyfrjH zpfay:ae                                d f
                                                                                                   wpfcjk zpfvmEkiw,f/jrpf0uRe;f          jrefrmEkdifiHajrmufykdif;ukd jzwf         atmfajrmufykdif;wGif avzdtm;                 xufydkif;? rGefjynfe,fwkdYwGif rkd;
Zlvkdif 23rS25&uftwGif; wpf                        aomaMumifh Zlvkdifvwwd,                         ay: a'ou rk;d aumif;aewmqkd            oef;aeaomaMumifh rdk;ykdrkd&Gm            enf;&yf0ef;wpfBudrf jzpfay:                  ykdrkd&GmoGef;EkdifNyD; jrpfa&BuD;jcif;
EkdifiHvkH;tESHY rkd;aumif;pGm &Gm                         S
                                                   ywfEihf aemufq;Hk &ufowåywf                     awmh xyfNy;D &Gmr,fr;dk eJqdk a&zk;H
                                                                                                                         h Y              oGe;f jcif;jzpfaMumif; tar&duef           EkdifNyD; uyÜvDyifv,fjyifESifh               owif;taejzifh {&m0wDjrpfEihf        S
oGef;EkdifNyD; jrpf0uRef;ay:a'o                    wGif jrefrmEkdifiHatmufykdif;a'                         d f
                                                                                                   vTr;f EkiwhJ tEÅ&m,fyrsm;w,f}}
                                                                                                                           dk             trsK;d om; tmumpo at*sipD          f      b*Fvm;yifv,f atmfwkdYwGif                    csi;f wGi;f jrpfwYdk jzwfoef;pD;qif;
rsm;wGif a&Bu;D rItEÅ&m,ftxl;                      orsm;omru tv,fykdif;ESifh                       [k ajymonf/                            (NASA)\ wkdif;xGmcsufrsm;ukd              rkwfokHav tm;aumif;ae                        &m NrKUd e,frsm;wGif vuf&a&rSwf  dS
owdxm;&efvkdtyfaMumif; rkd;                                  kd
                                                   ajrmufyi;f a'orsm;ygrk;d aumif;                                     f
                                                                                                          awmifw½kwyifv,fwif          G   uk;d um;í a'gufwmxGe;f vGiu      f        aMumif; xkwfjyefxm;onf/                                     h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 rsm;xuf jrifwufvmEkiaMumif;  d f
                     f
av0oynm&Sia'gufwmxGe;f                             pGm &GmoGef;EkdifaMumif; a'guf                  ,ckESpftwGif; udk;vkH;ajrmuf           ¤if;\ azhpbwcpmrsuEmwGif
                                                                                                                                                        f G f f        f S                    Yd
                                                                                                                                                                                           xktjyif {&m0wD? weoFm                 owif;xkwfjyefxm;onf/
vGifuajymonf/                                                   f     Y S
                                                   wmxGe;f vGiu cefre;f xm;onf/                    rkefwkdif;jzpfaom 94W rkefwkdif;       &Sif;vif;wifjyxm;onf/
       b*Fvm;yifv,fatmfwif      G                                       f
                                                   a'gufwmxGe;f vGiu]]Zlvif 23   dk                wkucwfaeonf/ ,if;rkewi;f
                                                                                                      d f                        f dk                               dk
                                                                                                                                                 rk;d ^ZvXme\ Zlvif wwd
rkwfokHav tm;aumif;aeNyD;                          uae 25&ufawGu wpfEkdifiH                        \ tusKd;quftjzpf rkwfokH               , 10 &ufywftwGuf ceYfrSef;



o,HZmw xkwfvkyfrIESihf obm0ywf0ef;usif pDrHcefYcJGrIwGif vdktyfcsufrsm;&Sd
tdjzLrGef? cdkifcdkifpdk;                          wG i f t"d u vd k t yf c suf r sm;&S d          ESD;jr§KyfESHrItopfrsm; &yfqdkif;      onf Ny;D pD;vke;D jzpfaeNy;D ? urf;½d;k
           &efukef? Zlvdkif-18                     aMumif; ,if;xkwfjyefcsufwGif                    xm;oih f a Mumif ; ,if ; uqd k         wef;obm0"mwfaiGUvkyfuGuf
jrefrmho,HZmwxkwfvkyfrIESihf                       azmfjyxm;onf/                                   onf/                                   30 udk EdkifiHjcm;ukrÜPDrsm;udk
obm0ywf0ef;usif pDrHcefYcJGrI                             ]]tpdk;&taeeJY owif;t                               Yk              f kd f kd
                                                                                                           xdtjyif a&T*ufpyuvi;f          vkyfydkifcGifhjyKOD;rnfjzpfaMumif;
udk topfjyKjyif&ef vdktyfcsuf                      csuftvuf xkwfazmfwifjywJh                            H d
                                                                                                   pDrue;f wGif a'ocHrsm;twGuf            od&onf/
oH;k ck&aMumif; a&Tobm0 "mwf
        dS                                         tydkif;awG&,f? tpD&ifcHpmawG                    tusKd ; tjrwf x nh f o G i f ; xm;            a&Tobm0"mwfaiGUvIyf
aiG U vI y f & S m ;rI t zJ G U u owif ;           &,f? obm0ywf0ef;usieYJ ywf      f               jcif; r&Sdjcif; t"r®vkyftm;ckdif;      &S m ;rI t zJ G U u jref r mh o bm0
xkwfjyefonf/                                       ouf w m&,f u d k xd x d a &muf                  apjcif;? v,fajrrsm; odr;f qnf;         o,HZmw xkwfvkyfrI vkyfief;
       a&Tobm0"mwfaiGUydkuf                        a&mufvkyfudkifwmawGrSm EkdifiH                  jcif;ponhf vlYtcGifhta&; csKd;         rsm;ESifh aumif; rGefonfh tpdk;&
vdkif;ESihfywfoufí ,if;tzJGUrS                     u tif r wef E S d r f h c swJ h tqif h                        I        d
                                                                                                   azmufrrsm;vnf; &SaeaMumif;             tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf? jrefrmEdkifiH
okawoejyKvkyfcJh&m obm0                            a&mufaew,f}} [k ,if;tzJGUrS                     Equality Myanmar rS 'g½dkuf            wnfqJOya'rsm;\ tm;enf;
ywf0ef;usif xde;f odr;f a&;? vlt    Y              udk0if;atmifu ajymonf/                          wm OD ; atmif r sKd ; rif ; u ajym     csuf jyóemrsm;trnf j zih f
cGifhta&;? yGifhvif;jrifomrIESihf                         xdkodkY vdktyfcsufrsm; jyif              Mum;onf/                               tpD&ifcHpmwpfapmifudk Zlvdkif
obm0o,HZmw pDrHcefYcJGrI                                   I
                                                   qifrrNy;D pD;rDumvtwGi;f &if;                           a&T*ufpfydkufvdkif;pDrHudef;   u xkwfjyefcJhonf/
                                                                                                   Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2010
                                                                                                  Vol.9, No.29  OCtObeR 7,2013


0efaqmifcEIef;rwnfNidrfjcif;u c&D;oGm;vkyfief;wGif &if;ESD;jr§KyfESH&ef tcuftcJjzpf[kqkd
aevif;xGe;f                                  a&;0efBuD;u ajymonf/                        ]]*smreDEkdifiH[m c&D;oGm;zkdY         aps;EIef;awGu ½kwfw&ufjrifh           a&;0efBuD;u jrefrmEkdifiHtae                            G
                                                                                                                                                                                                               oufjyefoi;f ay;zkYd wpfa,muf
               k
      &efue?f Zlvi-16 dk f                                   k d f
                                                     *smreD'-EkiijH cm;a&;0efBu;D   t&rf;pdwf0ifpm;wJhEkdifiHjzpfyg             wufoGm;wmyg/ tJ'DtwGuf pD             jzifh ,Ofaus;rItarGtESpfrsm;             wnf;aqmuf&uwmr[kwbJ   G f             f
jrefrmEkdifiH\ c&D;oGm;vkyfief;              \ c&D;pOfwGif *smreDc&D;oGm;           w,f/ c&D;oGm;vkyfief;udk pDpOf              pOf&wmtcuftcJ&Sdygw,f/                udk xdef;odrf;jcif;jyefvnfazmf                         k dk
                                                                                                                                                                                                               ,leufpudvtzGUJ tpnf;awGeYJ
wGif &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrIrsm;wkd;jr§ifh       at*sifpDokH;ckrS wm0ef&Sdolrsm;        aqmif&GufwJhae&mrSm tv,f                    aps;EIef;awG wnfNidrfaer,fqkd                           Yd
                                                                                                                                                                      xkwjf cif;wktwGuf Ekiiwumd f H           yl ; aygif ; aqmif & G u f z k d Y jzpf y g
aqmif&Guf&ef pdwf0ifpm;rI&Sd                     d f
                                             vkuygvmcJNh y;D jrefrmEkiiEihf c
                                                                        d f H S     tvwfwef;pm;c&D;oGm;awGt                     &if &if;ESD;jr§KyfESH&wm ydkrkdtqif   ESihf yl;aygif;aqmif&urjI riwif
                                                                                                                                                                                             G f § hf          w,f}}[k txufygyk*¾Kdvfu
aomfvnf; 0efaqmifrIaps;EIef;                 &D;oGm;0efaqmifrIvkyfief;rsm;          wGuf tcGifhtvrf;ay;Ekdif&ifykd              ajyrSmjzpfygw,f}}[k ¤if;uqkd          oGm;&ef wkdufwGef;cJhonf/                ajymonf/
rwnfNirru tcuftcJjzpfae
         d f I                                      § hf k f dk f G
                                             wk;d jrivyuiom;&ef tpDtpOf             aumif;ygw,f/ tcuftcJwpf                     onf/                                          ]]tckajymwJh pum;u EkiiH   d f         *smreDEiirS HannsSeidel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                dk f H
aMumif; *smreD'kwd,EkkdifiHjcm;              rsm;&SdaMumif; owif;&&Sdonf/                       d f H
                                                                                    cku jrefrmEkiiudk vmr,fq&if  dk                  xkdYtjyif *smreD'kEkdifiHjcm;                    d
                                                                                                                                                                      wumtoki;f t0ki;f &JU uk,pm;
                                                                                                                                                                                           d         d f       azmifa';&Sif;onf jrefrmhc&D;
                                                                                                                                                                      ajymw,f v k d Y rS w f , l a pvk d y g   oGm;vkyfief;zGHUNzKd;a&;twGuf
                                                                                                                                                                      w,f/ jrefrmEkdifiHu wu,fhudk             rGef? u,m;ESifh &Srf;jynfe,fwkdYü
                                                                                                                                                                      xl; jcm;wJh Ekiiwpfcjk zpfygw,f/
                                                                                                                                                                                     d f H                     pufwifbmvtwGif; c&D;oGm;
                                                                                                                                                                      jrefrmEkdifiHrSm&SdwJh ,Ofaus;rI         0efaqmifrItvkyf½kHaqG;aEG;yGJ
                                                                                                                                                                      awGudkaus;Zl;jyKNyD; xdef;odrf;          rsm;jyKvkyf&ef pDpOfxm;aMumif;
                                                                                                                                                                      ay;zkYd wcsKUd ,Ofaus;rIawGukd t         owif;&&dSonf


                                                                                                                                                                      [dkw,frsm; tenf;qHk;Mu,foHk;yGifh
                                                                                                                                                                      tqihf&Sdapvdk[k 0efBuD;ajym
                                                                                                                                                                      Nidrf;csrf;                              vkduf olYtqifheJYol 0efaqmifrI
                                                                                                                                                                                 &efukef?Zlvkdif-20            rsdK;ay;&ygr,f/ Mu,fyGifhr&dS&if
                                                                                                                                                                      jrefrmEkii&dS [dw,frsm;tenf;
                                                                                                                                                                                   d f H k                     vnf; r&SdwJhtavsmuf 0ef
                                                                                                                                                                      qHk; Mu,foHk;yGihftqihf&Sdapvkd                         I
                                                                                                                                                                                                               aqmifray;&ygr,f/ tckjrefrm
                                                                                                                                                                      aMumif; [dw,fEic&D;oGm;vm
                                                                                                                                                                                        k        S fh          EkdifiHrSm tenf;qHk;Mu,fyGihfoHk;
aemfa0tajcpdkuf taysmfpD;oabmF Sea Dream II ESifh tyef;ajzaeolESpfOD;                                                                                                 a&;0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifp0ef     k        yGifhtqifhxdawmh &Sdapcsifyg
                                                                                                                                                                      BuD; OD;aX;atmifu ajymMum;               w,f}}[k [dkw,fESihf c&D;oGm;
aemfa0;tajcpkduf taysmfpD;oabFm 15 ESpftwGif; yxrqHk;tBudrfvma&mufrnf                                                                                                 onf/
                                                                                                                                                                                    k
                                                                                                                                                                             [dw,frsm;taejzihf Mu,f
                                                                                                                                                                                                               vma&;0efBu;D Xme jynfaxmifpk
                                                                                                                                                                                                               0efBuD; OD;aX;atmifuajym
atmifol&                                           ]]aumhaomif;ukd Ekd0ifbm         wdk;uajymonf/                               taysmfpD;oabFmonf tcef;                       hf          f kd
                                                                                                                                                                      ig;yGitqihqygu Mu,fig;yGihf              onf/
            &efukef?                         30 &ufa&mufr,f/ &efukefukd                   xkdYaemuf tqdkyg taysmf               aygif; 56 cef;yg0ifNyD; c&D;onf                  f
                                                                                                                                                                      tqih0efaqmifray;&rnfjzpf     I                     jrefrmEkdifiHwGif [kdw,ft
           Zlvdkif-20                        'DZifbm 2 &ufaeYa&mufNyD; 4            pD ; oabF m onf j ref r mEk d i f i H r S   112 OD;vkdufygEkdifaom taysmf         NyD; Mu,fav;yGifhtqihfqkdygu             cef;aygif; 29ç000 cefY&SdaeNyD;
urÇmhvSnfhc&D;oGm;rsm; vkdufyg               &ufaeYjyefxGufr,f/ 'kwd,t              wpfqifhxkdif;EkdifiHokdY qufvuf             pD;oabFmjzpfonf/                      Mu,fav;yGifhtqihf 0efaqmif               rMumrD tcef;aygif; 30ç000
vmaom aemf a 0;tajcpd k u f                  Budrf aumhaomif;ukd 11 &ufaeY          xGufcGmrnfjzpfNyD; jrefrmEkdifiH                   aemfa0;tajcpdkuf Ses           rI ay;&rnfjzpfum Mu,fyGihft              jynfhrnfjzpfaMumif;ESihf &efukef
Sea Dream II taysmp;oabFm f D                jyef0ifr,f/ &efukefukd 14 &uf          wGif usef&pfrnfh c&D;onfrsm;                Dream II taysmfpD;oabFmrSm            qihfr&Sdyguvnf; tqdkygt                  NrdKUwGif jynfwGif;{nfhonft
onf jref r mEd k i f i H o k d Y 15 ES p f   aeYjyefa&mufr,f/ 16 &ufaeY             onf yk*a'orsm;okYdoGm;a&muf
                                                                                              H                                 1998 ckESpfu jrefrmEkdifiHodkY                                 I
                                                                                                                                                                      qifh0efaqmifrrsKd ;ay;&rnfjzpfa          wGuf [kw,ftcef;aygif; 6ç000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            d
twG i f ; yxrqH k ; tBud r f v m                                  d
                                                    G f
                                             jyefxur,f}}[k tqkygoabFm               vnf y wf r nf j zpf a Mumif ; o             aemufq;kH vma&mufvnfywfchJ            Mumif; jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; OD;                 Y dS            k
                                                                                                                                                                                                               cef&aMumif; [dw,fEifh c&D;oGm;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           S
a&mufrnfjzpfaMumif; owif;                    c&D;pOfpDpOfol jrefrm Voyages          wif;&&dSonf/                                onf/                                  aX;atmifu qkdonf/                        vma&;0efBuD;XmerS owif;&&Sd
&&dSonf/                                     ukrÜPDtBuD;tuJOD;oufvGif                     tqd k y g Sea Dream II                                                             ]][kdw,fawG Mu,fyGifht            onf/
                                       35

Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013   Cartoon
36

Interview                                                                                                                                                                                 Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013




]]u&ifrvifuawmh wGufcsufMunhfvkdYudk r&EkdifwJh trsdK;tpm;yg}}
   S    d f                  D     f D            f dk f H                     k
½k&m;twkutcHacgif;aqmif tvufZemA,fvetaMumif; 0g&ihEiia&;orm;wpfO;D ESifh awGUqHar;jref;jcif;
ausmfrsKd;



½k&Sm;       rSm bavmh*f*gwpfOD;
             jzpf o l tvuf Z D e
             A,fvfeD[m or®w
ylwifudk raxrJjh rifapmfum;rIeYJ
ckawmh axmif'PfajcmufESpf
uscH&zkdY&SdaeNyD; w&m;½Hk; qHk;
jzwfcsufuscJhayr,fh t,lcHeJY
jyefvnf vGwfajrmufvmcJhyg
w,f/
         eA,fvfeD[m bavmh*f*g
                        fh
wpfO;D ? tusiysujf cpm;rI wkuf         d
zsufa&;t&m&SdwpfOD;taeeJY
or®wylwifudk qefYusifuefY
uGufMuwJh twdkuftcHvIyf&Sm;
rIrSm xif&Sm;olwpfOD;jzpfvmcJh
wmyg/ 'gayrJh ckawmh eA,fvf
                              f f
eD[m uDa&mhANf rKd U tkycsKya&;rSL;
xHrSm tBuHay;tjzpf vkyfudkif
pOf tmPmtvGJoHk;pm;vkyfNyD;
opfcdk;xkwfcJhw,fqdkwJh pGyfpJG
csufudk &ifqdkifcJh&NyD; ½lb,f 16
oef; (,l½dkav;odef;? a':vm
                           hJ
528ç000)udk cd;k ,lcw,fvYdk pGyf
  J H hJ
pGcc&ygw,f/ 'DtrIukd Ekiia&;     d f H
                    I
t& vkyBf uHrvYdk trsm;pku ajym
                S
aeMuNy;D ½k&m;&JU xif&m;wJh vltS         Y
cGifhta&;vIyf&Sm;ol? ordkif;
ynm&Sif? twkduftcHEkdifiHa&;                 eA,fvfeD[m tkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;&JU       ol0ifNydKifwJhtcg Ekdifajc&Sdygo         ygyJ/ 'gayrJh tvkyfMurf;pcef;         ygw,f/ aemufwpfBudrf qdkAD          &ifvnf; taumif;qHk;jzpf
orm;wpfOD;jzpfwJh rpövsL'rD                  tBuHay;tjzpf wm0ef,lcJhpOf           vm;/ rJqE´ppfwrf;awGt&                   rSm olaxmifcscHvkduf&awmh t           ,uf,leD,Hvdk tdrfeD;csif;rsdK;ukd   aumif;jzpfEkdifrSmygyJ/ ½k&Sm;[m
vmtvufZDa,Am (85)ESpfu                              kd               J
                                             rSm ,l½av;ode;f udk tvGo;kH pm;      awmh olukdaxmufcol&Sp&mckif
                                                                                             Y                 H     f d   jyKoabmaqmifwJh yHk&dyfeJY tm         BudKufESpoufEdiyghrvm;/ 'DrSm
                                                                                                                                                                           f     k f                 'Dxufykd rqdk;Ekdifawmhygbl;/
vnf; u&ifrvif[m bm                           vkyfcJhw,fqdkwm wu,fyJ               EIef;yJ&Sdaeygw,f/                                 l J
                                                                                                                           Zmenfo&aumif;wpfO;D toGif                         f
                                                                                                                                                                 awmh uRerwdYk uk,wwfEiwm
                                                                                                                                                                                   d f    dk f                 h      dk
                                                                                                                                                                                                     ,SOMf unfr,fq&ifawmh tajc
aMumifh eA,fvfeDudk yg;pyfydwf               vm;/                                          bmyJajymajym vuf&Sdt            ukd ajymif;oGm;cJhw,f/ ½k&Sm;rSm      ukd,fvkyfaew,f/ EkdifiHjcm;u               k
                                                                                                                                                                                                     taeydq;kd vmwmudk a&SmifMuOf
csifae&vJqdkwm atmufyg                            'DudpörSm b,foufaorS            wdutcHacgif;aqmifvnf;jzpf?
                                                                                      k f                                  u axmifawG? 'grSr[kwf tvkyf                dk
                                                                                                                                                                 aiGuvufc&if EkiijH cm;axmuf
                                                                                                                                                                               H d f                 zdkYuvnf; ta&;BuD;ygw,f/
pydkif;*JvfrD'D,meJY tifwmAsL;               r&Sdygbl;/ 'DudpötukefvHk;u          vufaxmuf0efBuD;csKya[mif;        f       Murf;pcef;awGxJ a&mufoGm;&            vSrf;a&;yJvkdY u&ifrvifu            uRefrwkdYwkdif;jynfrSm awmfvSef
rSm &Sif;jyxm;ygw,f/                         eA,fvfeD&JU EkdifiHa&;b0udk &yf      vnf;jzpfwJh abm&pferfaqmh                wJholawGudk pmemoem;avh&Sd                    S f
                                                                                                                                                                 owfrwwmukd b,ftife*stkd     f D     a&;awGeJY jynfwGif;ppfawG
         rpöpfvsL'rDvmtvufZD                 wefYoGm;atmifvkyfwJhEkdifiHa&;       uawmh aqmif;&moDtdkvHypf                 wJh tpOftvm uRefrwkdYrSm &Sd          tzGJUtpnf;urS xdef;csKyfrcH                     f       h
                                                                                                                                                                                                     aMumifh zdwpOf&wJaoG;awG rsm;
a,Amuawmh ½k&Sm;rSm xif&Sm;                  trIqifwmygyJ/                                           f S
                                                                                  usi;f yr,fh tdr&iNf rKd Uawmf qdcsD  k   wmudk;/ 'Dawmh wu,fvkdY e             wm uRefr *kPf,lrdygw,f/             vGef;aeNyD/
wJh 'Drkdua&pDa&; wuf<uvIyf                                                       rSm qE´rJ 13 &mcdkifEIef;&aeyg           A,fvfeD[m tjypfay;cH&w,f              'g[m ol&Jaumif;qef &J&ifhvS
&Sm;olwpfOD;jzpfygw,f/ ¤if;                       Y
                                             olukd b,fvjkd ypf'PfrsK;d ay;r,f     w,f/ NyD;cJhwJh 2 ESpfavmufu             qkd&if u&ifrvifeJY ylwif[m ckd        w,fvdkY uRefr awGU&w,f/             ylwifeJY olYvlawG[m zdESdyfwm
[m 1950 ESprsm; tapmydi;f rSm
                      f              k       arQmfvifhxm;ygovJ/                   wnf;u tpkd;&wpfckvHk;u olY                             f        k
                                                                                                                           a':aumhApuD; trIwe;f u jzpf                                               awGudk &yfwefYoGm;yghrvm;/
qkdAD,ufuGefjrLepfygwDudk 0if                         ½k&Sm;rSmu w&m;½Hk;rIcif;   udk zdESdyfxm;NyD; olYEkdifiHa&;vrf;     cJhwmrsdK;ukd oifcef;pmr&ao;          eA,fvfeDu olom tmPm&                        tJ'gu uRefrudk eykdvD,H
a&mufcJhNyD; vDeifa&;orQ pm                  awGtm;vHk;&JU wpf&mckdifEIef;        aMumif;wpfavQmufrSmvnf;                     d
                                                                                                                           qkwm jyowmyJjzpfygvdrr,f/ hf          vm&if ylwifeJY taygif;tyg           taMumif;udk pOf;pm;rdapw,f/
tkyftm;vHk;udk zwf½IavhvmcJh                          h
                                             avsmavsmavmufuyJ tjypfr
                                                             h                    tcuftcJawGu trsm;BuD;&SdcJh                                                    awGudk axmifxJykdYr,fvdkY ajym      olu wpfcgu ajymcJhzl;w,f/
w,fqkdygw,f/ 'DvdkeJY 1966                   &SdaMumif; qHk;jzwfcH&wmyg/                               f D
                                                                                  ygw,f/ eA,fveu toem;cH                   ylwif[m ½k&Sm;udk b,fukd              wJhtcg 'g[m twkduftcHbuf            olu ynmwwfawGxuf rdurJ       k f
rSmawmh uGefjrLepftmPm&Sif                   EkdifiHa&;taMumif;jycsufawGeJY       pmwif&ifawmifrS tpdk;&u olY              a&mufatmif OD;wnfaewmyg               twGuf rSefuefwJhvrf;aMumif;         ÓPfenf;wJh &efolawGudk ykdNyD;
tpkd;&udka0zefol pma&;q&m                                      J H
                                             ½H;k wifw&m;pGc&wJh trIrsK;d awG     udk jypf'PfcsrSwfoGm;rSmyg/ 'g           vJ/                                   jzpfygovm;/ 'grSr[kwf ol[m          aMumufrdw,fwJh/ bmaMumifh
awGxJrSm xdyfqHk;u yg0ifvm                   qk&ifawmh vGwEiajcu okn
                                                    d              f kd f         qdo[m b,fvEiia&;ae&m
                                                                                       k l               kd kd f H               u&ifrvifukd jyefa&muf           u&ifrvifbufu jyif;jyif;xef          vJqdkawmh olu ynmwwfwJh
cJhNyD;aemuf 1968 rSmawmh ygwD               yJ/ eA,fvfeDudk jynfe,fw&m;          rsKd;udkrS 0ifrNydKifEkdifbl;aygh/       vmNyD;uwnf;u EkdifiHukd &JawG         xef wkHYjyefatmif EId;qGaewm        aumifawG bmvkyfr,fqkdwm
          f       H
uxkwy,fc&ovdktvkyvnf;              f         olBuD;u axmifajcmufESpfcszdkY                                                                 d       f
                                                                                                                           eJY apmihMf uyfxe;f csKyxm;wJh Ekif
                                                                                                                                                            d    rsm;vm;/                            udk aumif;aumif;wGufcsufEkdif
jyKwfcJhygw,f/ 'Daemuf 1977                  ajymxm;w,f/ oluaumif;&if     H       eA,fvfeD&JU vlxkaxmufcHrI                iH Police State jzpfatmif pepf              eA,fvfeDukd uRefr em;           Yk hJ
                                                                                                                                                                                                     vdw/ u&ifrvifuawmh wGuf
rSmawmh au*sDbDaxmufvSrf;                    awmh jypf'Pfu ydwfyifcH&wJh                           G
                                                                                  [m olaxmifusom;&ifa&m wk;d               wus vkyfaeygw,f/                              dk f
                                                                                                                                                                 vnfEiygw,f/ ylwiftem;u              csufMunfhvdkYudk r&EkdifwJh trsdK;
a&;&JU zdtm;ay;rIaMumifh EkdifiH             tqifxyJ avsmom;ygr,f/ vl
                                                        h d         h G           wufvmEkdifOD;rvm;/                                                                                  Y
                                                                                                                                                                 vlawGtrsm;BuD;eJY ol&UJ tkycsKyf
                                                                                                                                                                                            f        tpm;yg/
jyifyudk xGufcGmcJh&NyD; tar&d               awGrSm;,Gif;NyD; w&m;pGJcH&wm              'grsd K;u ol aX;BuD ; rpf          eA,feDvf tjypfay;cH&&if t             olawG[m olwdkY&xm;wJh ae&m
uefjynfaxmifpkrSm qkdAD,uf                   udk uRefr odyfrkef;ygw,f/            ac;vfckda':aumhAfpuD; udpörSm            aemufwkdif;[m b,fvkdwkHYjyef          taetxm;awGaMumifhbDv,H       D
jynfaxmifpk NydKuGJNyD;aemuf                                                      wkef;u jzpfcJhwmaygh/ ol[m               oifhygovJ/                            emBuD;awG jzpfvmMuw,f/ ol                  —Ref: Interview-Putin
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Turning Russia 'Into a Police
1993 txd aexdkifcJhum rdcif                  pufwifbmrSmvkyfr,fh armfp            ½k&Sm;EkdifiHom;trsm;pkpdwfxJ                 taemufwkdif;[m udk,hf               Yk      d
                                                                                                                                                                 wdudk wki;f jynftjyifbufudk ol            State', Spiegel: 17th July.
EkdifiHudk jyefvmcJholjzpfygw,f/             udkNrdKUawmf0efa&G;aumufyGJrSm       rSm c½dkeDwpfOD;oufoufrQom               tusdK;pD;yGm;yJ ukd,fpOf;pm;oihf      wdkYaiGawGeJYtwl ESifxkwfvkduf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              37

Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013                                                                                                                                     Leader's Profile

       ½kyfoHpum;pjrnftpDtpOfudk wpfacwfqef;opfapol
                                rpöpftdky&m0if;za&;
                                                            &Jrif;

             k
          tdy&m0if;za&;onftar                aexdkifcJhonf/                          wpfOD; jzpfvmcJhonf/
&duef rD'D,mvkyfief;&Sif wDAD                       tdky&m0if;za&;onf wif                  rD'D,mqufoG,fa&;wGif
pum;pjrnftpDtpOfwifquf                       eufqDjynfe,fwGif qHoq&m                                         H
                                                                                     &if;&if;ES;D ES;D 0efcajymMum;aom
ol? riforD;? xkwfvkyfolESihft                         S      k f
                                             zcifEifh aexdi&if;rSyif txuf            yHkpHwpfrsKd;udk zefwD;cJhol[k csD;
vSLtwef;&ufa&mol jzpfonf/                    wef;ausmif;wuf&if; a'ocH                usL;*kPfjyKcH&aomfvnf; rpöpf
rpöpf tdky&m0if;za&;onf The                             kd
                                             a&'D,ü 0ifa&mufvyuium   k f kd f            k
                                                                                     tdy&m0if;za&;onf 1990 jynhf
Oprah Winfrey Show t wGuf                                      f
                                             touf 19 ESpt&G,wif nae f G              ESpfrsm;wGif ,if;tpDtpOfudk
vlodtrsm;qHk;jzpfNyD; ,if;                   cif;owif;rsm; yl;wJGaMunmol             pmay? udk,f&nfudk,faoG; wdk;
tpDtpOftjzpf owfrSwfcH&                                          Yk
                                             jzpfvmonf/ odaomf pdwvyf       f I             I S            H
                                                                                     wufrEifh xyfratmifjrifrI &&Sd
NyD; qkaygif;rsm;pGm &&SdcJhonf/                                       kf
                                             &Sm;rIrsm;aom ¤if;\pwdiaMumihf          &ef vkyfaqmifcJhonf/
          tdky&m0if;za&;udk 1954                  f H
                                             ½kyopum;pjrnfajymaom tpD                      tdky&m0if;za&;pmtkyft
      S
ckEpf Zefe0g&Dv 29 &ufwif rpö   G            tpOfodkY ajymif;a&TUwm0efxrf;           oif;rSmvnf; urÇmay:wGif Mo
pöyD jynfe,f a[mhpD,ufudk a'                 aqmif&NyD; ,if;tpDtpOfrSm               Zmt&SdqHk; pmtkyftoif;jzpf
oü q,fausmfouft&G,f rd                       atmif j rif v monf / ,if ;              vmonf/ rpöpftdky&m0if;za&;
cifu arG;zGm;cJhNyD; qif;qif;&J&J                          G k
                                             aemufwif tdy&mu tpDtpOf                 udk,fwdkifrSmvnf; urÇmwGif
BuD;jyif;cJhonf/ tdky&m\ i,f                 udk The Oprah Whinfrey                  MoZmtBuD;rm;qHk; trsKd;orD;
pOfb0rSm tvGefyifqif;&Jyif                   Show [k trnfopfay;cJhNyD;               wpfOD;jzpfvmNyD; 2008 ckESpf
yef;NyD; ausmif;oGm;&mwGif tm;                   k f kd f k f k f
                                             ud,yixwvya&;ukrPD xl         Ü          or®wa&G;aumufyJGwGif ¤if;\
               f
vl;tdwrsm;udk 0wfpvyí 0wfkH k f              axmifum xdkawGUqHkcef;tm;               axmufcHrIaMumifh tar&duef
          hJ
qifc&um tavSmifajymifcc&              H hJ   EdkifiHwum ½kyfoHvdkif;aygif;           or®w bm;&uf tdkbm;rm;rSm
                       f
onf/ touf ud;k ESpt&G,wif            f G     rsm;pGmESifh csdwfqufvkyfaqmif          axmufcHrJwpfoef;cefY &&SdcJh          ½kyfaqmifum atmfpumqk t                          cJhonf/ tdky&m0if;za&; onf        a&; trIaqmif t&m&Sd wpfOD;
        f kd k f
vdiyi;f qdi&m apmfum;cHc&NyD;     hJ         cJhonf/ tpDtpOfrSm vlBudKuf             onf[k cefYrSef;Muonf/                 rnfpm&if; wifoGif;cH&onf/                        uefa':vm 2 'or 3 bDvD,H           jzpfol pwufref;*a&[rfESihf
touf 14 ESpfwGif udk,f0ef&SdcJh              trsm;qHk;ESihf tatmifjrifqHk;                        f kd
                                                                                           rpöpty&m 0if;za&;onf            aemufydkif;wGifvnf; ½kyfoH                       csrf;omNyD; uefa':vm oef;         aphpyfxm;Ny;D ¤if;rSm tar&duef
onf/ uav;i,faoqHk;cJhNyD;                    Show jzpfvmcJhonf/ tdky&m                       f          f
                                                                                     pmtkyig;tkyukd yl;wJa&;om;cJh
                                                                                                                G          Zmwf v rf ; aygif ; rsm;pG m wG i f                                        h
                                                                                                                                                                            400 cefY vSL'gef;ay;urf;cJonf/    EdkifiH a'otrsm;tjym;wGif
aemuf tdky&monf ¤if;\zcif                    rSmvnf; trsK;d orD;rsm; twGuf           NyD; 1985 ckESpfwGif The Color        yg0ifo½kyfaqmifcJhovdk xkwf                           rpöpftdky&m0if;za&;onf       tdrf&mrsm;ydkifqdkifxm;ol jzpf
qdaom trsK;d om;xH oGm;a&muf
    k                                        twk,ltm;usp&m pHjyyk*¾dKvf              Purple Zmwfum;wGif yg0ifo             vkyfoltjzpfvnf; vkyfudkif                        1992 ckESpfrSpívlxkqufqH          onf/           —Ref: Wikipedia




