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									Transnational Education for
      Adult Migrants
                      TEAM Project
“Transnational Education for Adult Migrants- TEAM” Project has been supported by the European
            Commission through the Grundtvig 2 Action of the Socrates Programme.”
TEAM Project’s overall objective;
l   To eliminate the communication problems between adult
    migrants and trainers working in integration programmes
    and create an innoative methodology as containing active
    and good citizenship notions that will satisfy the needs
    and expectations of the migrants for a more successful
    integration.
l   To supply new tools for “social integration” in Europe. In
    this regard, also display models to Turkey, which is a
    transit, destination and source country, but does no have
    adult education migrant education programmes.
Target Group of TEAM Project:
l Immigrants, who migrate to the EU members and
  candidate countries for any reason and still living
  in one of those countries. However, the sample is
  determined as the immigrants, who have
  completed at least 50% of any training
  programme at partner organizations in Germany
  and Denmark.
The Partners of TEAM Project are;
l HYDRA International Project and Consulting
  Co., Turkey (Coordinator)
l The Volkshochschule Cham (VHS-Cham),
  Germany (Partner)
l the Zweckverband Volkshochschule Unteres
  Pegnitztal (VHS- Lauf) (Partner)
l AOF - The Workers´ Educational Association,
  Denmark (AOF-Vejle) (Partner)
    As the coordinating agency, why HYDRA
    International Project and Consulting Co.,
    Turkey focused on this issue?
l   Starting from the early 1960s and well into the
    1970s, large numbers of Turkish nationals
    migrated to the Western European countries,
    particularly West Germany. This emigration has
    continued into recent times through family
    reunification schemes and the asylum track.
l   Turkey has known as a transit country to the EU
    for irregular migrants from Asian Countries such
    as Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iraq, Iran and
    Pakistan.
l   Turkey is a wealth and promise country for
    irregular and illegal immigrants from Former
    Soviet Bloc countries.
l   Turkey also experienced a mass influx of almost half
    a million mostly Kurdish refugees from Iraq (1988-
    1991), Albania, Bosnia(Muslims), Bulgaria(Pomaks-
    Turkish speaking Muslims in 1989-1999) and more
    than 1.6 million people from Balkan countries (1923-
    1997)
l   Today, Turkey is a country of destination, transit and
    source country regarding migration, but without a
    national migration policy or the necessary institutions
    for adult migrants’ education.
Why Germany determined as the target country?
 Germany is a country that has invited up to 500-
 1000 migrant workers after the economic
 recession it has gone through in 1966-67. Even
 though this number has decreased with the
 petroleum crisis of 1973, we see that with the
 migrants coming to unite with their families this
 process has continued. Today 7.3 million of its
 82.6 million population, 8.9%, is migrant.
Why Denmark determined as the target country?
 Even though Denmark has a population of 5.4
 million, 45.095 of this are migrants. We see that
 by the 1970s, Danish firms have started to hire
 migrant workers from the 3rd countries such as
 Turkey, Yugoslavia, Pakistan and Morocco. At
 the same time Denmark has signed the convention
 of refugee status of the United Nations, accepts
 500 refugees per year.
Phases of TEAM Project;
l Current situation analyses in the target countries,
  preliminary researh for the project questionnaire,
  and definition of expectations, problems and
  background of the immigrants.

  This stage lasted two months, and supplied
  invaluable information for the questionnaire...
l   Preparation of the Questionnaire

    Question form has three parts and 80 questions,
    with 3 categories, which are: demographic and
    socio-economic situation, reflections for
    participated education programmes, and the
    expectaions. The questionnaire has been
    translated into Turkish, Danish, German and
    English...
l   Implementation of the Questionnaire in the partner
    adult education centres in Germany and Denmark
    (VHS-Cham, VHS- Lauf, AOF-Vejle)
    The questionnaire applied to 107 migrants, but not
    only in 4 languages., but with the help of the
    migrants in more than 12 languages. Sometimes,
    one application lasted more than two hours... In
    addition to the questionnaire application, with the
    trainers and directors of the adult migrant education
    programmes, several deep-interviews were realized...
l   Evaluation and Reporting of the results in Turkey

l   Organisation of International workshop and
    conference in Turkey
    “New Approaches in Education for Adult Migrants”
    International Conference was held on 29th April
    2006 in Istanbul with more than 100 participants.
    Before the conference, 3 day- workshops were
    realized with the partner organizations...
l   Developing the methodology and curriculum

    As taking the reference of the field research, a
    new methodology was proposed and a new
    cirriculum was created...
l   Publication of the booklet, which encompasses the
    final evaluation report of the questionnaires and the
    finalised methodology of the project.

    194-page project booklet was prepared and
    published. The booklet was distributed to the partner
    organizations, and the Brussels Office of the
    European Association of Education for Adults
    (EAEA) for sharing the project results with more
    institution/organization in the EU Member States...
The expected impact of TEAM Project is;
l To create a general tolerance, and understanding
  between migrants and citizens, because migrants
  will understand the rules and expectations of
  society much efficiently, understand the
  importance of good citizenship and will have
  better attitudes. Furthermore, the inconvenience
  of the citizens resulting from incompatible
  migrants will disappear and combat racism.
Results of the survey conducted within the TEAM
  Project (about demogragphic information):
l The fact that the migrants attending to integration
  courses are the ones, who are newly migrated or the
  ones that have migrated long ago, but are obligated to
  participate to these courses to renew their residence
  permit has been seen. Additionally, it has been
  determined that the number of women attending to
  these courses is higher than the number of men
  attending.
l   It has been observed that the migrants, who were
    in the sample population, are usually unemployed
    in the most productive era of their lives. It is a
    fact that the migrants need time to be able to
    attend integration courses that are being organized
    5 times a week in Germany and 3 times a week in
    Denmark. When we look at the numeric data,
    57.8% of the migrants define themselves
    unemployed, while 13.3% define themselves as
    housewives.
l   In our sample, we see the Turkish immigrants taking
    the first place. Then come migrants coming from
    former Soviet Bloc Countries and the citizen of
    countries that have been determined as refugee
    sending countries by the UN Convention.
l   %39.8 of the interviewed migrants have migrated
    because of ‘marriage’ oriented reasons. Socio-
    economic reasons take the second place as the
    migration rationale and economic reasons take the
    third place.
l   Migrants expressed that they have an average level in
    reading and writing in their mother tongue, but they
    feel that they are much better in talking and
    understanding. On the other hand in understanding,
    talking, reading and writing in the language of the
    country in which they live, they see themselves on a
    level varying from intermediate to very bad. At this
    point, other than the specialists citing the importance
    the education in mother tongue, these ratios give us
    important information.
l   Migrants that have completed 88.8% of their education in
    their own country cannot or do not continue to study.
    Also, it has been determined that migrants participating to
    the survey are either secondary school or high school
    graduates.
l   It has been seen that 50.6% of the migrants are Muslims
    while 14.5% is Christians and (13,3) is Evangelists. On
    the other hand migrants, who define religion as the most
    important assess of their lives, appear as 14.5% and 48.1%
    of them stated that they do not regularly worship. From
    this point, the approach that gives the utmost importance
    to religion can be criticized.
l   Migrants define the social security systems and freedom
    of the countries, where they migrated to as the best
    qualifications of those countries and being excluded and
    unemployed are defined as one of the biggest problems of
    them.
l   The ratio of the migrants who say that they can accept the
    culture of the country they migrated to by preserving their
    own belief and identity is 55.5% and the ratio of the ones,
    who claim to do their best for integration is 33.7%. On the
    other hand, 54.2% of them explained that their children
    could integrate to the country they live in as long as they
    keep their own identity.
l   50.6% of the migrants do not think of returning to
    their own countries and 15.7% is not sure about
    going back. It has been seen that the migrants that
    want to return to their country (24.1%) see this as
    a wish.
