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					Stem Cell Science

   A brief update
   Gerry Maxwell
Jaenisch and Young 2008 Cell 132:567-582.
Jaenisch and Young 2008 Cell 132:567-582
I. Park and G.Q. Daley 2007 Nature Cell biology 9: 871-873.
Jaenisch and Young 2008 Cell 132:567-582
    Kinetics of reprogramming
• Reprogramming using virally encoded
  transcription factors in vitro takes many
  days and not all markers of pluripotency
  are activated together

• In addition, it appears that stochastic
  events are involved in reprogramming
  because clonally derived cells do not
  reprogram in a synchronous fashion
           Creation of Patient Specific Cell Lines

•   Originally published in Science Express on 31 July 2008
•   Science 29 August 2008:
•   Vol. 321. no. 5893, pp. 1218 - 1221
•   DOI: 10.1126/science.1158799

•   Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Generated from Patients with ALS Can Be
    Differentiated into Motor Neurons

•   John T. Dimos,1* Kit T. Rodolfa,1,2* Kathy K. Niakan,1 Laurin M. Weisenthal,1
    Hiroshi Mitsumoto,3,4 Wendy Chung,4,5 Gist F. Croft,4,6 Genevieve Saphier,1 Rudy
    Leibel,5 Robin Goland,7 Hynek Wichterle,4,6 Christopher. Henderson,4,6 Kevin E
In vivo reprogramming of adult pancreatic exocrine cells
                      to B cells
     Zhou,Brown, Kanareck, Rajagopal, and Melton

                  2008 Nature 07134
A combination of three transcription factors induces
   insulin+ cells in adult mouse pancreas in vivo.

      Q Zhou et al. Nature 000, 1-6 (2008) doi:10.1038/nature07314
Induced new b-cells remodel vasculature and
        ameliorate hyperglycaemia.

  Q Zhou et al. Nature 000, 1-6 (2008) doi:10.1038/nature07314
          Characteristics of in vivo
• Like in vitro the inducing factors are only
  required transiently
• Does not appear to require cell division
• Occurs as early as 3 days-faster than in vitro (7-
  30 days in vitro)
• Efficiency is up to 20%- much higher than in vitro
• Does not appear to involve dedifferentiation as
  does in vitro reprogramming

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