tar&dueftaemufykdif;wGif awmrD;rsm; avmifuRrf;aeaomaMumifh                                                                                                                  ygvufpwdkif;tusOf;om;rsm;
vl&maygif;rsm;pGm ab;uif;&modkYa&TUajymif;                                                                                                                                  jyefvTwfay;rnf[k tpöa&;ajym
        'ef;Am?Zlvkdif-20                                                                                                                                                         a*s½kqvif?Zlvkdif-20        odkY&mwGif rpöwmu,f&Donf
tar&duefEdkifiH taemufykdif;                                                                                                                                                tpöa&;EkdifiHonf tar&duef         ,if;EdkifiHESpfEkdifiHMum; oabm
jynfe,frsm;wGif yljyif;ajcmuf                                                                                                                                               EkdifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD; *Refu,f&D                h        f
                                                                                                                                                                                                              wl&rnftcsursm;ukd xkwazmf       f
aoGUNyD; avxefaom tajct                                                                                                                                                         d f G             d
                                                                                                                                                                            wkuwe;f xm;aom Nir;f csr;f a&;    ajymMum;&ef jiif;qkdcJhonf/
aersm;aMumifh qufvufavmif                                                                                                                                                   aqG;aEG;yGJ jyefvnftaumif                  Nidrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;yGJ jyef
uRrf;aeaom rD;rsm;udk rD;owf                                                                                                                                                txnf azmfEkdifa&;twGuf            vnf pwif E k d i f a &;twG u f
wyfzGJU0ifrsm; Nid§rf;owfae&NyD;                                                                                                                                            ygvufpwkdif; tusOf;om;            tpöa&;EkdifiHtaejzihf 0efBuD;
aumfvkd&m'dkjynfe,frS a'ocH                                                                                                                                                 ajrmufjrm;pGmudk vTwfay;rnf            f
                                                                                                                                                                                                              csKybif*srifaewefnm[k ajym
&maygif;rsm;pGmonf ab;uif;                                                                                                                                                  jzpfaMumif; aMunmonf/             Mum;aom owfrSwfcsufrsm;ukd
&modkY ajymif;a&TUcJhMu&onf/                                                                                                                                                        vTwfay;rnfhtusOf;om;      vkdufemcJhonf[k tpöa&;EkdifiH
      'ef;AmNrdKUtaemufawmif                                                                                                                                                rsm;xJwGif q,fpkESpfrsm;pGm                           H
                                                                                                                                                                                                              wumqufqa&;0efBu;D uajym
buf rdkif 30 tuGm&Sd a&mhcfuD;               aeaomrD;aMumifh tenf;qH;k vl            ab;uif;&mokdY ajymif;a&TUcJh&         ajymif;a&TUcJh&onf/ u,fvDzdk;                    tpöa&;EkdifiHü axmifusae          Mum;onf/ tusOf;om;rsm;
awmifwef;ajc&if;wGif{u500                    175 OD;onf txufwef;ausmif;              onf/                                  eD;,m;awmifykdif;&Sd qefbmem                     aomta&;Bu;D onfhygvufpwki;f  d    vTwfay;rIukd tqifhvkdufvkyf
rD ; avmif u Rrf ; aeonf u k d rD ;          wpfausmif;wGif ,m,Daexdkif                                  D kd
                                                                                            e,l;ruúquawmifyi;f &Sd kd      'DEkdtrsdK;om;opfawmtwGif;                       tusO;f om;rsm;vnf; yg0ifrnf       aqmifoGm;rnfjzpfaMumif; ¤if;
owfwyfzUJG 0ifrsm;u ajrjyifEifh   S          ae&onf/                                 *DvmtrsdK;om;opfawmwGif               pwk & ef ; rk d i f ajcmuf r d k i f e D ; yg;   jzpfaMumif; tpöa&;EkdifiHwum      u xyfavmif;ajymMum;onf/
avaMumif;rS Nid§rf;owfae&NyD;                     t&D Z d k ; em;jynf e ,f & S d y   vnf; {&d,mpwk&ef;rkdif 47 rkdif       avmifuRrf;aeaomrD;udk ,ck                                  H
                                                                                                                                                                            qufqa&;0efBu;D ,lA,fpwde;f        tpöa&; vlYtcGihfta&;tzGJU
vlaygif; 100 ausmf xGufajy;cJh               &ufpaumhtrsdK;om;opfawm                 cefY rD;avmifuRrf;aeonf/              tcg 83 &mckiEe;f Nir;f owfxm;
                                                                                                                                                  d f I §d                  epfu ajymMum;onf/                 (B'Tselem)\ rSwfwrf;rsm;t&
&onf/ ,if;rD;avmifuRrf;rI                    twGif; rD;avmifuRrf;rIaMumifh                  Zlvkdif 14 &ufwGif pwif        Ek d i f N yD j zpf a Mumif ; od & onf /                 tpöa&;-ygvufpwkdif; u     tpöa&; tusOf;axmifrsm;ü
rsm;rS m vQyf p D ; vuf j cif ; rsm;         {&d,m 12 pwk&ef;rkdif jyKef;wD;                         h
                                                                                     avmifuRr;f cJaom rD;onf aysmf         awmrD;rsm;avmifuRrf;&onfh                                       J         h D
                                                                                                                                                                            eOD; aqG;aEG;yGukdvmrnfowif;      ygvuf p wk d i f ; tusOf ; om;
aMumifh jzpfEkdifonf/                        oGm;NyD; yljyif;í avxefaom              yGJpm;xGufolrsm; rD;arT;cJhNyD; rD;   taMumif;&if;ukd pHkprf;ppfaq;                    ywfwGif tar&duefEkdifiH 0g&Sif    4ç817 OD; &Sdonf[kod&NyD; jyef
      aumf v k d & m'd k jynf e ,f           tajctaersm;aMumifh rD;owf               <uif;rD;usef Nid§rf;owfcJhjcif;r&Sd   aeonf/                                           wef'DpDNrdKUü usif;yrnfjzpf              f
                                                                                                                                                                                                              vTway;rnfh tusO;f om;ta&
awmifykdif;&Sd [l,mzefEkdc½dkif              wyfzGJU0ifrsm; BudK;pm;Nid§rf;owf       cJhaomaMumifhjzpfNyD; tdrfajc                                                          aMumif; rpöwm*Refu,f&Du Zl        twGufudkrl twdtusrod&
                      f
wGif {u 300 ausmavmifuRr;f                   ae&um tdrfajcaygif; 460 rSm             aygif; 800 cefY ab;uif;&modkY                                        —Ref: AP          vkdif 19 &ufwGif aMunmonf/        ao;acs/                 —Ref: BBC
38

Asia                                                                                                                                                                                                      Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013




w½kwfopfoD;aps;onfwpfOD; aoqHk;atmif½dkufESufcJhrI wm0ef&SdolajcmufOD;udk xdef;odrf;ppfaq;
           ab*sif;?Zlvkdif-20              onfonf NyD;cJhonfh Ak'¨[l;aeY                    jyOya'xdef;odrf;a&;wyfzGJU0if        refESpfu xkwfjyefaom tzGJU\
w½kwfEdkifiH [leefjynfe,f &Sef             u &SefusdK;wGif NrdKUjyOya'0ef                   rsm;ukd w½kwfEkdifiHwGif NrdKUBuD;   tpD&ifcHpmwpfapmifwGif azmf
usKd ;NrKd UwGif NrKd UjyOya'xde;f odr;f   xrf;rsm;ESihf tcsif;rsm;&mrS t                   rsm;ü &JwyfzGJUtwGuf rIcif;t         jycJhonf/
a&;wyfzGJU0ifrsm; (Urban En-               av;wH k ; wpf c k j zih f xk c H c J h & NyD ;   ao;trTm;rsm;udk ukdifwG,fajz                  ,ckjzpfpOfrSm &SefusdK;NrdKU
forcers) [kac:onfh wm0ef&Sd                aemuf aoqHk;cJh&jcif;jzpfonf                     &S i f ; &mü taxmuf t ul j zpf                l k f G
                                                                                                                                 vif0c½diwif aoqH;k olweEifh       d Yf S
olrsm;u opfoD;a&mif;onfh                                  Yf
                                           [k rpöwmwde\wljzpfoukd uk;d      l               atmif zGUJ pnf;xm;jcif;jzpfaomf      ¤if;\ZeD;wdkYonf NcHxGufz&J
aps;onf w pf O D ; uk d aoqH k ;           um;í EkdifiHykdifqif[Gmowif;                                         l
                                                                                            vnf; w½kwjf ynforsm;Mum;xJ           oD;rsm;udk aps;a&mif;cscGihfvkdif
             k f S f hJ I
atmif ½duEucrtwGuf ouf                     wGif azmfjyonf/ xde;f odr;f xm;                               Yk           d f
                                                                                            wGif ¤if;wdukd rw&m;tEkiusihf        pif r &S d b J jrpf u rf ; em;teD ;
  d f
qkionfh NrKd UjyvHNk cKH a&;wm0ef&dS       onfh vlajcmufOD;udk wrif&nf                      olrsm;? vk,ufwwfolrsm;t              a&mif;cs&efBudK;pm;pOf NrKd Ujywyf
olajcmufOD;udk &JwyfzGJUu xdef;                f
                                           &G,um olwpfyg;tay: xdcuf                  dk     jzpf rSwf,lxm;MuaMumif; vlY          zGUJ 0ifrsm;ESifh tjiif;yGm;Ny;D z&Jo;D
odrf;ppfaq;aeonf/                          emusifatmif vkyfaqmifrIjzihf                               fh            f
                                                                                            tcGita&;apmihMf unha&;tzGUJ          av;vHk;udk ¤if;wdkYu vk,lxm;
        wdefYusefusm;[kac:onfh             xdef;odrf; ppfaq;aeaMumif;                       (HRW)rS w½kwfEkdifiHqkdif&m 'g                 d f d
                                                                                                                                 &mrS uk,xvufa&muf jyóem
touf ( 56)ES p f t &G , f aps;             owif;wGifqdkonf/ tqdkygNrdKU                     ½dkufwm qdkzD&pfcsufqefu ,                  G
                                                                                                                                 jzpfym;um &efjzpfcMhJ u&m wderm       Yf S



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           AFP
                                                                                                                                                                                                ူ ု ္                                         ု  ွ ္
                                                                                                                                                                              ဟူနန္ျပည္နယ္ လင္ဇခ႐ိငမွ ၿမိဳ႕ျပဥပေဒထိန္းသိမ္းေရးအဖြဲ႕ဝင္မ်ား၏ ႐ိက္ႏကမႈေၾကာင့္ ေသ
                                                                                                                                                                                    ့                                   ႔္             ္
                                                                                                                                                                              ဆံုးခဲရေသာ သစ္သီးေရာင္းသည့္ေစ်းသည္ တိနက်န္က်ား၏႐ုပအေလာင္းကို ေစာင္ၾ့ ကပ္ေပး
                                                                                                                                                                              ေနသူမ်ား

                                                                                                                                                                              ae&mwGifyif vJusaoqHk;oGm;                wGif jzpfay:cJhonf/
                                                                                                                                                                              jcif;jzpfonf/ aps;onfwdefY\                            f dk f D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               w½kwEiiH uGusKd ;jynfe,f
                                                                                                                                                                                          S       f dk f H G
                                                                                                                                                                              aoqH;k rIrm w½kwEiiwi;f vl                wGif 2011 uvnf; ukd,ft*Fg
                                                                                                                                                                              rIuGef&uf0ufbfqkdufrsm;wGif               roefpGrf;onfh vrf;ab;aps;
                                                                                                                                                                              csufcsif;owif;jyefYoGm;cJhNyD;            onfwpfOD;ukd a'ocHcsifuGrf;
                                                                                                                                                                              jynfolrsm;tMum; a'gojzpf                  rsm;u 0kdif;0ef;tEkdifusifh ½dkuf
                                                                                                                                                                              um NrKd Ujy0efxrf;rsm;udk jyif;xef        ESufrIaMumifh xkdaps;onf ao
                                                                                                                                                                              pGm½IwfcscJhMuonf/ csifur;f [k G          qHk;cJh&m jynfolrsm;\ a'gow
                                                                                                                                                                                             k
                                                                                                                                                                              ac:onfh tqdyg0efxrf;rsm;ukd               BuD; qE´jyuefYuGufrIrsm; jzpf
                                                                                                                                                                                   Y f Y G f
                                                                                                                                                                              qefusiuefuuqE´jyrIwpfck                   ay:cJh&onf/
                                                                                                                                                                              vnf; Ak'¨[l;aeYu vif0lc½dkif                                      —Ref: BBC




                                                                                                                                                                              b½kpfvDuG,fvGefjcif; ESpf(40)jynfhjyyGJ
                                                                                                                                                                              a[mifaumifwGifjyKvkyf
                                                                                                                                                                                    a[mifaumif?Zlvkdif-20               &efppöudkNrdKUwGif arG;zGm;cJhaomf
                                                                                                                                                                              uGefzl;ynmtajccHZmwfum;                                             G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        vnf; a[mifaumifwif Bu;D jyif;
                                                                                                                                                                              rsm;jzihf urÇmausmfvlBudKufrsm;           cJhol b½kpfvDonf touf(32)
                                                                                                                                                                              cJ h o nf h uG , f v G e f o l a [mif     ESpft&G,fwGif tudkuftcJ
                                                                                                                                                                              aumifrif;om; b½kpvD aoqH;k f              aysmufaq;rsm;ESifh rwnfonfh      h
                                                                                                                                                                              onfh ESpf(40)jynfh txdrf;t                             f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        tvm;*spa&m*gaMumifh ½kww             f
                                                                                                                                                                              rSwftjzpf a[mifaumiftpdk;&                                h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        &ufaoqH;k cJ&onf/ aemufq;kH
                                                                                                                                                                              onf b½kpfvDazmifa';&Sif;ESihf             ½kyf&Sif Enter The Dragon rSm
                                                                                                                                                                              yl;aygif;um trSwfw&jyyGJwpf               ¤if;aoqH;k Ny;D ajcmuf&uftMum
                                                                                                                                                                              ck jyocJhonf/                                 k
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ü ½HwifcjhJ cif;jzpfum b½kpv\      f D
                                                                                                                                                                                     plygpwm;rif;om; b½kpf              tatmifjrifqHk;Zmwfum;rsm;
                                                                                                                                                                                                  f
                                                                                                                                                                              vD aoqH;k onfh ESp(40)jynfjh zpf          xJrS wpfum;jzpfcJhonf/
                                                                                                                                                                              aom Zlvkdif 20 &ufwGif ]]b½kpf                  b½kpfvD trSwfw&yGJESihf
                                                                                                                                                                              vD-uGefzl;? tEkynm? b0}}                  ywfoufí b½kpfvDazmifa';
                                                                                                                                                                              "Bruce Lee: Kung Fu, Art,                 &Sif;Ouú|vnf;jzpfol orD; &Sef
                                                                                                                                                                              Lift" [k trnf & onf h j yyG J u d k       EGefvDu ]]vlawmfawmfrsm;rsm;
                                                                                                                                                                              b½kpfvD\ emrnfausmf Game                  [m uRefrtazeJY ywfouf&if
                                                                                                                                                                              of Death Zmwfum;xJrS ¤if;                 olY&JUokdif;ynmuRrf;usifrIukdyJ
                                                                                                                                                                              0wfqifcJhaom t0ga&miftm;                  odMuwmrsm;w,f/ 'DjyyGJu
                                                                                                                                                                              upm;0wfpHk tygt0if trSwf                  awmh olY&JUykdjynfhpHkwJh yHk&dyfukd jy
                                                                                                                                                                              w&ypönf; ajcmuf&mausmf cif;               ozdkY ulnDay;EkdifrSmyg}}[k ajym
                                                                                                                                                                              usif;jyocJhonf/ jyyGJwGif jyo                            f D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        onf/ b½kpvonf ½ky&i?f odi;f f S k
                                                                                                                                                                                h              f
                                                                                                                                                                              cJaom trSww&rsm;wGif b½kpf                ynmwkdYtjyif pma&;jcif;ESihf
                                                                                                                                                                              vD\ 3 'or 5 rDwmjrihfaom                  uAsma&;jcif;wdkYukdvnf; 0go
                                                                                                                                                                              ½kkyfwk? AD'D,dkrsm;? ½kyf&Sifrsm;wGif    emygNyD; jyyGJwGif ¤if;\pmrsm;?
                                                                                                                                                                              0wfcJhaom t0wftpm;rsm;?                   uAsmta&;tom;rsm;ukvnf;         d
                                                                                                                                                                              "mwfyHkrsm; yg0ifcJhonf/ qefz             jyocJhonf/                —Ref: AP
                                                                                       Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013




]]uRefawmf ayghyfqdkwJhtqkdawmfwpfa,muftjzpfyJ cH,lvkdufygw,f}}
                                              &J&ifhatmifESifhawGUqkHjcif;
  J
ZGÓPf                                 tvG e f a &yef ; pm;aeygw,f /        jrifcJhNyD;wJhaemuf 2011ESpfOD;     ao;ayr,f h v nf ; vuf & S d r S m
q,fausmfoufvli,fy&dowf                'DoDcsif;ykdif&Sif &J&ifhatmifu      ydkif;rSm tJ'DoDcsif;udkyJ ykHpHt   ]]vGr;f vGe;f vk?Yd VIP, No More Cry }}
rsm;tMum; txl;ojzifhwuú                                YJ d h l
                                      awmh y&dowfepr;f wJor[kwf            opfajymif;oDqkdcJhNyD; trfwDAD      oDcsif;awGeJY y&dowftm;ay;rI
ok d v f a usmif ; om;vl i ,f r sm;                      S f k f dk
                                      ygbl;/ 2009ckEpf ESpueyi;f u         xGuf&SdvmwJhtcgrSm vli,fy&d         awG & &S d a ewJ h &J & if h a tmif u d k
Mum;rSm ]]vGrf;vGef;vkdY}} qkdwJhoD   ]]ighae&m}}qkdwJh oDcsif;eJY tGef    owftckdiftrm&&SdcJhygw,f/           awGUqkHar;jref;cJhygw,f/
csif;[m tck&ufykdif;twGif;rSm         vkdif;y&dowfawGMum; atmif            wpfukd,fawmfpD;&D;rxGuf&SdEkdif     ]]ighae&m}}oDcsif;aMumifh &J&ifh




ausmif;oHk;ypönf;awGvSL'gef;zkdY azsmfajzyJGrSm y&dowfrsm;udk awmif;qdkvkdufwJh B1A4 tzJGU
        qdk;vf? Zlvkdif-19            om;rsm;udk yef;pnf;rsm;ay;rnhf       avhusihfcef;pmtkyfrsm;? pma&;       av;awGudk axmufyHhay;vdkuf
auayghyfvli,ftqdkawmfrsm;             tpm; ausmif;oH;k ypön;f rsm; vSL     ud&d,mrsm;ESihf pmoifcef;oHk;       r,fqdk&if ydkNyD;awmh t"dyÜm,f
tzJUG wpfzUGJ jzpfaom B1A4 tzJUG      'gef;&ef B1A4 tzJGUom;rsm;u          ypönf;rsm;vSL'gef;&ef &nf&G,f       &Sdvmr,fvdkY xifygw,f}} [k
onf aumif;rIukodkvfrsm;vkyf           arwåm&yfcHvdkufonf[k WM                   f dS      Yk
                                                                           vsu&onf/ xdaMumifh vmrnhf           B1A4 tzJ G U om;rsm;u ajym




