Philosophy ? Þ set of ideas

• The nature of reality
• The meaning of life
• Describe your current personal
  philosophy of education
• What do you think the purpose of education is?
• To give knowledge
• To transmit culture
• To help people adapt to society
• To give religious education
• To provide practical/hands-on experience/training
• To provide learner/human-centered education (self-
• etc (your view) …
• Why do some parents choose or reject certain
    – Philosophy influences daily educational life in many ways
      (curriculum, teacher role, assessment, teaching methods..)
•    Reality is an unchanging world of perfect ideas
     and universal truths (metaphysics)
•    Reality is made up of absolute truths. (religious
     education programs)
•    To Plato, truth is perfect and eternal and not found
     in the world matter.
•    Meaning is in the ideals of life itself.
•    We can’t rely on our senses as they deceive us.
•     (Criticism) a “truth” sometimes is only in the eye
     of the beholder.
• Knowledge is obtained when ideas are
  brought into consciousness through self-
  examination and discourse (epistemology)
• Searching for truth through Socratic
  questioning/ dialectic – questioning
  individual’s point of view (using inductive
  reasoning, authority lecturing)
• Wisdom of goodness; discipline, order, self-
  control; preservation of cultural heritage of
  the past (Axiology)
           Goal of Education
• Educators are interested in the search for truth
  through ideas rather than through the examination
  of the false shadowy world of matter.
• They encourage students to search for truth as
• Education is transformation: ideas can change lives.
         Role of Teacher
• Dealing with abstract notions through
  dialectic method & connecting analysis
  with action
• Active, posing questions, selecting
  materials and establishing an
  environment to ensure the desired
• A role model to be imitated by ss
     Methods of Instruction
• T â active in ss’ learning
• Lecturing but particularly using dialectic
• