Document Sample
					                             Pre-Service Teacher
                               in ECCE in India
                                   – A Study

                             Acknowledgement : CECED
                             Sponsored by AUD & NCTE

                             Technical Partners: IWSER &
                             ICF International

                             State partners : Andhra Mahila
                             Sabha, Vidya Bhawan Society
Venita Kaul and Swati Bawa   & Learning Imprints
    ECCE in India is in the private and NGO sectors and is part of
    the 6 services of ICDS. Unregulated sector.

   National Council of Teacher Education (NCTE) is a statutory body
    for regulation of Pre service Teacher Education in India

    NCTE includes a two year integrated diploma course in ECCE
    covering pre primary and grade I and II.

    NCTE lays down specifications for :
§   Infrastructure
§   Batch size
§   Teacher educators qualifications
§   Curriculum etc.
On the one hand

   Globally ECCE      is emerging as significant stage of

   Recent government initiatives in ECCE in India - RTE &
    Article 45 – have implications for significant expansion of
    ECCE & demand for teachers.

On the other hand

   No information available from field on coverage or quality.

   Sector completely unregulated leading to anecdotal
    evidence of developmentally inappropriate curricula and
    practices both at teacher preparation & ECE center levels
Objectives of the study


DELHI/NCR     1               1     1     2

UP            1        1            2

AP            2               6     1

TAMIL NADU                    2     1     1

ORISSA        1               1     1

GUJARAT       3        1            2

RAJ           1               3     1

MP                            2     1

TOTAL         9        2      15    10    3
Range of respondents covered:

•   Teacher educators
•   Academic heads
•   Trainees
•   Alumni
•   School heads where alumni work
•   Observation of classroom teaching
•   Study center coordinators (for distance courses)

Inequitable Access Across states

                  Inequitable access to ECCE
                  Teacher Education

                  §Maximum  Institutions in Delhi
                  / NCR and AP (10+)

                            no. in the North
                  East, Haryana, Punjab &
                  Himachal Pradesh

                  §No. of Institutions declining in
                  Gujarat, Maharashtra due to
                  low demand in absence of
          Dominance of Private sector
 Majority institutions in private
  sector (over 50 %) & are
  ‘stand alone’ institutions

 Negligible involvement of
  higher learning institutions
   Important for professional up
  -gradation and preparation of
  teacher educators,
  supervisors etc.

uVery little investment by govt.
 sector in this area
                Need for stronger regulation
 More than 63 % institutions
  operating without NCTE recognition

 Over 50 % of private institutions
  sampled were unrecognized

 Significant variations from norms
  even among recognized institutions
  in terms of structure, duration,
  certification, physical facilities,
  curriculum & profile of teacher
  educators E.g. Duration varies from
  3 months to 2 years!!
   Eligibility varies from class 10 to
 Positive finding - 60 % had work experience with children
  (not an NCTE requirement)

 Concern: 40 % TEs do not meet required academic &
  professional qualifications; including 27 % even from recognized

 58% TEs were unaware of the process of designing the
  curriculum & none had involvement in developing curriculum

 No induction training for TEs
• Majority Teacher Educators (53/78) showed no
 engagement in any research in ECE/ publishing
 any paper

• Professional development opportunities and
 support were hardly reported
How do they develop it ?

•35 % institutions reported using National Curriculum framework
(NCF) and National Curriculum framework for Teacher
Education (NCFTE) guidelines and theoretical frameworks

•Two thirds reported group consultations as the preferred

•40 % teacher educators said that they organized workshops,
seminars, talks etc. to supplement given curriculum & reduce
curricular gaps

•A few reported using innovative methods in teaching to
overcome curricular gaps, if prescribed
       Varied understanding of Curriculum
•There is no uniform understanding
across institutions about the age
range of ECCE for which teacher
education is provided

•Overall content is centered on child
devp. but confused often with
academic instruction

•Only 1 Academic Head reported
receiving periodic orientation about
the curriculum from the prescribing

•Heads of all recognized institutions
shared that NCTE rarely sought
feedback about the curriculum or its
• Lecture method & small / large group exercises most
  common practices across all categories

• Alumni report equal usage of all methods (such as lecture
  method, group discussion, role play and tutorials)
  However, not supported by observations!!

•   Minimal use of case studies, field observations & multi media
§   Practice teaching varied from 10% to 50 % of the curriculum

§   Trainees shared that they did not get enough experience of
    different ECCE contexts in their practical experience

§   Practical experience limited to ‘lab schools’ in many cases.
    Notion of ‘lab school’ a concern

§   Practice teaching only; no internship
             •   56% ads specified some
                 academic and professional

             •   Only 32 % of these specified
                 nursery training.
             •   In Orissa and Tamil Nadu all ads
                 asked for graduation as academic
                 qualif. not Class XII.

             •   35% demanded English fluency

             •  Concern : 44% did not specify
                any qualification!
             6 asked for English, Computer,
                pleasant personality etc.
• Inequitable access across states

• Need for stronger regulatory methods and norms

• Higher learning institutions not engaged in teacher education

• No course for teacher educators nor any induction training,
  curriculum involvement nor professional development

• Curriculum varied since many do not conform to NCTE
• Higher learning institutions to set up more programs at post
   graduate level to -
(a) prepare teacher educators
(b) provide refresher trainings for practicing teacher educators &
   ECCE leaders

• Need for Integrating pedagogical priorities for pre school & early
  primary grades in respective TE courses to ensure common
  understanding & smooth transition

• Flexible & innovative models including multi mode and modular
  programs to be encouraged with assurance of parity and outcomes
• A system of accreditation for TE institutions to be instituted
  as incentive to improve & need to identify some well
  performing ones in different geographies as a chain of
  Resource institutions to support the system.
• Curriculum development to involve teacher educators

• Provisions be made for initial &
  refresher trainings
• Reference /resource material to be
   prepared to support teacher
   educators & student teachers
• NCTE to proactively organize periodic
   orientation programs
• Ensure curriculum is consistent with developmentally
  appropriate practice and covers continuum from birth to eight

• Ensure focus on enabling student teachers to work in different
  settings & social milieu.

• Should include updated insights from international research &
  contemporary policy scenarios in India, of relevance to teachers

• Should include opportunities for individual growth & self
  development of student teachers
• Each institution to adopt 20 -25 ECCE centers as a lab area
  for practice teaching and in the process upgrade these as
  demonstration centers

• Practice – theory ratio to be 50:50 for student teachers to
  get a more balanced understanding

• A phased approach to be adopted with initial period of
  observation, followed by practice teaching & then internship
•   Wider consultation with Teacher Educators & experts to review the
    current norms & prioritize those norms that should be non negotiable for
    ensuring quality.

•   Experience of working with children should be included as a desirable
    qualification for teacher educators.

•   Teacher educators should receive orientation from the prescribing
    organization in the content & transaction of the curriculum

•   TE institutions should expand their “lab school” concept into lab areas by
    working directly with a range of preschools within a defined geography,
    with the dual aim of informing & influencing their practices, while also
    providing opportunity to trainees to experience diverse contexts
•   Innovative use of technology for ensuring quality in instruction as well as
    practice teaching and internship.

•   Study material to be updated regularly, made attractive within approved

•   Review/ Assessment of the study centers to be conducted on regular basis

•   Placements should be facilitated by the headquarters.

•   Norms and specifications for Distance Education to be laid down by NCTE

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