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      "mwfykH-epfuD
&ef qdk;vfNrdKUü usif;yonhf ¤if;      Entertainment u Zlvdkif 19           Mo*kwfvazsmfajzyJGü ¤if;wdkYESihf   onf/
wdkY\ azsmfajzyJGü y&dowfrsm;         &ufwGif aMunmcJhonf/                 twl ukodkvfyg&rDjznhf&ef y&d              B1A4 tzJGUonf O.K oD
tm; wdkufwGef;vdkufonf/                      CJ Entertainment ukrPD  Ü     owfrsm;tm; arwåm&yfcHvdkuf          csif;jzihf 2011 ckESpfwGif au
      vmrnhf Mo*kwv 7 &ufrS
                        f                                  f
                                      ESifh y&[dwvkyief;rsm; yl;aygif;     onf/ ]]uRefawmfwdkYudk cspfvdkY     aygh y f a vmuod k Y 0if a &muf c J h       atmifjzpfvmw,fvkdYajymvkdY&                      NyD;]ighae&m}xGufNyD;wJhaemuf
11 &uftxd usif;yrnhf B1A4                   f kd f   f dS
                                      vkyuivsu&aom B1A4 t                  yef;pnf;awG ay;wmudk aus;Zl;        onhf touf 20 0ef;usivi,f    f l             rvm;/                                            ydkif;txdukd tcktcsdefxdvnf;
tzJGU\ wpfudk,fawmf azsmfajz                                 h
                                      zJUG onf qif;&JcsKUd wJaom ausmif;   trsm;BuD ; wif y gw,f / tJ ' g      ig;OD;yg tzJGUwpfzJGUjzpfonf/                     [kwf/ &w,fAs/ ]ighae&m}                                         f kd
                                                                                                                                                                                                            oDcsi;f awGukd tGevi;f rSmyJ wif
yJrsm;wGif y&dowfrsm;taejzihf
  G                                   aeuav;ol i ,f r sm;twG u f           xuf wu,fvdktyfaewJh u                              —Ref: KpopStarz              aMumifh &J&ifhatmifjzpfvmwm                      aewkef;ygyJ/ t&ifwkef;uus
¤if;cspfaom tEkynm&SiftzJGU                                                                                                                                yg/ ]ighae&m}aMumifh &J&ifatmif    h             awmh vl r od v k d Y vl o d a tmif
                                                                                                                                                           udk vlawGodvmMuwmyg/                             uRefawmfzefwD;xm;wmav;
                                                                                                                                                           &J&ifatmif jzpfvmzkYd b,fvrsK;d          dk      awG wifjzpfw,f/ tckusawmh
                                                                                                                                                           udk,fykdifzefwD;rIawGeJY BuKd;pm;                y&dowfawGudkvufaqmifay;
                                                                                                                                                           tm;xkwfcJh&vJ/                                   wJh taeeJYwifjzpfw,f/
                                                                                                                                                                 uRefawmfemrnfrBuD;cif                      tGefvkdif;rSm oDcsif;awGwifjzpf
                                                                                                                                                           uwnf;u olrsm;eJrwlcsib;l / Y           f         wmu b,f v d k tusKd ; ouf
                                                                                                                                                           uRefawmfhoDcsif;awGukd jynf                      a&mufrIawG&&SdcJhvJ/ y&dowf
                                                                                                                                                           wGif;u wjcm;pDeD,mawGa&m                                       I
                                                                                                                                                                                                            qDu a0zefrawGa&m&&Sz;l vm;/ d
                                                                                                                                                           wef;wla&m? wjcm;vlawGeJY                               t&if w k e f ; uqk d & if v l o d
                                                                                                                                                           vkH;0ukdrwlcsifbl;/ uRefawmf                                     d hf D
                                                                                                                                                                                                            oGm;w,f/ uk,ocsi;f udvawG     k l
                                                                                                                                                           xifwmuawmh olrsm;eJYrwl                          owdxm;rdoGm;w,f/ oDcsif;
                                                                                                                                                           atmif v k y f v k d Y y J uG J x G u f o G m ;   wif½kHeJY &J&ifhatmifukdawmhod
                                                                                                                                                           w,fxifw,f/                                       w,f? vlykHpHukdawmh rodbl;/
                                                                                                                                                           tGefvkdif;rSmyJ oDcsif;awG wif                   tck u sawmh y&d o wf a wG u d k
                                                                                                                                                                       dk
                                                                                                                                                           jzpfw,fqawmh tJ'taMumif;       D                 vufaqmifay;wJhtcg BuKduf
                                                                                                                                                           udkajymjyay;ygvm;/                               Muw,f/ tJ'DvkdrsKd;jyefMum;&
                                                                                                                                                                 oDcsif;pvkyfwJhtcsdefu p                   w,f/                       pm(41)okdY
40

entertainment                                                                                                                                                            Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013



aumf&DrGefwdwfuG,fvGefrIaMumihf oDwif;wpfywf aemufqkwfvdkufonhf ] Glee Season 5}
  avmhpftef*svdpf? Zlvdkif-20    26 &ufodkY ajymif;a&TUowfrSwf    Fox ESihf Fox ½kyfoHukrÜPDwdkYu     [k rD'D,mrsm;u azmfjyonf/
ig;Budrfajrmuf Glee Zmwfvrf;     vdkufonf/ Zlvdkifv 13 &ufu       aMunmcJhonf/                        aumf&DrGefwdwfESihf &if;ESD;aom
wJG&moDopf yJGOD;xGuf azsmfajz      k
                                 [dw,fcef;wpfcef;ü t&ufEihf S                         f G
                                                                        touf31ESpwifuG,vef      f G   Glee o½kyfaqifrsm;u aumf&D
wifqufrukd Glee Zmwfaqmif
           I                                         f    H
                                 rl;,pfaq;0g; tvGetuRo;kH pJG     aom Glee o½kyfaqmif aumf&D          onf aq;pJ G a eol w pf O D ; jzpf
aumf&DrGefwdwf uG,fvGefrI        rIjzihf uG,fvGefcJhonhf Glee        f d f
                                                                  rGewwonf touf 19 ESpf t             aomfvnf; Glee o½kyfaqmif
aMumifh oDwif;ywfwpfywfcefY      o½kyfaqmif aumf&DrGefwdwf            f
                                                                  &G,uvnf; rl;,pfaq;jzwf&ef           tvkyftay: rnfonhftcgrQ
a&TUqdkif;vdkufonf/              aMumifh pufwifbm 19 &uf          twGuf jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;             xdcdkufrIr&Sdapatmif BudK;pm;
      puf w if b mv 19 &uf              f T fh
                                 xkwvi&rnhf tpDtpOfukd 26         pcef;odkY a&muf&SdcJhNyD; ,ckESpf   onh f o½k y f a qmif w pf O D ; jzpf
wGif xkwviwifquf&ef pDpOf
          f T fh                 &ufodkY a&TUajymif;vdkuf&jcif;   rwf v wG i f v nf ; jyef v nf x l   onf[k ajymMum;Muonf/
xm;aom Glee aw;*DwZmwf           jzpfonf[k Glee Zmwfvrf;wJG       axmifa&;pcef;okdY udk,fwdkif
jrL;jyorIudk pufwifbmv           xkwfvkyfonhf 20th Century        oGm;a&mufum aq;jzwfconf    hJ                       —Ref: XinMSN
                                                                                                                                             AdkvfcsKyf½kyf&Sifjzpfajrmufa&;½Hk;cef;wGif
                                                                                                                                             tmZmenfaeY qGrf;auR;
                                                                                                                                             ZGJÓPf
                                                                                                                                             &efukef-(66)ESpfajrmuf tmZmenfaeYtxdrf;trSwftjzpf AdkvfcsKyf
                                                                                                                                             atmifqef;½kyf&Sifjzpfajrmufa&;½Hk;cef;wGif tmZmenfacgif;aqmif
                                                                                                                                             BuD;rsm;udk &nfpl;í tvSL'gejyKvkyfum trQtwef;ay;a0cJhonf/
                                                                                                                                                            k             G
                                                                                                                                                     Zlvdif 19 &ufwif AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESihf usq;Hk oGm;aom tm
                                                                                                                                             Zmenfacgif;aqmifBu;D rsm;udk &nfp;l vsuf oHCmawmfo;kH yg;udk qGr;f
                                                                                                                                             quf u yf v S L 'gef ; jcif ; ? ouF e f ; uyf v S L jcif ; rsm;jyKvk y f u m trQ
                                                                                                                                             twef;ay;a0jcif;jzpfaMumif; xGef;td`E´mAdku ajymonf/
                                                                                                                                                     ]]½Hk;cef;zGifhvSpfNyD; 'gu 'kwd,tBudrfyg}}[k ¤if;uqkdonf/
                                                                                                                                                     ,if;tvSLudk AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;½kyf&Sifjzpfajrmufa&;tzGJUu
                                                                                                                                             jyKvkyfjcif;jzpfNyD; tzGJU0ifrsm;jzpfonfh OD;ol&? OD;Zif0dkif;? OD;vlrif;?
                                                                                                                                             'g½dkufwmarmifrsKd;rif;? 'g½dkufwmrif;xifudkudkBuD;? 'g½dkufwm0dkif;?
                                                                                                                                                   k f                                f S
                                                                                                                                             'g½duwmMunfjzLoQi?f a0VKausmEihf tjcm;tzGUJ 0ifrsm;vnf; wuf
                                                                                                                                             a&mufcJhaMumif; xGef;td`E´mAdkuajymonf/
                                                                                                                                                     tvSLtNyD;wGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;½kyf&SiftwGuf ZmwfñTef;
                                                                                                                                             ydkif;qkdif&mudpörsm; qufvufaqG;aEG;jzpfcJhonf[k ¤if;uqkdonf/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               41

Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013                                                                                                                                                                       entertainment
  pmrsufESm(39)rS
  &J&ifhatmifESifh awGUqkHjcif;
y&d o wf tppf a wG u awmh                         ay;cJhw,fqkdawmh &J&ifhatmif                       azsmfajzyGJawGrSma&m y&dowf                     a&m bmajymcsifvJ/                               awmf t &if u em;rvnf b l ; /          uRefawmfh oli,fcsif;qDrSmyJ
ol w k d Y B uKd u f w J h [ muk d BuKd u f       taeeJYa&m b,foDcsif;ykHpHukd                                          D
                                                                                                     awGub,focsi;f awGuawmif;  dk                           ]trkef;'kdif,m&D} xGufcgp                a&SUu pDeD,mawGajymovkd t             vkyfjzpfw,f/
w,f/ bmaMumifBh uKuw,fqdk     d f                 ykd BuKdufvJ/                                      wmrsm;vJ/                                       txdawmh tJvkda0zefwmudk                         ouft&G,faMumifh olwkdY&JU oD
wmukajymw,f/ rBuKuw[m
            d                   d f hJ                  yGifhyGifhvif;vif;ajym&&if                         y&dowfeYJ uReawmfeYJ o[
                                                                                                                          f                          vufcHygw,f/tJ'Dtcsdeftxd                        csif;ykHpHawGajymif;vJoGm;w,f         tck Mainstream xJrSmqkd&if
qkd&ifvnf; bmaMumifhrBuKduf                       uRefawmfu ]ighae&m}oDcsif;udk                      ZmwjzpfNyD;qkdvkdY&wmawGu                       uRefawmfqkdcJhwJh oDcsif;awGt                   qkdwmudk em;rvnfbl;/ tck              a&m b,foleJYwGJNyD; oDcsifawG
bl;/ y&dowfu raumif;bl;                           rBuKdufbl;/ rBuKdufbl;qkdwm                        vGrf;vGef;vdkY qkd&ifqkdvkdYtqif                ukefvkH;u tonf;uGJwmrsKd;                       awmh uRefawmfvnf; BuKHawGU            vk y f c sif v J / vk y f a &mvk y f j zpf
ajymwmuvnf; uRefawmft                             qkd&wm ckaemufydkif;tqifr                          ajyw,f/ y&dowfawGvnf; od                        awGrsm;w,f/ enf;enf;Ekw,f                                  D
                                                                                                                                                                                                     ae&ygNy/ touft&G,aMumifhf             vm;/
wGuf aumif;zkdYyJav/ 'gayrJh                      ajybl;/ tBuKdufBuD;&,fawmh                         w,f / jrL;vnf ; jrL;w,f / NyD ;                 ayhg/ 'gayrJhvnf; bmrS &nf                      t&ifu rBuKdufcJhwJh Music ykHpH                 tJvkdBuD;awmh r&Sdygbl;/
wcsKdUusawmh y&dowfr[kwf                          r[kwfbl;/ tm;vkH;xJrSm b,f                         awmh uRefawmf qkdaeus trkef;                    &G,fcsufrygygbl;/ tJ'DvkdykHpH                  rsKd;awGvnf;BuKdufaew,f/ tJ           uReawmfu uReawmfwYdk G3t
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   f              f
                    f k f
bl;/ bmvkyvytaumif;rjrif                          [muk d t BuKd u f q k H ; vJ q k d & if              k f          J
                                                                                                     'di,m&DacGxu ]tcsptyruf}f d f                   rsKd;cHpm;jzpfvkdY tJ'DvkdrsKd;a&;jzpf          'DvkdrsKd;awGvnf;vkyfjzpfw,f/         zGUJ u vlawGeawmif oDcsi;f odyf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              YJ
wJvawG&w,f/ tJvrsK;d vnf;
  h l            dS              dk               vnf;wpfckrS pdwfwdkif;rusbl;/                      &Sdr,f/ tJ'gqk&ifvnf;BuKuMf u
                                                                                                                      d           d                  wmyg/ tckaemufykdif;rSm qkd&if                                                        rvkyjf zpfb;l / wpfa,mufwnf;
BuKHzl;w,f/                                       b,foDcsif;ukdrSvnf; ykdBuKduf                      w,f/ tckaemufydkif;VIPukdyg                     awmh ykHpHrsKd;pkHvkyfxm;w,f/                   2013ckESpfrSma&m b,fvkd*Dw                  f           k d f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           vky&wmudyBdk uKuw,f/ vGwf
                                                  oGm;wmr&Sdbl;/ ykHpHopfajymif;                     qkdkjzpfw,f/                                    uRefawmfwpfukd,fawmfacGxJ                       ykHpHawGajymif;vJoGm;zkdY&SdvJ/       vyfvkdYayhg/ 'gayrJh tckaemuf
tGefvkdif;rSm ]ighae&m} oDcsif;                   xm;wmvnf; olY[meJYolawmh                                                                           rSmvnf; Murf;wmawGygvmrSm                                uRefawmf Pop qkdwJhtqkd      xG u f r ,f h twG J a cG a wG x J r S m
wif w k e f ; u wpf a eY r S m &J & if            aumif;ygw,f/ 'gayrJh t&rf;                              f J            S
                                                                                                     azsmajzyGawGrma&mtcuftcJ                        yg/                                             awmf wpfa,muftjzpfyJ uRef             uRefawmfhpDeD,mawGeJY wGJqkd
atmifvYdkwu,f Mainstream                          tBuKdufBuD;xJrSmrygbl;/                            awG B uKH & zl ; vm;/ y&d o wf t                                                                awmfcH,lvkdufygw,f/ R&BvkdY           xm;wmawG&Sdygw,f/ b,fol
ay:rSm&yfwnfEkdifr,fh tqkd                                                                           wGuf ygazmrefYukda&m b,fvkd                     ]ighae&m}wke;f uvnf; tm;r&cJh                   vJtppfBuD;r[kwfygbl;/ 'gay            eJYwGJqkdxm;w,fqkdwmukd xGuf
awmfwpfa,mufjzpfoGm;Ekdif                         om;om;eJYESpfa,mufaygif;NyD;                       pdwf0ifpm;atmifwifqufjzpf                       bl;qkdawmh tckvkyfaewJh wpf                     rJh EkdifiHwumrSmvnf; Pop qkd         vmrSyJ y&dowfukdodapcsifyg
r,fvkdY tawG;0ifcJhzl;vm;/                        xGufcJhwJh ]trkef;'kdif,m&D}acG                    vJ/                                             udk,fawmfacGxJrSma&m &J&ifh                     ayrJhvnf; Hip Hopvnf;vkyf             w,f/
      tJ v k d a wmh rawG ; bl ; As/              taMumif;ukvnf;ajymjyay;yg
                                                                   d                                       ygazmrefYykdif;rSmawmh t                  atmiftm;&wJh oDcsif;awGyg                       wJh vlawG&Sdygw,f/ tJ'DvdkyJ
uRef a wmf ]igh a e&m} oD c sif ;                 OD;/                                               cuftcJr&Sdbl;/ wpfcgwav                         vmrSmvm;/                                       uReawmfvnf; Pop qkwtqkd
                                                                                                                                                                                                            f                    d hJ             h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           &J&ifatmif&UJ y&dowfawGxrm               J S
Record vkyawmh 'Docsi;av;
                 f         D f                           trk e f ; 'k d i f , m&D u uRef             pifay:rSmqkdaewJhtcsdefarmeD                          ]trkef;'kdif,m&D} txdu                    awmf v k d Y owf r S w f x m;w,f /    q,f a usmf o uf t &G , f w uú
u jrefrmEkiiu y&dowfvufcH
              d f H                               awmf w k d Y rS e f ; xm;wmxuf y k d               wmuae uk d , f h t oH u k d j yef r             awmh uRefawmfh oDcsif;awGukd                    'gayrJh Hip Hop qefwJh *Dw            ok d v f a usmif ; om;vl i ,f a wG
avmufw,fvkdYyJ rSef;xm;wm                         w,f/ tJ'DtacGxGufwkef;u                            Mum;&wmawmh&w,f/ uk,t  dS      d hf             tm;r&cJ h y gbl ; / 'gayrJ h tck                bufukdyJ oGm;rSmyg/                   rsm;w,f / ud k , f w k d i f u vnf ;
yg/ tJ'DvkdBuD; &J&ifhatmifjzpf                   aMumf j imtm;raumif ; cJ h b l ; /                 oHukdrMum;&awmh ukd,fqkdae                      aemufykdif; ]vGrf;vGef;vdkY} ] VIP}                                                   ausmif;om;vli,fjzpfawmh ol
vmr,fvkdYawmh rpOf;pm;rdyg                        bkwfawGvnf; raxmifEkdifcJh                                J
                                                                                                     wmvGaevm;? rvGb;l vm; rod J                     wkdYvkyfwJhtcgrSm xGufvmzkdY                    tckaemufykdif; pwl'D,kdrSm 'dwf       wkdYukdb,fvkdowif;pum;yg;
bl;/ tJ'D oDcsif;wifwJhtcsdefu                    bl;/ 'gayrJh y&dowfawGu tm;                        bl;ayhg/ tJ'DwpfckygyJ/ ygazmh                  vnf; t&rf;MumcJhw,f/ oGif;                                             f
                                                                                                                                                                                                     ,l&wmt&rf;usyw,fvYdk ajym             csifygovJ/
vnf; uRefawmf'DavmuxJp                            ay;w,f/ yxrwpfacgufpD'D                            refYukdawmh t&ifupOf;pm;wm                      vkduf jyefcsdef;vkdufeJYuRefawmf                Muw,f/ 'gaMumifh tqkdawmf                      uRef a wmf h o D c sif ; awG u d k
a&mufcgu q,fwef;atmifp                            ck w f x m;wmwif & yf o G m ;r,f                   u Dancer awGeJYvkyfzkdYayg/                     em;eJY tm;&wJhtcsdefusrS y&d                    awGu Home Studio awGvyf       k       tm;ay;wJh txl;ojzihf vli,fy
qkdawmh enf;enf;uav;qef                           xifwm/ aemufxyfwpfaxmif                            'gayrJh tqifrajyawmh wpf                        owfvufxJukd xnfhcJhw,f/                                              h
                                                                                                                                                                                                     vmMuw,f/ &J&ifatmifrma&m   S          &dowfawGukd uRefawmfaemuf
w,fvvnf;ajymvk&w,f/ vl
          Ydk           Yd                        wpfaxmifeJY okH;av;cgavmuf                         a,mufwnf;yJ vkyfjzpfw,f/                        tckwpfukd,fawmfacGukdvnf;                       tpDtpOf&Sdvm;/                        xyfocsi;f opfawGvyaew,f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     D                   k f
uvnf;i,fao;w,f/ pdwfu                             xyfvkyfcJh&w,f/ b,favmuf                           y&dowfukd wpfyGJeJYwpfyGJrwl&                   uRefawmf aoaocsmcsmtm;&                              udk,fykdif pwl'D,kdqkdwmu             f              G J S d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           vkyaewJh acGxrmqk&if vli,f
vnf ; uav; qef a o;w,f /                          vJawmh twdtusrrSwrawmh           f d                            f
                                                                                                     atmif uReawmfypawGzuf&if
                                                                                                                           h Hk H        S           rS y&dowfvufxJukdxnfhrSm                        awmh pD;yGm;jzpfRecord vkyfvkdY       udk Target xm;wm&Sdw,f/ vl
oDcsif;ykHpHuvnf;uav;qef                          bll;/ tJ'Du&wJh tEkynmaMu;                         awGukd trsK;d rsK;d ajymif;vJNy;D wif           yg/                                             &wJhtxd vkyfzkdYtpDtpOfawmh           vwfykdif;ukd Target xm;wm&Sd
w,f/ tJ'Dvkd uav;qefwJhoD                         eJYvnf; y&dowfukdjyefay;Ekdif                      qufygw,f/                                                                                       r&Sdbl;/ tcktdrfrSma&;xm;wJh          w,f/ aemufNyD;awmh jzpfysuf
csif; ykHpHav;yJjzpfcJhwm/                        atmif okH;xm;ygw,f/ ADpD'Dukd                                                                      oD c sif ; wpf y k ' f u d k BuKd u f w J h r   oDcsif;awGudk oGif;vkdY&atmif                     hJ Hk H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           aeuswypawGtjyif okw&o
                                                  vnf; pufwifbmavmufxuf                G                   h
                                                                                                     &J&ifatmif&UJ oHpOfawG? oDcsi;f                 BuKdufwJh cHpm;rIawGutouf                       Home Studio taeeJYvkyfzkdY            ygwJ h oD c sif ; yk H p H a wG v k y f x m;
tJ'DoDcsif;udkyJ ]cspfw,f rkef;                   r,f/ tJ'rm VIP oDcsi;f ukvnf;
                                                              D S                    d               awGtay:rSm wcsKdUuawmh Ek                       t&G , f a Mumif h a &m ajymif ; vJ              ypö n f ; awG r S m xm;wmawmh & S d   w,fvkdYajymcsifygw,f/
w,f} rSm ykHpHtopfajymif;NyD;qkd                  Bonus taeeJY xnfhay;zkdYvkyf                       vGef;w,f/ t½IH;ay;vGef;w,f                      oGm;r,fvkdYxifvm;/                              w,f / ra&muf a o;vk d Y tck
cJhw,f/ y&dowfuvnf;tm;                            xm;w,f/                                            vkYd a0zefMuw,f/tJ'tay:rSm
                                                                                                                         D                                 trsm;BuD;ygygw,f/ uRef                    Record vk k y f j zpf w muawmh              aus;Zl;wifygw,f/                    /