About integration programmes:
l Migrants claim that they see the German and Danish
  lessons given within the courses they participated as
  adequate. However, they state that they cannot obtain
  enough information about these countries’ histories,
  cultures, information about business world and about legal
  systems.
l Migrants state that they participate to these courses 62.4%
  voluntarily, 41.0% to learn the language and 13.3% to find
  a job. On the other hand 6.0% percent of the migrants
  attend to these courses, because the relevant laws and
  regulations obligate them. This shows that the effect of
  current law on migrants.
l   The existing mixed nationality structure of the classes,
    where the trainings are given to adult migrants is found as
    positive by 83.2% of the people. This thought has also
    been expressed by the trainers in these courses.
l   In both countries participant migrants stated that they
    could express their problems in case they have some and
    both trainers and management of the institutions handle
    the situation as fast as they can.
l   During the courses, it has been claimed that the most
    unpleasant thing is to be in the same class with the
    migrants having different levels of the language.
l   About the success of the integration courses,
    migrants stated that courses are inadequate on
    finding jobs, providing information about the
    legislation concerning the migrants and learning
    the history of that country. The information that
    shall be provided in these courses are listed as
    information that will facilitate finding a job
    (30%), information on different occupational
    groups (36.1%) and information about the law
    concerning the migrants and information that will
    provide communication (18.1%)
l   Additionally, internship opportunities for
    integration, language and vocational courses,
    seminar and panels depending on the content of
    the course and discussion platforms and
    socializing activities are defined as important
    aspects.
l   On the other hand even though they have
    information on these courses it has been seen that
    this information is inadequate and the migrants do
    not have necessary information on participation to
    the courses, the conditions and their results.
The most important results obtained by the deep
interviews:
l The most significant obstacle in the integration of the
   migrants is defined as ‘language’. However it has been
   stated that this is not the only problem and to use
   ‘language’ as a regulator is defined as a mistake or a
   wrong policy. On the other hand, some trainers claimed
   that it would be much better bringing language teachers
   from the source countries, rather than bringing religion
   teachers.
l   Interviewed persons stated that the first generation usually
    work to hard on a shift basis and therefore cannot pay
    attention to their children’ education. On the other hand
    even if they don’t work and live as home oriented, they
    cannot offer any help to their children, because of their
    language level of the living country as well as educational
    background. Additionally, since in different countries
    women’s social status and rights are on different levels,
    ‘social gender equality’ topics shall also be included in the
    education programmes.
l   In-migrant receiving countries unemployment level
    increases and economic changes occur. Therefore,
    this situation increases the tension between the citizen
    of these countries and migrants. It has been stated that
    high unemployment level is one of the most
    important obstacles to integration of migrants to the
    society that they live in.
l   Programme managers and trainers claimed that
    there’s a lack in evaluating and addressing the
    performances of trainers and the success and
    participation of the migrants in these programmes.
l   On the other hand the fact that seminars, trainings and
    inservice trainings necessary for the educators to help
    them improve their abilities are too costly and
    educators that receive low salaries cannot afford these
    has been stated.
l   All educators see differences between the course’s
    content and the exam to be passed at the end of the
    course. It has been expressed that in both Denmark
    and Germany with most of Europe it has been
    observed that language exams to be passedto be able
    to obtain citizenship shows a political standing in
    some ways.
l   Most of the trainers think that the EU Citizenship
    is more like a utopia at this point. In the case that
    it is realized, the EU Citizenship will be able to
    eliminate resistance in assimilation and
    integration. The fact that the EU citizenship that
    isintroduced in 1992 by the Maastricht Treaty
    (1992) is far from becoming true and still seems
    as only a wish.
Proposed Methodology for the
Training/Integration Programmes for Adult
Migrants
In an increasingly diverse Europe, intercultural
education will expectantly result in a reduction of
fear and ignorance, and in the possible
elimination of stereotyping, prejudice, racism and
bigotry.
Today, adult education is more than a right, it is a
key to the 21st Century. It is both a consequence
of active citizenship and a condition for full
participation in society. It is a powerful concept
for fostering ecologically sustainable
development, for promoting democracy and
justice, gender equality and scientific, social and
economic development and for building a world
in which violent conflict is replaced by dialogue
and a culture of peace based on justice.
l   Adult learning should reflect the richness of
    cultural diversity and respect traditional and
    indigenous people’s knowledge and systems of
    learning. In turn, intercultural education should
    encourage learning between and about different
    cultures, in support of peace, human rights and
    fundamental freedoms, democracy, justice,
    liberty, co-existence and diversity.