             10
                                                                                              ,ckwpfywftwGif;                                                                        Movie Review
 Top                                                                               tar&duefwGif0ifaiGtaumif;qHk;
                                                     Movies
                                                     in AMericA                                    ½kyf&Sifum;rsm;                                                                               Apartment 1303
..................................................................................................................................................
 pOf Zmwfum;trnf                                   jzefYcsdonfhukrÜPD                    pkpkaygif;0ifaiG                jyoonfh                     *kPfrufaom rdcif\ xdef;csKyfrIatmufwGif BuD;jyif;chJ&aom *sef;
                                                                                         (uefa':vm)                  &ufowåywfaygif;                 eufqvdwfonf tar&duef Detroit NrdKUxJtxyfjrifhwkdufcef;wpf
..................................................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                     cef;ü aexkdif&eftcGihfta&;&&dScJhonf/ *sef;eufonf 13 xyf&dS
1/ Despicable Me 2                               Universal Pictures                         228ç377ç000                             2
                                                                                                                                                     tcef;trSwf 1303 okdYajymif;a&TUaexkdifcJhNyD;aemufydkif;rS ,if;t
2/ Grown Ups 2                                   Sony Pictures &                             41ç508ç600                            1                                             d f dk f dk          J
                                                                                                                                                     cef;ü trsKd ;orD;wpfO;D uk,u,u,f owfaochz;l onf[k odvu&        dk f
                                                 Columbia Picture                                                                                    onf/ wkdufcef;xJü xl;qef;onfh tajctaetrsm;tjym;BuHKawGU
3/	 Pacific	Rim	                                 Warner	Bros.Pictures	                      37ç285ç300                             1                 ae&aom *sef;eufonf cspfoljzpfol rmhcfukd tqdkygudpö&yfrsm; &if
4/ The Heat                                      20th Century Fox                          112ç366ç000                             3                 zGihfajymMum;cJhaomfvnf; rmhcf\ tjypfwifa0zefrIrsm;ukdom cHchJ&
5/	 The	Lone	Ranger	                             Walt	Disney	Studios	                       71ç467ç300                             2                              f S fh    S
                                                                                                                                                     onf/ rmhcEitwl &dpOf wpfnü rjrif&aom tiftm;wpfcudk *se;f     k
                                                 Motion Pictures                                                                                                               G             d hf dk f dk
                                                                                                                                                     euftm; ac:aqmifom;Ny;D 13 xyfrS uk,u,u,f ckecsowfao   f
6/	    Monsters	University	                      Walt	Disney	Pictures	   237ç771ç000                                               4                 atmif zefwD;cJhonf/ nDrjzpfol *sef;eufESihf twlae&ef a&mufvm
                                                                                                                                                     aom vefemonf *sef;eufuG,fvGef&onfh udpöukd &SmazGazmfxkwf
7/	    World	War	Z	                              Paramount	Pictures	     176ç972ç000                                               4
                                                                                                                                                     pOf ,if;tcef; 1303 ü nDrjzpfol BuHKawGU&onfh aMumufzufzG,f
8/     White	House	Down	                         Sony	Pictures	Releasing	 62ç975ç600                                               3
                                                                                                                                                     tjcif;t&mrsm;ukd BuHKawGU&awmhonf/                                                    Mischa Barton, Rebecca De
9/     Kevin Hart: Let Me                        Summit Entertainment, 26ç132ç500                                                  2                        Apartment 1303 onf;xdwf&ifzkdZmwfum;ukd 'g½dkufwm                              Mornay, Julianne Michelle
       Explain                                   LLC                                                                                                 Michael Taverna ½duu;Ny; Zlvif 25 &ufwif tar&duefEifh uae
                                                                                                                                                                           k f l D dk               G           S                                              Yk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ESifh Corey Sevier wdyg0ifo½kyf
10/ Man	of	Steel	                                Warner	Bros.Pictures	                     280ç889ç000                             5                 'gEkdifiHrsm;wGif ½HkwifjyooGm;rnfjzpfonf/ tqkdygZmwfum;wGif                          aqmifxm;onf/
                                                                                                                Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2010
                                                                                                               Vol.9, No.29  OCtObeR 7,2013

                                                                                                                                                                                      vnf; ukd,fwkdiftm;xkwf&r,fh                      hJ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             rSmjzpfwtwGuf rEÅav;ol jzpf
                                                                                                                                                                                      tykdif;vkdYxifygw,f/ tm;om             wJh cifrmvmxGe;f &JU cHpm;csuudk     f
                                                                                                                                                                                      csufuawmh toif;vkdufpnf;               vnf; odcsifygw,f/
                                                                                                                                                                                      vHk;nDñGwfrI&dSwJh tykdif;yg/                vmr,fhqD*drf;trsdK;orD;
                                                                                                                                                                                      trsdK;orD; abmvHk;toif;u               abmvkH;yJGpOfawGukd udk,fhEkdifiH
                                                                                                                                                                                      awmh pdwf"mwfykdif;qkdif&mt            wGifomrubJ ukd,fhNrdKUrSm ,SOf
                                                                                                                                                                                      ydkif;uawmh txl;wvnfajym               NydKifupm;&rSm jzpfwJhtwGuf
                                                                                                                                                                                      p&mrvkdbl;vkdYxifygw,f/                uRefawmfuawmh BudKawG;rd&if
                                                                                                                                                                                      *syefenf;jyulrm'geJY ywfouf            pdwfvIyf&Sm;rdygw,f/ wpfcg
                                                                                                                                                                                      NyD; bmajymcsifygovJ/ olU&JU           wav ckcsufcsif;upm;csifpdwf
                                                                                                                                                                                      enf;pepfawGu jrefrmtoif;               awmifjzpfrdygw,f/
                                                                                                                                                                                      eJY tH0ifrI&dSyg&JUvm;/                cifrmvmxGef;&JUtESpfoufqHk;
                                                                                                                                                                                             enf;jyBuD;uawmh upm;            abmvHk;orm;awG&dS&if ajymjy
                                                                                                                                                                                      orm;awGukd awmfawmfjzpfap              ay;yg/
                                                                                                                                                                                      csifwJh qE´&dSwmyg/ pdwf"mwf                 jynfyrSmawmh rufqDyg/
                                                                                                                                                                                      ydkif;qkdif&mu tp 'Dxufukd wkd;        olY&JU upm;yHk vsifjrefrI? pdwf
                                                                                                                                                                                      wufatmifvnf; tNrJjyKjyif               "mwfawGukd t&rf;eSpfoufyg
"mwfyHk - AdkvfAdkvf0if;




                                                                                                                                                                                      ckdif;w,f/ toif;wdk;wufwJh             w,f/ jynfwGif;rSmawmh ausmf
                                                                                                                                                                                      tajctaeukdMunfh&if olU&JU              ukdukdyg/
                                                                                                                                                                                      enf;pepfydkif;eYJ tH0ifw,fvkdYyJ       ckcsdeftxd cifrmvmxGef;t
                                                                                                                                                                                      ajymvkdY&ygw,f/                        aumif;qHk;eJY trSwfw&t&dSqHk;
                                                                                                                                                                                      trsdK;orD;abmvHk;toif;u                yJGpOfu b,fyJGpOfjzpfrvJ/
                                                    ]]vmr,fhqD;*drf;trsdK;orD; abmvHk;yJGpOfawGukd ukd,hfEdkifiHwGifomruyJ ukd,fhNrdKUrSm                                             urÇmhcsefyD,Hjzpfzl;wJh *syefvkd
                                                                                                                                                                                      EkdifiHrSm oGm;a&mufavhusif&cJh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   &efukefrSm usif;ycJhwJh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2007 ckESpf? tmqD,HcsefyD,H
                                                         ,SOfNydKifupm;&rSm jzpfwJhtwGuf uRefawmfuawmh BudKawG;rd&if pdwfvIyf&Sm;                                                     wJhtwGuf bmawG&cJhygovJ/
                                                                                                                                                                                      *syef trsdK;orD;toif; bm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 f             d f k GJ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             &Spaemufq;kH Akvvyyg/ jrefrm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             u xkdif;toif;ukd yife,fwD
                                                               rdygw,f/ wpfcgwav ckcsufcsif;upm;csifpdwfawmif jzpfrdygw,f}}                                                           aMumifh atmifjrifaewmvkYd xif
                                                                                                                                                                                      ygovJ/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             YJ dk      d f GJ hJ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             tqH;k tjzwfeEiNf y;D Akvpcwm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             yg/ jrefrmtoif;bufu yif
                                                                                                                                                                                             *syefrSmajcprf;cJh&wJh t        e,fwDuef&wJh upm;orm;



                       cifrmvmxGef;ESihf awGUqHkjcif;
                                                                                                                                                                                      oif;awGu ukd,fhxufomwJh                awGxJrSm uRefawmfvnf;yg0if
                                                                                                                                                                                      toif;awGyg/ 'gaMumifh tawGU            cJhygw,f/ vufa&G;pifupm;o
                                                                                                                                                                                      tBuHKawGtrsm;BuD;&ygw,f/               rm;b0rSm yxrqHk;yife,fwD
                                                                                                                                                                                      *syefabmvHk;orm;awGtaeeJY              uef&wJh yJGpOfvnf;jzpfygw,f/
                                                                                                                                                                                      wpfOD;csif;t&nftcsif;? cE¨m            y&dowfawGuvnf; t&rf;
                                                                                                                                                                                      uk d , f t&G , f t pm;utp?             tm;ay;cJhwmyg/
                       AdkvfAdkvf0if;                              zdtm;awmh jzpfp&m t             ajymif;vJoGm;wm r[kwf awmh             BudK;pm;oGm;rSmyg/                          tawG;tac:ydkif;u tpaygh                y&dowfBuD;ukd bmajymcsiygo       f
                       2012-2013 abmvHk;&moD\              aMumif;r&dSygbl;/ ydkNyD;awmh           'gBuD;ukd vdkufcHpm;aevkdYawmh         jrefrmtrsdK;orD; abmvHk;t                   aemf/ ukd,fawGxuftrsm;BuD;             vJ/
                       taumif;qHk;trsdK;orD;abm            tm;jzpfapw,fayghaemf/ BudK;             r&bl;aygh/ &aewJh yHhykd;rIawGu        oif;&JU tm;enf;csuf? tm;om                  omwmaygh/ uRefawmfwkdY oGm;                  vmr,fhtmqD,HcsefyD,H
                       vHk;orm;qkukd vufa&G;pift           pm;csifpdwf ydkjzpfvmwmyg/              aeyJ b,fvBdk uKd ;pm;rvJ? atmif        csufawGu bmawGjzpfrvJ/                                 f hJ
                                                                                                                                                                                      avhusiwae&mrSmqk&if abm d              &Spfa&m? qD;*drf;NydKifyJGrSma&m
                       rsdK;orD;abmvHk;toif; acgif;        wm0efydkBuD;vmovkdrsdK;awmh             jrifrIb,fvkd&,lrvJqkdwmrsdK;                  tm;enf ; csuf u awmh                                  dk
                                                                                                                                                                                      vH;k uGi;f awGqvnf; trsm;BuD;?         tdrf&Sifvnf;jzpfwJhtwGuf y&d
                       aqmifcifrmvmxGef;u &&dScJh          rcHpm;&ygbl;/ bmvkvqawmh  Yd J kd       yJ awG;ygw,f/                          abmvHk;&&if bmvkyfrvJqkdwJh                 uav;awGqkd&ifvnf; usm;?r               owfawGtaeeJY uRefawmfwdkY
                       onf/ cifrmvmxGef;onf                NyKd iywi;f rSm tEki&&dzYdk BudK;pm;
                                                                 f GJ dk         d f S             vmr,fhESpfrSm trsdK;orD;vd*f           csuf c sif ; qH k ; jzwf E k d i f w mav;   rl v wef ; ausmif ; om;t&G , f         toif;ukd ykdNyD;tm;ay;ygvkdY/
                       2012 tmqD,csey,&pNf yiyJG
                                           H f D H S d f   ae&r,fh wm0efuawmh upm;                 NydKifyJGjyKvkyfzdkY pDpOfaewmeJYywf   awG enf;enf;tm;enf;rI&w,f             Sd    av;awGupm;aewm trsm;                   y&d o wf & J U tm;ay;rI u vnf ;
                       'kwd,qkESihf 2014 tm&Szvm;          orm;wkdif;&JUwm0efyJav/ qk&             oufNyD; bmajymcsifygovJ/               vkdYxifygw,f/ ukd,fabmvHk;                  BuD;awGU&ygw,f/ aemufi,f               uRefawmfwkdYtwGuf tm;aq;
                       ajcppfyatmif jrefrmtrsKd ;orD;
                                  GJ                       wm r&wmeJYawmh rqkdifbl;vkdY                   trsdK;orD;vd*fNydKifyJGvkyf     r&cifrm bmvkyrvJaygh/ abm
                                                                                                                                                     S           f                             J
                                                                                                                                                                                      i,fxuq&mawGupepfwus                    wpfcGufjzpfygw,f/ vufa&G;
                       abmvHk;toif;acgif;aqmif             xifygw,f/                               r,fqkdwmuawmh aumif;wm                 vH;k &Ny;D &ifvnf; bmvkyrvJqdk      f       oif M um;ay;aewmawG U &yg              piftrsdK;orD;abmvHk;wpfoif;
                       jzpfonf/ cifrmvmxGef;ESihf Zl       trsdK;orD;abmvHk;orm;awG                aygh/ vufa&G;piftoif;rSmqkd            wmrsdK;av;awGaygh/ 'Dtydkif;                w,f/                                   vHk;taeeJYvnf; taumif;qHk;
                       vkdif 21 &ufwGif awGUqHkar;         taeeJY EkdifiHtoif;rSm atmif            &if pDeD,mupm;orm;awGqkd               uawmh enf;jyq&mukdtm;ukd;                   qD;*drf;trsdK;orD;abmvHk;yJGpOf        BudK;pm;oGm;ygr,fvkdY/
                       jref;xm;onfrsm;rS pmzwfy&d          jrifrI&&dSw,fvkdY ajymvkdY&ay           vnf; toufBu;D aeygNy/ 'D NyKd if
                                                                                                                                D         raeyJ upm;orm;wpfOD;csif;                                             H
                                                                                                                                                                                      awGudk rEÅav;rSm vufcusi;f y                 aus;Zl;wifygw,f/
                       owftwGuf aumufEkwfazmf                               hf d
                                                           r,fh cHpm;cGityki;f rSm trsKd ;om;      yJGawGuae rsdK;qufopfawG
                       jyvkdufygonf/
                       taumif;qHk;qk&wJhtwGuf cH
                                                           abmvHk;orm;awGxuf avsmh
                                                           enf;&&dSaewJh tay:rSma&m
                                                                                                   xGufay:vmNyD; vufa&G;pif
                                                                                                   toif;udk 0ifa&mufvmr,f
                                                                                                                                          2013 qD;*ddrf; tm;upm;orm; ig;axmifausmf,SOfNydKifrnf
                       pm;csuav;ukd t&ifajymjyay;
                                f                          b,fvkdcHpm;rdvJ/                            d
                                                                                                   qk&if jrefrmtrsKd ;orD;abmvH;k         AdkvfAdkvf0if;                              bmvwGif aejynfawmf? &ef                &Sm;EkdifiHu tm;upm;orm;
                       yg/                                               dk       d          d f
                                                                   'DvrsKd ;u uk,jhf refrm EkiiH   tm;upm;'Dxufyw;dk wufvm   dk                   &efukef? Zlvkdif-20                 ukef? rEÅav;ESifh aiGaqmifurf;         838 OD;jzifh tdr&ijf refrmNy;D vQif
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             f S
                             'Dqk&vdrfhr,fvkdY arQmfvifh   wpfckwnf;awmh r[kwfbl;aygh              rSmyg/                                 jrefrmEkdifiHu tdrf&Siftjzpf                ajcwkdYü usif;yjyKvkyfrnfjzpf          'kwd,trsm;qHk;ta&twGuf
                       cJhwmawmh r[kwfygbl;/ rarQmf        av/ tjcm;EkdifiHawGrSmvnf;              jrefrmtrsdK;orD; abmvHk;t              vufcHusif;yrnfh (27)Budrf                   NyD; yg0if,SOfNydKifMurnfh tm;                       S f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             jzifh yg0if,ONf yKd irnfjzpfonf/
                       vifhyJ&wJhtwGuf &ifxJrSm 0rf;       trsdK;om; abmvHk;tm;upm;                oif;taeeJY tmqD,H&SpfNydKifyJG         ajrmufqD;*drf;NydKifyGJwGif NydKifyGJ       upm;enf;rsm;ESifh tm;upm;              tdrf&SifjrefrmEdkifiHtaejzifh 0if
                       omovkd *kPfvnf;*kPf,lyg             u eHygwfwpf OD;pm;ay;jzpfae             rSm csefyD,HESpfBudrfjzpfcJhayr,fh     0if 11 EkdifiHrS tm;upm;orm;                orm;ta&twGufudk NydKifyGJ              a&muf,SOfNydKifrnfh aemufqHk;
                       w,f/                                wmqkdawmh ukd,fawGu 'D                  qD;*drf;rSm a&Tr&bl;ao;ygbl;/          pkpkaygif; ig;axmifausmfyg0if               0ifEkdifiHrsm;rS jrefrmEkdifiHtdkvH    tqif h t m;upm;orm;ta&
                       toif;acgif;aqmif wpfOD;             tay:rSm pdwfcHpm;csufodyf               vmr,fh qD;*dr;f twGuf arQmvifh   f     ,SOfNydKifMurnf jzpfaMumif;                 ypfaumfrwDodkY w&m;0ifay;ydkY          twGufudk twnfjyK&jcif;r&Sd
                       taeeJY taumif;qHk;qkukd &           xm;vkr&bl;/ aemufNy;D 'DvrsKd ;
                                                                      Yd                      dk   csufu bmygvJ/                          owif;&&Sdonf/                               xm;NyD;jzpfaMumif; owif;&&Sd           ao;aomfvnf; tm;upm;
                       vkdufwm vmr,hfNydKifyJGawGrSm       u [kd;t&ifuwnf;u jzpfvm                        qD;*drf;rSm yxrqHk;a&TwH              2 ESpfwpfBudrfusif;yonfh              onf/                                   orm; 800 ausmf 0ifa&muf
                       zdtm;jzpfapvm;/ wm0efydk            vmwmav/ ckrSjzpfvmwm                    qdyf,lzkdY jrefrmtrsdK;orD; abm        a'owGif;tBuD;us,fqHk;tm;                          oufqdkif&m NydKifyGJ0ifEkdifiH   ,SOfNydKifrnfjzpfaMumif; tm;
                                       Ydk
                       Bu;D vm w,fva&mcHpm;rdvm;/          vnf; r[kwfawmh? ckrSpNyD;               vH;k toif;taeeJY taumif;qH;k           upm;NydKifyGJudk vmrnfh'DZif                rsm;rS pm&if;ay;ydrt& tif'e;D
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yk I         kd                  pmrsufESm( 44) odkY
43
44

Sports                                                                                                                                                                            Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013


                                                                                                                                                 pmrsufESm( 42) rS
tar&duefbwfpuufabmtoif; jrefrmtoif;rsm;ESifh                                                                                                     2013 qD;*ddrf;wGif tm;upm;orm; ig;axmifausmf
                                                                                                                                                 ,SOfNydKifrnf
vuf&nfprf;yGJ vma&muf,SOfNyKdifrnf                                                                                                               upm;0efBuD;XmerS wm0ef&Sdol
                                                                                                                                                 wpfOD;u ajymonf/
                                                                                                                                                                                                enf;wGif tm;upm;orm; 693
                                                                                                                                                                                                OD;? pifumylEkdifiHu tm;upm;
AkvAv0if;
  d f kd f                             orm; 15OD;yg0ifvmrSmjzpfNyD;                                                                                              f S           d f H
                                                                                                                                                          ]]tdr&ijf refrmEkiitaeeJY             enf; (29)enf;wGif tm;upm;
               k
        &efue?f Zlvi-20 dk f           qD;*dr;f twGuf jyifqifaewJh t                                                                             awmh yGJpOfwkdif;0ifa&muf,SOf                  orm; 550? zdvpfydkifEkdifiHu
                 dk f H
tar&duefEiirSVision Sport              rsK;d om;? trsK;d orD;toif;awGeYJ                                                                         NydKifrSmjzpfNyD; tm;upm;orm;                  tm;upm;enf;(27)rsK;d wGif tm;
-s bwfpuufabmtoif;ESifh                aejynfawmfrSm vuf&nfprf;yGJ                                                                               ta&twGuf trsm;qH;k eJ0ifNyKd if     Y          upm;orm; 446 OD;? vmtdEiiH    k dk f
jrefrmbwfpuufabmtoif;                  ESpyeYJ vufa&G;pifa[mif;rsm;yg
                                             f JG                                                                                                zkdY&Sdygw,f/ vmr,fh qD;*drf;rSm               u tm;upm;enf; (26)rsKd;wGif
rsm; \ vuf&nfprf;yGrsm;udk ae   J      0ifwJh ñGefYaygif;toif;eJY &ef                                                                            jrefrmtm;upm;orm;ta&t                          tm;upm;orm; 388 OD;? uarÇm
jynfawmfEihf &efueNf rKUd rsm;wGif
             S            k            ukefrSm ESpfyGJ,SOfNyKdifupm;rSm                                                                          wGuf 800 eJY 900 Mum; 0if                      'D;,m;EkdifiHu tm;upm;enf;
,SOfNyKdifupm;rnfjzpfaMumif;           jzpfygw,f}}[k jrefrmEkiiH bwf
                                                                d f                                                                              a&muf , S O f N yd K if o G m ;rS m jzpf y g   (24) rsKd;wGif tm;upm;orm;
owif;&&Sdonf/                          puufabmtzGUJ csKywm0ef&ol
                                                              f         dS                                                                       w,f}}[k tm;upm;0efBuD;Xme                      277 OD;? b½lEkdif;EkdifiHu tm;u
      aumvdyftqifh&Sd tqkdyg           u ajymonf/                                                                                                wm0ef&Sdolu ajymonf/                           pm;enf;(16)rsKd;wGif tm;upm;
toif;onf 2013qD;*drf;t                            Vision Sports toif;
                                                                                                                                                          tm;upm;enf; (33) rsKd;                orm; 188 OD;? wDarmEkdifiHu
wGuf jyifqifavhusiaeonfh y   hf        enf;jyq&mrsm;onf vGefcJh                                                                                  xnfhoGif;usif;yrnfh 2013 qD;                   tm;upm;enf;ajcmufrsKd;wGif
Pmrjrefrmhvufa&G;pifbwfp               onfh 2002ckESpfrS pwifum                                                                                              f JG G       H d
                                                                                                                                                 *dr;f NyKd iywif a&Twqyf 460 t                 tm;upm;orm; 97 OD; 0if
uufabmtoif;rsm;ESifh Zlvkdif           jrefrmbwfpuufabmtoif;                                                                                     ygt0if pkpkaygif;qkwHqdyft                     a&muf,SOfNydKif&ef pm&if;ay;
25?26 &ufrsm;wGif aejynf               tm;upm;orm;rsm;tm;vm                                                                   "mwfyHk - tm;^um   a&twGuf 1557 ck csD;jr§ihfoGm;                 xm;aMumif; tm;upm;0efBuD;
awmf&Sd 0PÖod'¨dtm;upm;½kHü            a&mufoifMum;rIrsm; jyKvycNhJ y;D
                                                                    k f      qifh&SdwJh tar&duefutoif;          om;? trsKd;orD;) ESpfq,fOD;pD    rnfjzpfNyD; tif'dkeD;&Sm;EkdifiHu              XmerS xkwjf yefxm;onfh pm&if;
vnf;aumif;? Zlvkdif 28? 29             toif;taejzifhrl NyD;cJhonfh           jzpfwJhtwGuf vuf&nfprf;cGifh       jzifh aejynfawmfü w½kwf          tm;upm;enf;tm;vHk;wGif 0if                     rsm;t& od&Sd&onf/
&ufrsm;wGif jrefrmñGeaygif;t      Yf                  S f
                                       2012ckEptwGi;f u &efueNf rKUd  k      &wJhjrefrmtoif;awGtwGuft                                      G
                                                                                                                enf;jyq&mwpfO;D ESihf jynfwi;f   a&muf,SOfNydKif&ef pm&if;ay;                         jrefrmEkdifiH tdkvHypfaumf
oif;ESifh &efukefNrKdUatmifqef;        okdY yxrtBudrfvma&mufum               vGetusK;d &Sapygw,f}}[k tzGUJ
                                                                                  f      d                      enf;jyq&mav;OD;wdkYjzifh avh     xm;onf/                                        rwDtaejzifh vmrnfh atmuf
tm;upm;½k H ü vnf ; aumif ;            vuf&nfprf;yGJrsm;,SOfNyKdif u         csKyfwm0ef&Sdoluajyonf/            usifhay;vsuf&Sdonf/ (27)Budrf                 d d f H
                                                                                                                                                          xki;f EkiirS tm;upm;enf;              wdkbmvtwGif; NydKifyGJ0ifEkdifiH
vuf&nfprf;yGJrsm;,SOfNyKdif u          pm;cJhzl;aMumif; od&Sd&onf/                  2013qD;*drf;,SOfNyKdif&ef   ajrmufqD;*drf;NyKdifyGJ\ bwfp    31 rsKd;wGif tm;upm;orm;t                      rsm;\ tm;upm;orm;trnf
pm;rnfjzpfonf/                                     ]]aumvdyftqifh qkday      jyifqifaeonfh vufa&G;pif           uufabmyGJpOfrsm;ukd aejynf       a&twGuf 827 OD;? rav;&Sm;Edif            k     pm&if;twdtusukd ay;yd&ef t Yk
      ]]Vision Sports toif;rSm         r,fh bwfpuufabmtm;u                   bwf p uuf a bmtoif ; rsm;          awmfü vufcHusif;yoGm;rnf         iHu tm;upm;enf; (30)wGif                       aMumif;Mum;xm;aMumif;vnf;
trsK;d om;? trsK;d orD;tm;upm;         pm;enf;rSm urÇmhxdyfwef;t             ukd yPmrvufa&G;pif(trsKd;          jzpfaMumif; owif;&&Sdonf/        tm;upm;orm; 695 OD;? AD,uf                     owif;&&Sdonf/
                                                                                                                                                 erfEkdifiHu tm;upm;enf;(31)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           45

Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013                                                                                                                         International
vGefcJhaom 35 ESpfu aoewfjzihf ypfowfcH&aom vlrnf;vli,frSm                                                                                           pEkd;'efudk vTJajymif;ray;vQif *sD-20
                                                                                                                                                     tpnf;ta0;udk EkdifiHajymif;usif;y&ef
rdrdyifjzpfEkdif[k tkdbm;rm;ajym                                                                                                                     ueftxufvTwfawmftrwfESpfOD; wdkufwGef;
       0g&Sifwef?Zlvkdif-20                                                                                                                                     0g&Sifwef?Zlvkdif-20          pDtpOf tao;pdwftcsuft
2012 ckESpf azazmf0g&Dvu                                                                                                                             wdrf;a&Smifaeaom tar&duef                vufrsm; aygufMum;aprI pGcsuf    J
zavmf&'gjynfe,fwif aoewf
          D               G                                                                                                                          pD t k d i f a t 0ef x rf ; a[mif ;      rsm;jzihf tvkd&Sdaeaom pEkd;'ef
                                                                                                                                                                  f
                                                                                                                                                     tuf'0yfpEk;d 'efukd ½k&m;Ekiiu S d f H   rSm armfpudkavqdyfwGif wpfv
jzihf ypfowfcH&aom touf
                                                                                                                                                     vTJajymif;ay;tyfjcif;rjyKygu             eD;yg; ykef;atmif;aeNyD; ½k&Sm;u
(17)ESpft&G,f vlrnf;vli,f
                                                                                                                                                     vmrnhf pufwifbmvwGif                     ¤if;tm; vTJtyfjiif;qefjcif;t
xa&AGefrmwifrSm vGefcJhaom
                                                                                                                                                     ½k&Sm;EkdifiH pdefYyDwmpbwfNrdKUü        wGuf tar&duefu a'goxGuf
35 ESpfuqdkvQif rdrdyifjzpfEkdifcJh
                                                                                                                                                     usif;y&ef&Sdaom *sD-20 xdyfoD;           vsuf&Sdonf/
onf[k uefor®w bm;&uftkd
                                                                                                                                                     aqG;aEG;yGJudk tjcm;ae&modkY                   pEkd;'efudpöESihfywfoufí
bm;rm;u ajymMum;vkuonf/      d f                                                                                                                     ajymif;a&TUusi;f ya&;pOf;pm;&ef          ½k&Sm;EkdifiH qdkcsDNrdKUaqmif;&moD
                      k f
       vufeufrudiaqmifxm;                                                                                                                            tar&dueftxufvTwfawmf                     tkdvHypfukd tar&duefEkdifiHu
aom q,fausmfoufvli,fudk                                                                                                                              trwfESpfOD;u uefor®wtdk                  oydwfarSmuf&ef rpöwm*a&
rdrdukd,fukd,f umuG,f&eft                                                                                                                            bm;rm;tm; wdkufwGef;ajym                 [rfu ,ckoDwif;ywftwGif;
wGuf ypfcwfcJhonf[k avQmuf                                                                                                                           Mum;onf/                                 rSmyif ajymMum;onf/ odkYaomf
                                                                                                                                 NiCHOLAS KAmm/AFP
vJcJhol a*smhcsfZifrmref (29)ESpf            ီ                       ္ ူ           ္
                                      ဖေလာ္ရဒါမွ ဆယ္ေက်ာ္သက္အရြယလငယ္ ထေရဗြနမာတင္ အသက္ခရမႈအတြက္ ေဂ်ာ့ခ်္ဇင္မာမန္းအား တရားေသလႊတ္ေပးခဲမကို ဆန္က်င္
                                                                                            ံ                                      ့ ႈ     ႔                    pEkd;'efudk tar&duefEkdifiH   ueftkdvHypfaumfrwDu ,if;
wGif tjypfr&S[k *sL&DvBl uD;tzGUJ
              d                       ကန္႔ကြက္ေသာအားျဖင့္ ဝါရွင္တန္တြင္ ခ်ီတက္ဆႏၵျပေနသူမ်ား
                                                                                                                                                              J
                                                                                                                                                     odYk vTajymif;ay;&ef armfpuktm;    d     udkqefYusifxm;onf/
u NyD;cJhonfhoDwif;ywfu qHk;          or®wtkdbm;rm;\ yxrqHk;                              Yd             I dk f
                                                                                        xktjyif &mZ0wfrqi&m         \ wkHYjyefyHkudkvnf; or®wtkd     wkdufwGef;a&;ESihf tu,fívTJ                    trwfESpfOD; wifjyxm;
jzwfcJhonf/                           rSwfcsufvnf;jzpfonf/                        Oya'rsm;usifhoHk;&mwGif vlrsdK;   bm;rm;u csD;usL;ajymMum;         ajymif;ray;ygu 0g&Sifwefu                aom tqkdjyKcsufwGif tdkvHypf
       rD'D,mrsm;odkY arQmfvifhr             ,if ; ud p ö E S i f h y wf o uf í   a&;rnDrQrIrsm; &Sdaejcif;udk      vkdufonf/                        ta&;,la&;wkdufwGef;aom t                 taMumif; oD;oefYrajymaomf
xm;aom zke;f qufo,ajymqkd   G f       tmz&duwkdufom; tar&duef                     tmz&duEG,fzGm; tar&duef                          f
                                                                                                                           xa&AGermwif aoqH;k Ny;D   qkdjyKcsufwpf&yf wifjya&;ukd             vnf; pEkd;'efudk qufvufckdvIH
rIwGif tar&duefEkdifiHü rSwf          rsm; cHpm;&aom emusifrIrSm                  rsm;u owdjyKrMd uaMumif; tkd      EkdifiHwpf0ef;jzpfay:vmaom       &Dyufbavueftrwf vif;                     cGihfay;xm;ygu ½k&Sm;EkdifiHt
wrf;rSwf&mxm;&SdrcH&aom vl            aysmufuG,froGm;aom orkdif;                  bm;rm;uajymonf/                   uefYuGufqE´jyrIrsm;udkvnf;       aq;*a&[rfESihf 'Drdku&ufwpf              ay: ta&;,l&ef pD;yGm;a&;? oH
rnf;tenf;i,fom&Sdonf[k                           Yd
                                      ESifh ¤if;wk\tawGUtBuHK trsKd ;                           f
                                                                                        xa&AGermwif\ w&m;½H;k       Nidrf;csrf;pGmvkyfaqmifMu&ef                           f
                                                                                                                                                     trwf csm;vfp½LS ;rm;wdu urf;    Yk       wrefa&; a&G;cs,fp&mtm;vHk;
ajymMum;onf/ ,if;rSm NyD;cJh          rsdK;rSaeí Munfh½Iaomtcsuf                  qHk;jzwfcsuftay: rmwif\           tkdbm;rm;u wkdufwGef;ajym        vSrf;cJhonf/                             toHk;csoifhonf[k uefvTwf
      h D
onfowif;ywfu w&m;½H;k qH;k            aMumifhjzpfonf[k or®wtkd                    rdbESpfOD;jzpfaom xa&pDrm         Mum;onf/                                                 dk f H
                                                                                                                                                                tar&duefEii\ vQKd U0Suf       awmftrwfrsm;u ajymMum;
                    f
jzwfcsuf ay:xGuvmNy;D aemuf           bm;rm;u ajymMum;onf/                        wifESihf qkdifb&DemzlvfwefwkdY                      —Ref: BBC      apmifhMunfhaxmufvSrf;a&;t                xm;onf/              —Ref: Reuters
46