Education for Adult Migrants Aims should be
l To teach the language of the country to the participants in
  upper-intermediate level.
l To provide the development of positive behaviors of
  participants by increasing their awareness on identity,
  equal opportunity, social justice, social inclusion and
  antidiscrimination concepts.
l To impose self-confidence and increase their participation
  by training them on history, culture, legal system,
  economy and daily life principles of the country where
  they live.
l   To display the positive effects of right and balanced usage
    of natural resources on social improvement.
l   To increase the employment chances of participants by
    improve their personal capacities.
l   To restructure society in the sense of democratization.
    Where; Citizens are committed to participating in free
    and equal discourse where all voices are heard and power
    is relatively equally divided.
l   Citizens are knowledgeable about the ways institutions
    and structures privilege some people and groups while
    discriminating against others and are skilled in
    challenging them.
l   Citizens are open to multiple understanding of national
    citizenship (e.g. it is possible to consider oneself a Turkish
    Citizen as well as a European).
l   Citizens challenge the law.
l   Citizens are committed to wide citizen participation in the
    “public” sphere of politics and the “private” sphere of
    community, home and family.
l   Citizens participate individually and collectively.
l   Citizens shape society according to their own needs,
    values and ideas.
Proposed Integration Programme
l The final goal of the Integration Programme should be to
  strengthen democratic societies by fostering and
  perpetuating a vibrant democratic culture. It seeks to
  instill a sense of belonging, a commitment to democratic
  society and an awareness of shared fundamental values in
  order to build a free and just society at national and
  European levels.
Proposed Programme duration: 9 months/ 900 hours in total
PART 1(THEORETICAL): Language Education
l   The 1st part of proposed Integration Programme is the
    “Language Training” that attaches vital importance to
    optimize individual access to education and working
    disposition. However, it will be evaluated in the means of
    Technological Competence. During the 1st Part of the
    Integration Programme, besides the formal Language
    Training, the individuals’ capacities to gin information, to
    research different subjects, to work upon and to seize the
    specificity of information should also be emphasized.
l   5hrs/day x 5days/week x 4weeks/month=100 hours/month
    100hrs/month x 5months= 500 hours
PART 2 (THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL):
Active Citizenship Education
l The 2nd Part of proposed Integration Programme is the
  “Active Citizenship Education”. It should have realized in
  3 dimensions because key competences are transferable,
  and so they can be used to achieve several objectives, to
  solve different kinds of problems, and to accomplish
  different kinds of tasks.
l In total 400 hours
l   Dimension-1: Competence for Utopia (125 hrs.): It will
    be given for raising the awareness of social justice. In
    society, individuals are often faced with the loss of
    individual and societal rights.
l   Dimension -2: Identity Competence (Intercultural
    Competence- 250 hrs.): It empowers the individual to
    understand fundamental changes of living society with
    their native country by giving daily living principles.
l   Dimension -3: Ecological Competence (25 hrs.)
l   “Active Citizenship Education” module
    will also include various activities in which
    participation in society can be learned,
    exercised and encouraged such as training,
    seminar/panel, discussion platforms, visits
    to relevant public institutions, socialization
    activities (trip, cinema, picnic), etc.
MEASUREMENT and EVALUATION
l Adaptation of techniques in Measurement and
  Evaluation to the curriculum, which will be
  developed in respect of lifelong learning
  philosophy, is vitally important for increasing the
  efficiency of implementation.
CONCLUSION
 In the framework of the TEAM Project, the
 existing necessities and realities of the migrants
 were displayed by the pilot field study in order to
 develop an innovative methodology and cirricula
 or adding the missing modules to the current ones
 concerning citizenship education in non-formal
 education, which should use with small
 modifications throughout all the EU countries.
Last Words...
  Departing from this achieved point, as the coordinating
  and implementing organizations of this project, our aim is
  defined as within a new project that funded by the relevant
  European Union Programmes, to conduct more
  comprehensive field study, which covers the Eastern and
  Southeastern European countries, and to develop the
  proposed methodology of which pre-study has been
  already completed within the TEAM Project and submit
  this methodology under the usage of the European Adult
  Education System.
TEAM Project at Media

								
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