International                                                                                                                                                                     Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013



jyifopfEkdifiHwGif aq;vdyfaomufjcif;ukd yef;NcHrsm; urf;ajcrsm;ü wm;jrpfzG,f&dS
           yg&D? Zlvkdif-22                umvtwGif; trsm;jynfol                                                                                          rsm;ü azmfjyrnfhtpDtpOfrsm;          EkdifiHwGif aq;vdyfrsm;twGuf
jyifopfEdkifiHNrdKUrsm;&dS yef;NcHrsm;?    qkdif&m ae&mrsm;ü aq;vdyf                                                                                      yg0ifaMumif;ESihf aq;&GufBuD;        tcGefwkd;jr§ifhaumufcHjcif;? t
urf;ajcrsm;tygt0if trsm;                   aomufjcif;ukd w&m;0ifwm;                                                                                       ESihf ywfoufaerIukd toGif            rsm;jynfoltaqmufttHkrsm;
jynfolqkdif&m ae&mrsm;wGif                 jrpfonfhOya' xkwfjyefoGm;                                                                                      ajymif;a&;ay:vpDrsm; csrSwf                              f
                                                                                                                                                                                               twGi;f aq;vdyaomufjcif;ukd
           f
aq;vdyaomufjcif;udk wm;jrpf                EkdifaMumif; jyifopfusef;rma&;                                                                                 ay;&efvkdtyfaMumif; ¤if;u                                   h
                                                                                                                                                                                               wm;jrpfjcif; ponfOya'rsm;ukd
EkdifaMumif; jyifopftywfpOf                0efBuD;u Zlvkdif 25 &ufwGif                                                                                    ajymonf/                             2007 ckESpfwGif jy|mef;cJhonf/
xkwfa0onfh*sme,f 'l'DrefcsD                ajymMum;vkdufonf/ jyifopf                                                                                             aq;vd y f aomuf jcif ;               okdYaomf jyifopfEkdifiHwGif
ESifh Zlvkdif 21 &ufwGif jyKvkyfcJh           d f
                                            EkiiNH rKd Ursm;&dS pmoifausmif;rsm;                                                                          aMumifh aoqHk;olwpfESpfvQif          ,if;okdY aq;vdyfaomufjcif;
onfh awGUqHkar;jref;yJGwpfck               a&SUESifh urf;ajcrsm;? wuúodkvf                                                                                          S            dk f H G
                                                                                                                                                          73ç000 &daom jyifopfEiiwif           ydwfyifonfh Oya'rsm;pwif
wGif jyifopfusef;rma&;0efBuD;                              H
                                           rsm;? yef;Ncrsm;tygt0if trsm;                                                                           AFP    EkdifiHtwGif; aq;&GufBuD;oHk;pJG     usifhoHk;cJhcsdefrSpí vli,fxk
rm&D q k d v f w k d & d e f ; uajymMum;   jynfolqkdif&m ae&mrsm;wGif              ¤if;uajymMum;onf/                  aq;vd y f a omuf j cif ; aMumif h               h
                                                                                                                                                          rIudk avQmcs&ef vwfwavmESpf                          f GJ l
                                                                                                                                                                                               Mum; aq;vdypota&twGuf
onf/                                       aq;vdyfuif;pifa&;ae&mrsm;                    ,if ; tpD t pOf r sm;wG i f   tEÅ&m,f&dSaMumif; owday;            rsm;twGif; Oya'rlMurf;rsm;           wdk;yGm;vmvsuf&dSonf/
       jyifopfEdkifiHwGif rMumrD           zefw;D jcif;ukd awGUjrifvaMumif;
                                                                       dk          ukd,f0efaqmiftrsdK;orD;rsm;                    f
                                                                                                                      wm;jrpfcsursm;ukd aq;vdyb;l f                     J
                                                                                                                                                          pwifa&;qGvsu&onf/ jyifopf
                                                                                                                                                                           f Sd                               —Ref: France.24


                                                                                                                                                          aemufausmzHk; rS

                                                                                                                                                          uav;oli,frsm;udk vdiftoHk;csrI ½kyfyHkrsm; wm;jrpfydwfyif&ef
                                                                                                                                                          *l;*JvfESihf &m[l;ukrÜPDtm; NAdwdef0efBuD;csKyfwdkufwGef;
                                                                                                                                                                                   J l
                                                                                                                                                                 tifwmeufo;kH pGorsm; w        rI yHk&dyfrsm;jzefYa0jcif;xnfhoGif;
                                                                                                                                                          &m;r0if½kyfyHkrsm;odkY 0ifa&muf      jcif;rsm;udk vHk;0onf;rcHEkdif
                                                                                                                                                          Munfh½Ijcif;udk wm;qD;&ef tif                           f k Ü
                                                                                                                                                                                               aMumif; *l;*JvurPD ajymcGi&     fh
                                                                                                                                                          wmeuf0efaqmifrIukrÜPDrsm;            yk*¾dKvfuajymonf/ tGefvdkif;
                                                                                                                                                          taejzihf y,fzsufpm&if;oGif;          wGif w&m;r0ifyg0ifonfh ½kyfyHk
                                                                                                                                                          xm;aom pmvHk;rsm; toHk;jyKNyD;       rsm;udk wm;qD;&efqHk;jzwfxm;
                                                                                                                                                          oHk;pGJolrsm;\ &SmazGrI&v'frsm;      onfh NAdwdeftpdk;&ESihf yl;aygif;
                                                                                                                                                          ukd ydwfyif&rnfjzpfaMumif; rpö       aqmif&GufoGm;rnf[k micro-
                                                                                                                                                          wmuifr&Ge;f u awGUqHar;jref;
                                                                                                                                                                                     k         soft Corp ykdif bif;ukrÜPDu
                                                                                                                                                          yGJwpfckwGif ajymMum;onf/            ajymMum;onf/
                                                                                                                                                                 uav;oli,fvitoH;k cs
                                                                                                                                                                                  d f                            —Ref: Reuters



                                                                                                                                                          aemufausmzHk; rS
                                                                                                                                                          tmz&duwGif opfawmjyKef;wD;rI avsmhusvm




                                                                                                                                                                 ]]trsm;pku tarZkefeJY t       xif o avmuf rysuf p D ; ao;
                                                                                                                                                          a&SUawmiftm&Su tylydkif;rdk;         aMumif; awGU&SdcJhonf/
                                                                                                                                                          opfawmawGudkyJ tm½Hkpdkufae                N*dK[fwk"mwfyHkrS avhvmrI
                                                                                                                                                          Muygw,f/ 'gayrJh tJ'DtxJrSm                                h S f
                                                                                                                                                                                               rsm;t& 1990 jynfEprsm;u ESpf
                                                                                                                                                                               k
                                                                                                                                                          ryg0ifwmu A[dtmz&du uGef                              dk D
                                                                                                                                                                                               pOfpwk&ef;uDvrwm 3ç000 cefY
                                                                                                                                                          *dkjrpf0Srf;awG bmawGjzpfaevJ        tck w f c H & aom opf a wmrS m
                                                                                                                                                          qkdwmygyJ}}[k vd'fpfwuúodkvf         2000 rS 2010 jynfhESpftwGif;
                                                                                                                                                          ESihf vef'efwuúodkvfrS a'guf         pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm 2ç000 cefY
                                                                                                                                                          wm qkdifrGefvl;0pfu ajymMum;         om qHk;½HI;cJhonf/ ,if;rSm BudK;
                                                                                                                                                          onf/                                 0kdif;opfawm xdef;odrf;rIrsm;
                                                                                                                                                                 tmz&d u tv,f A [d k & S d     vmNyD ; tmz&d u Ek d i f i H r sm;u
                                                                                                                                                          uGef*dkjrpf0Srf;rdk;opfawmrSm t      ¤if;wkdYpD;yGm;a&;udk jyifqifzGJU
                                                                                                                                                          us,ft0ef;tm;jzihf tarZkef                         k f            f
                                                                                                                                                                                               pnf;um pduysKd ;a&;vkyief;rsm;
                                                                                                                                                          opf a wmrsm;NyD ; vQif 'k w d ,      wdk;csJUjcif;xuf tjcm;vkyfief;
                                                                                                                                                          vdkufNyD; pwk&ef;rDwmESpfoef;        rsm;tay: tm½Hkpdkufvmíjzpf
                                                                                                                                                          us,f0ef;onf/ ,ckaemufqHk;            onf[k tpD&ifcHpmwGif azmfjy
                                                                                                                                                          avhvmrIt& ,if;opfawmrSm              onf/                    —Ref: BBC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       47

Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2013                                                                                                                                          International
ESpfaygif; wpf&mausmfoufwrf;&dS 0DpuDt&uftvHk;ig;q,f cdk;aomufol w&m;pJGcH&                                                                                                                                        f         f
                                                                                                                                                                                                              w½kw-*smreD ukewif&xm;
         ypfbmh*f? Zlvkdif-21
tar&duefEdkifiHypfbmh*fNrdKU&dS
                                         0DpuD 104 ykvif;awGU&dconf/
                                         ,if;t&ufrsm;ukd rlvtpu
                                                                           S hJ        y&pfu Zlvdkif 21 &ufwGifajym
                                                                                       onf/ The Old Farm Pure Rye
                                                                                                                           vufajymif; ydkifqkdifcJhMuum
                                                                                                                                  kd f kd f
                                                                                                                           ,ckyiqionfh rpöpyufx&pf         f
                                                                                                                                                                      jyKvyNf y;D ¤if;aomufo;kH aMumif;
                                                                                                                                                                           k
                                                                                                                                                                      ppfaq;awGU&dScJh&onf/ ,if;
                                                                                                                                                                                                              pwifajy;qJG
orkdif;0if[kdw,f tao;pm;                 ypfbmh*fNrdKUrS pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;            0DpuDrsm;ukd 1900 jynfhESpfrsm;     a[;vfu jyefvnfjyKjyifpOf                   t&ufrsm;ukd a&Smif'gu wpfEpf  S                    ab*sif;? Zlvkdif-21
ydkif&Sifu ,ciftcef;iSm;ae                     D
                                         a*syb&efeefu ydiqiaMumif;k f dk f             twGif; ausmfMum;aom pufrI           awG U &d S c J h j cif ; jzpf o nf / rpö   twGif; aomufypfvkdufonf                            f kd f H
                                                                                                                                                                                                              w½kwEiitv,fyi;f useusKd ;      kd          f
xkdifcJholukd uefa':vm wpf               od&onf/ ,if;t&ufrsm;ukd                       vkyfief;&Sifrsm;jzpfonfh [ife       a[;vfonf tdrfa&SUwHcg; jyK                 [kqkdonf/                               NrdKUESihf *smreDEkdifiH[rf;bmh*fNrdKU
odef;ausmfwefzkd;&dS orkdif;0if          1912 ckESpfwGifcsufvkyfNyD;                   &Dz&pfESihf tef'½l;umeuf*sDwkdY     jyifaepOftwGif; ,if;t&uf                          ,if;ESpcsKd Ut&ufrsm;onf
                                                                                                                                                                                      f                       okdY qufoG,fxm;onfh w½kwf
ESpf csdKU0DpuDykvif; 50 udk apmifh      b&efeefxHodkY 1918 ckESpfwGif                 aomufoHk;cJhonf[k ,HkMunf&          ykvif;rsm;pGmukd ajratmufcef;              uefa':vm 102ç400 wefzdk;&dS             EkdifiH\ 'kwd,ajrmufOa&my
Muyfay;&rnftpm; aomufo;kH
                 h                       ay;tyfcJhaMumif; ¤if;uatbD                    aMumif;South Broadway manor         okdY ajymif;a&TUxm;cJhNyD; ajr             aMumif; 0DpuDwefzkd;jzwfol              &xm;vrf;ukd pwifzivpvuf           G fh S f dk
vkdufaomaMumihf w&m;pJGqkd               pD o wif ; Xmetm;ajymonf /                    rS pm;zkdrSL;u WTAE owif;Xme        atmufcef;wGifwnf;ckdaeol                   wpfOD;uajymMum;onf/ ,if;                onf/
cHcJh&onf/                                       ]]ypfbmh*Nf rKd Uu vGecwhJ ESpf
                                                                            f hJ       tm; ajymonf/                        *Refa&Smif'g(62 )ESpfu ,if;t               t&ufrsm;\ wefzkd;twdtus                          w½kwfEkdifiHtaemufydkif;
      South Broadway manor               aygif ; rsm;pG m uvk y f i ef ; jyKwf                ,if;orkdif;0if taqmuf        &ufrsm;ukd apmifMh unfay;&rnfh             uko&Ei&ef uRr;f usiorsm;\
                                                                                                                                                                         d d Sd dk f          f l             csef'l;NrdKUESihf ydkvefEkdifiHokdY wkduf
ykdif&Sifyufx&pfa['vfonf                 oGm;cJhwJht&ufcsuf vkyfief;                         k d f dk f
                                                                                       ttHudk ykiqionfh rdom;pk0if         tpm; aomufoHk;vkdufjcif;jzpf               ppfaq;xGufqdkcsufESihf t                  k f k f G f
                                                                                                                                                                                                              ½duueo,a&;0efaqmifrudk                        I
ypfbmh*fNrdKU&dSorkdif;0if tdrfBuD;      wpfcku xkwfvkyfcJhwJh t&uf                    wpfOD;onf ,if;t&ufrsm;ukd           onf/ ,if;oufwrf;&ifh t&uf                  axmuftxm;rsm; &,lqHk;jzwf               w½kwfEkdifiHu vkyfukdifchJNyD;
&cdkifwpfvHk;ukd [dkw,f tao;             52 ykvif;ygwJhaowåm av;                       avSum;atmufwGif tvHkydwf            rsm;ukd aomufo;kH aMumif; a&Smif           oGm;&ef tpdk;&a&SUaersm;u               aemuf ,ckuJhokdY *smreDokdY ukef
pm;tjzpf ajymif;vJzGifhvSpf&ef           vHk;&dScJhw,f}} [k paumha';vf                 odrf;xm;cJhNyD; ,if;taqmuf          'gukd jiif;qkdcJhNyD; &JwyfzGJUu ¤if;      Zlvkdif 17&ufwGif oabmwl                wif&xm;pwifajy;qJGjcif;jzpf
0,f,lpOf Old Farm Pure Rye               &dS&JwyfzJGUtBuD;tuJ b,f&D                    ttHkukd rdom;pkrsm;pGmwdkYu         ukd rsdK;½dk;ADZppfaq;rI (DNA)             vkdufonf/ —Ref: AFP/AP                  onf/ oDwif;ywftwGif; ESpf
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Budrfajy;qJGrnfh ,if;ukefwif
                                                                                                                                                                                                              &xm;onf a&aMumif;c&D;jzihf
pD;yGm;a&;zGHU NzdK;wkd;wufrIESihf tvkyftukdif zefwD;a&; *sD-20 b@ma&;0efBuD;rsm; uwdjyK tar&duefESifh &if;ESD;pGm                                                                                            uk e f w if y d k Y & ef M umcsd e f \ xuf
                                                                                                                                                                                                              0ufcefYom Mumjrifhrnf jzpfNyD;
       armfpukd? Zlvkdif-21                                                              jyefvnfqufqHa&; BudK;yrf;rIrsm;                                                                                      c&D;pOfNyD;ajrmuf&uf 18 &uf
                                                                                                                                                                                                              MumrnfjzpfaMumif; od&onf/
pD;yGm;a&;zHGUNzdK;NyD;ESihf zHGUNzdK;&ef
tm;,laeaom EkdifiHaygif; 20                                                              AifeDZJGvm;&yfqkdif;                                                                                                 ukefwif&xm;onf usefusdK;
tzJGU *sD-20 rS b@ma&;0efBuD;                                                                                                                                                                                 NrdKU\ ukef;wGif;ykdif;qdyfurf;rS
                                                                                                                                                                           um&muwfpf? Zlvkdif-21              pwifum umZufpwef? ½k&Sm;?
rsm;u ES p f & uf M umtpnf ; t
                                                                                                                                                                      ukvor*¾qkdif&m tar&duef                 bDvm½kpfESihf ykdvefEkdifiHwkdYukd
a0;yJGNyD;qHk;oGm;NyD;aemuf NcdK;NcH
                                                                                                                                                                      txl;udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf t                 jzwf o ef ; ajy;qJ G & rnf j zpf N yD ;
acRwmrItpDtpOfrsm;xuf pD;
                                                                                                                                                                      rnfpm&if;wifoGif;cHxm;&ol               c&D;vrf; 10ç214 uDvkdrDwmt
yGm;a&;zHGUNzdK;rIESihf tvkyftukdif
                                                                                                                                                                      rpöpfqrefomyg0g\ xkwfazmf               &Snf&dSonf/
zefwD;a&;ukd wGef;tm;ay; vkyf
                                                                                                                                                                      ajymMum;rIwpf&yfaMumifh tar                      *smreDodkY &xm;jzihf ukef
aqmifoGm;&ef uwdjyKvkdufMu                                                                                                                                                                                    pnfwifyjYkd cif;onf avaMumif;?
                                                                                                                                                                                dk f H S
                                                                                                                                                                      &duefEiiEifh &if;ES;D pGmjyefvnf
onf/                                                                                                                                                                                                          um;vrf;ESifh a&aMumif; vrf;rS
                                                                                                                                                                      quf q H a &;Bud K ;yrf ; rI r sm;uk d
       *smreD b @ma&;0ef B uD ;                                                                                                                                                                               wifydkYrIxuf rsm;pGm aps;ydkouf
                                                                                                                                                                      tqHk;owfvkdufNyDjzpfaMumif;
uvnf; ,if;&v'fukd csD;usL;                                                                                                                                                                                    omrnf[k w½kwftmPmydkif
                                                                                                                                                                      AifeDZJGvm;tpdk;&uajymMum;
ajymqkdcJhonf/ okdYaomf b@m                                                                                                                                                                                   rsm;uajymonf/ ½k&m;EkiiH armf S d f
                                                                                                                                                                      vkdufonf/
                   S I
a&;pnf;urf;&drudk arhrxm;&ef                                                                                                                                                                                  pukdNrdKUESifh umZufpwef? vDol
                                                                                                                                                                              ¤if;tm; cefYtyfrItwnf
vnf; owday;vkdufonf/                                                                                                                                                  jyKa&; tar&dueftxuf vTwf                ,efeD;,m;EkdifiHrsm;okdY quf
       ½k&Sm;EkdifiH armfpudkNrdKUü                                                                                                                                   awmfMum;em;rIwpf&yfwif rpöpf G                 f
                                                                                                                                                                                                              oG,xm;onfh tjcm;aom EkiiH                    d f
ES p f &uf M umusif ; yaom *sD -                                                                                                                                      qrefomu tu,fí ¤if;om                    &yfjcm;&xm;vrf; oH;k ckuvnf;            dk
20 b@ma&;0ef B uD ; rsm;ES i h f                                                                                                          KiRiLL KUDRYAVTSEV/AFP
                                                                                                                                                                      ukor*¾tvkyf&&dScJhygu zdESdyf           w½kwfEkdifiHu ,ckESpftukef
A[kd bPfOuú|rsm;\ uGefz&ifh              tjynfht0axmufcHMuonf/                         ESifh tar&duef? *syefpD;yGm;a&;     yG m ;a&;vrf ; aMumif ; ay:jyef            csKyfcs,faom tpdk;&rsm;ukd &if                              G fh S f
                                                                                                                                                                                                              wGif pwifzivprnfjzpfonf/
tqH k ; owf c sd e f w G i f tvk y f                    h
                                             ]]urÇmp;D yGm;a&;qufvuf                   jyefvnfwkd;wufa&;aES;auG;rI         oG m ;a&; jywf j ywf o m;om;               qdkifoGm;rnfjzpfNyD; usL;bm;?                    *smreDEdkifiHxkwf tDvuf
tukdifaps;uGufESihf pD;yGm;a&;           tm;enf;aeNyD; pD;yGm;a&;jyef                                T     D
                                                                                       rsm;ukd &nfñe;f í *s-20 tzJUG \     ta&;,lvkyfaqmifa&; uRefyf                  tD&ef? ½k&Sm;ESihf AifeDZGJvm;uJh                f
                                                                                                                                                                                                              x&Geepfypön;f rsm;? aqmufvyf                     k
EId;qGa&;twGuf trsdK;om;ay:              vnfemvefxlrI[m rnDrrQeJY                      xkwfjyefcsufwGifazmfjyonf/          wdkYpdwfydkif;jzwfxm;ygonf}}[l             okYd Ekiirsm;ü t&yfbuftzJUG t
                                                                                                                                                                            d f H                             a&;pufypönf;rsm;? armfawmf
vpDrsm; csrSwfa&;BudK;yrf;jr§ifh         xd v G , f & S v G , f &d S a eqJ j zpf y g   qufvufí ]]tvkytudiayg f k f         í xkwfjyefcsufwGif azmfjyxm;               pnf;tay: ESdrfeif;rIrsm;ukd pdef        ,mOfrsm;ESifh qufpyfypön;f rsm;?
wif&ef wufa&mufolrsm;u                   w,f}}[k ,l½dkZkef½kef;uefae&rI                rsm;NyD; jrefqefoGufvufwJh pD;      onf/              —Ref: AFP/AP             ac:oG m ;rnf [ k ajymMum;cJ h           aq;0g;ukoa&; ud&,mrsm;ESifh        d
                                                                                                                                                                      onf/                                    tjcm;aom wefzdk;BuD;ypönf;
                                                                                                                                                                              AifeDZJGvm;EkdifiHu tar&d       rsm;ukd EkdifiHwum&xm;vrf;
abmfpwGefrm&oGef AHk;cGJol wDZmeufAfudk ypfcwfzrf;qD;onfh "mwfyHkrsm;                                                                                                 uefEdkifiHokdY wpfaeYvQif a&eH
                                                                                                                                                                      pnf a ygif ; 900ç000 wif y d k Y
                                                                                                                                                                                                              opfrS wifoGif;Ekdifrnfjzpfaom
                                                                                                                                                                                                              aMumifh tcsdefESifh aiGrsm;pGm
                                                                                                                                                                                                              oufomEkdifaMumif; DB Sche-
r*¾Zif;wkdufokdYay;aom uef&JwyfzGJU0if wm0efrS&yfpJcH&                                                                                                                a&mif; csaeaomfvnf; ,if;ESpf
                                                                                                                                                                      EkdifiH Mum;wGif 2010 jynfhESpf         nker ukrÜPDrS w½kwfEdkifiH
                                                                                                                                                                      rSpí oHtrwfBuD;rsm;xm;jcif;             ajrmufydkif;ESihf A[dk\ tkyfcsKyf
       0g&Sifwef?Zlvkdif-20                               J H dk f
                                         0efu &yfpcvu&Ny}D }[k rpöwm                                   dk f dk k f
                                                                                       rmzDu,wif ½duu;l xm;onfh            jyonfh wDZmeufA\ "mwfyrsm;
                                                                                                                                              f        kH             r&dSawmhay/                             a&;ñTefMum;a&;rSL; um;vf
abmfpwGefNrdKU rm&oGefajy;yGJ AHk;       rmzD ay;tyfcJhonfh wDZmeufAf                               kH
                                                                                       "mwfyrsm;udk abmfpwGer*¾Zif;    f   wGif &JwyfzGJU\ &SmazGaepOft                       ]]tar&duefEkdifiHESihf oHw      [defYcftrfbm*gu ajymMum;
cGJol wDZmeufAfukd &JwyfzGJU0if          \ "mwfyHk 14 yHkudk azmfjycJhaom              odkY ay;ydkYcJhaMumif; ¤if;uajym    wGif; em&DtawmfMum ¤if;ykef;               ref a &;t& yH k r S e f q uf q H a &;   onf/ —Ref:Times of India
rsm;u &SmazGzrf;qD;pOf ½dkuful;          abmfpwGefr*¾Zif; t,f'Dwm                      onf/                                                h
                                                                                                                           atmif;aecJonfh wmay:vifp                   ZGefvtapmydkif;rS pí BudK;yrf;
xm;onfh "mwfyHkrsm;tm; abmf              *Ref 0 k z f q G e f u ¤if ; \wG p f w m               rpöwmrmzDonf rufqm                       f
                                                                                                                           jzihf zH;k tkyxm;aom avStwGi;f             cJhrIrsm;ukd AifeDZJGvm;EdkifiHu        uefEdkifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;Xmeu
pwGefr*¾Zif;odkY ay;tyfcJhonfh                      f dk f
                                         0ufbqupmrsuEmwGif ajym     f S                csL;qufjynfe,f &JwyfzGJUwGif        rS ay:vmcsdefü &JwyfzGJU0ifrsm;            tqHk;owfvkdufygNyD}} [k AifeDZJG        axmufcHcsufay;cJhjcif;ukd pdwf
wyfMuyfBuD;&SefrmzDukd refqm             Mum;onf/ abmfpwGer*¾Zif;u       f             "mwfyorm;tjzpf vkyouf 25
                                                                                                 kH                f       \ csdefxm;aom toHwdwfao                    vm;EkdifiHjcm;a&;Xme aMunm              ysufrdaMumif; ajymMum;onf/
csL;qufjynfe,f &JwyfzGJUu                rpöwmrmzD ay;tyfconfh wDZm   hJ               ESp&ojl zpfNy;D abmfpwGer*¾Zif;
                                                                                           f dS                      f     ewfrsm;rS teDa&miftvif;puf                 csufwGifazmfjyonf/                      ,if ; rS m Ek d i f i H j cm;a&;0ef B uD ;
wm0ef r S qk d i f ; iH h x m;vk d u f            f             kH
                                         eufA\ "mwfyrsm;udk Zlvif 18       dk          wdkufodkY ¤if;½dkuful;xm;onfh       rsm;ESihftwl aoG;rsm;pGef;ayae                     rpöpfyg0gwifjyaom Mum;          rpöwm *Refu,f&Du apmapm
aMumif; ,if;"mwfyHkrsm;udk azmf          &ufwGif azmfjycJhonf/ Rolling                 wDZmeufAf\ "mwfyHkrsm; ay;          yHkrsm; yg0ifonf/                          0ifpGufzufa&;tpDtpOfrsm;                ydkif;xkwfjyefcsufrsm;ESifhvnf;
jycJhonfh abmfpwGefr*¾Zif;\              Stone r*¾ Z if ; \ wD Z meuf A f              tyfjcif;twGuf wm0efrSqkdif;                                                    ukd AifeDZGJvm;EkdifiHu qefYusif        qefYusifaeonf[k AifeDZGJvm;
t,f'Dwmu ajymMum;onf/                    "mwfyHkudk rsufESmzkH;wif azmfjy              iHhcHvkduf&jcif;jzpfonf/                                                       aMumif;ESifh ¤if;\ xifjrifcsuf          tpdk;&u rSwfcsufjyKxm;onf/
      ]]wyfMuyfBuD;&SefrmzD wm           csufudk a'goxGufrdí rpöwm                              abmfpwGefr*¾Zif;u azmf                    —Ref: Ria Novosti           rsm;ukd aemufydkif;wGif tar&d                                           —Ref: AFP
                                                                                                 Vol.12, No.20  July 24 , 2010
                                                                                                Vol.9, No.29  OCtObeR 7,2013


tmz&duwGif
opfawmjyKef;wD;rI
avsmYusvm
         vef'ef?Zlvkdif-22
urÇmay:&Sd tBuD;qHk; rdk;opf
awmwpfckwGif opfckwfrIrsm;
       h
avsmusvmaMumif; NAwefawmfd d
0ifynm&Sifrsm;tzGJUu avhvm
  h                     k G
cJaom pmwrf;wpfcwif azmfjy
onf/
             f k
      N*Kd [wrS awGUjrif&aom ykH
    f                     f
&dyrsm;ü tmz&du uGe*jkd rpf0r;f  S
a'o&Sd opfawmrsm; jyKef;wD;rI
rSm 2000 jynfhESpfaemufykdif;rS
           k      kH  h
pí oH;k yHwpfyavsmusom;jcif; G
ukd awGU&Sd&onf/ ,if;rSm xkd
a'oü opfawm{u tajrmuf
              f G f
tjrm; ckwxi&aom pD;yGm;jzpf
pdkufysdK;a&;vkyfief;rsm; vkyfukdif
jcif;xuf a&eHESihf owåKwl;azmf
a&;vkyfief;rsm;udk ykdrkdtm½Hkpdkuf
aeMuaomaMumihf[k okawoD                                                                                                                                                                                                   ERiC LALmAND/BELGA/AFP
                                                   ္         ု                  ု             ္
                                             ဘယ္လဂ်ီယမ္ဘရင္ ဖိလစ္၊ ၾကင္ယာေတာ္ဘရင္မႀကီး မာသီလဒါႏွင့္ ရင္ေသြးမ်ားျဖစ္ေသာ မင္းသမီး အယ္လယန္ႏိုးရ္၊ မင္းသား ဂါဘရီရယ္၊ မင္းသမီး အဲလဇဘက္၊ မင္းသား အီမန္ႏရယ္တကို ဘရပ္ဆလရွိ ေတာ္ဝင္နန္းေတာ္ေလသာေဆာင္မွ
                                                                                                                                    ္ ြ                                      ိ                   ူ   ႔ို      ဲ ္
rsm;u ,HkMunfMuonf/
                                     »
                                                                  ္                                      ို          ြ
                                             ပရိသတ္မ်ားအား ႏႈတဆက္ေနသည္ကို ေတြ႕ရစဥ္။ မင္းသားဖိလစ္သည္ ဇူလင္ ၂၁ ရက္တင္ ဘယ္လဂ်ီယမ္၏ ခုနစ္ဆက္ေျမာက္ဘရင္အျဖစ္ နန္းတက္ခၿဲ့ ပီး ဖခင္ ဘုရင္အလဘတ္-၂ ၏ မၿပီးဆံုးေသးသည့္ တာဝန္ျဖစ္ေသာ တိင္းျပည္ညညတ္ေရးကို
                                                                                                                             ္                         ု                            ဲ ္                                        ု    ီ ြ
                 pmrsufESm 46                လုပ္ေဆာင္ႏိုင္ရန္ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ထားသည္။




&SpfESpforD;0,f,lupm;cJhaom APP rsm;twGuf tufyJvfukrÜPDaiGjyeftrf;                                                                                                   uav;oli,frsm;udk vdiftoHk;csrI ½kyfyHkrsm;
       vef'ef? Zlvkdif-22                                                                                                  wif ; tusyf a r;jref ; aom t              wm;jrpfydwfyif&ef *l;*JvfESihf &m[l;ukrÜPDtm;
t*F v ef E d k i f i H ? qrf ; rm;quf                                                                                      csdefrSom zcifuGefysLwmtoHk;
a'orS uav;i,fwpfOD;onf                                                                                                     jyKcsdefü t0ifvQdKU0SufeHygwfukd          NAdwdef0efBuD;csKyf wdkufwGef;
zcif\ uGefysLwmudk,lí *drf;                                                                                                rS w f x m;NyD ; toH k ; jyKjcif ; jzpf
rsm;upm;&mrS vk d t yf a om                                                                                                onf[k vDvDu0efcHcJhonf/                            vef'ef?Zlvkdif-22              ukrÜPDrsm;taejzihf vHkavmuf
Application rsm;ukd 0,f,lcJh NyD;                                                                                                 Appilcation 0,f,lrIrsm;            tifwmeuf0efaqmifrIukrÜPD                aom yl;aygif;aqmif&GufrIrsm;
NAdwdefoHk;aiGaygif 4ç000 (uef                                                                                             twGuf tufyJvfu tD;ar;vf                   rsm;jzpfonfh *l;*JvfukrÜPD? &m          r&Sdygu NAdwdeftpdk;&Oya't
a':vm 6ç000)ausmf oHk;pJGcJh                                                                                               rsm;ay;ydkYaomfvnf; rpöwmvD               [l;ukrÜPDESihf bif;ukrÜPDrsm;           opfrsm; jy|mef;&ef tqifoihf&Sd
jcif;twGuf tufyvurPu       J f k Ü D                                                                                       rSm tjcm;ukrÜPDwpfckü ajymif;             tm; uav;oli,frsm;udk vdit        f      aeaMumif; rpöwmuifr&Gef;u
aiGjyeftrf;rnfjzpfonf/ ueOD;                                                                                               a&TUvkyfukdifae&NyD; ¤if;\ rlv            oHk;csrI ½kyfyHkrsm; wm;jrpfydwfyif     ajymonf/
wGif tufyvu aiGjyeftrf;&ef
                J f                                                                                                        tD;ar;vfukd Munfh½Ií r&EkdifcJh                  d d f
                                                                                                                                                                     &ef NAwe0efBuD;csKyf a';Apfuif                NyD ; cJ h o nf h o D w if ; ywf t
                             kd
jiif;qefcNhJ y;D aemufyi;f rSom t                                                                                          ay/ aemufqHk;wGif tufyJvf                                 dk
                                                                                                                                                                     r&Ge;f u Zlvif 21 &ufwif wkufG d        wGif; tar&duefEkdifiHESihf tjcm;
avQmhay;cJhonf/                                                                                                            ukrÜPDtm; aiGay;acs&ef rpö                wGef;vdkufonf/                                      f dk f
                                                                                                                                                                                                             aom&SpEiiH yg0ifonfh e,fpyf
     &S p f E S p f o rD ; vD v D e ,f v D                                                                                 wmvDu zcifxrS aiGacs;cJ&Ny;D
                                                                                                                                             H               h              NAdwdefEkdifiHwGif rMumao;       jzwfausmfppfqifa&;tzGJUonf
onf Campus Life, my Horse,                                                                                                 ¤if;\um;ESihf qkdifu,f? om;               rDu jzpfyGm;cJhaom uav;ol               uav;oli,frsm;udk vdiftoHk;
Hay Day, Smurfs' Village p                                                                                                          l
                                                                                                                           jzpfo\ qkiu,fuyg a&mif;cs
                                                                                                                                        d f          dk              i,f vlowfrIESpfckwGif vlowf             cs&ef tGefvkdif;rS BuHpnfonf[k
aom *dr;f rsm;ukd zcif\ iPad ESifh           bPfpm&if;&yfwefYcH&csdefusrS           ao;bl;/ tmvl;aMumfwpfxkyf                J
                                                                                                                           ch&onf/ ,if;taMumif;rsm; od               orm;rsm;onf tGefvkdif;rS u              oHo,&Sdol 255 OD; zrf;qD;cJh
                        S
upm;&if; rwfEifh Zlvif vqef;    dk           om ,if;aiGaMu;ukefusp&dwf              b,favmufvJqkdwmawmif                   &dSvmNyD;aemufwGifrS tufyJvf              av;oli,fvdiftoHk;csrI½kyfyHk            aMumif; tar&dueftmPmykdif
        d d
txd NAwoQaygif 4ç000 oH;k pJchJ        G     rsm;taMumif; od&dScJhonf/ ]]vD         olrodavmufbl;}}[k rpöwm                u aiGjyeftrf;&ef oabmwlnD                 rsm;ud k 0if a &muf M unf h ½ I c J h   rsm;u ajymonf/
onf/                                         vDu &SpfESpfyJ&dSao;w,f/ ydkuf         vD(43)ESpfuajymonf/                    cJhjcif;jzpfonf/                          aMumif; taxmuftxm;rsm;
     zcif j zpf o l v D r S m ¤if ; \        qH&UJ oabmw&m;ukd em;rvnf                  vDvtm; zcifjzpfou t
                                                                                             D          l                                            —Ref: AP        awGU&SdcJhonf/ tu,fí ,if;                                pmrsufESm 46       »

								
To top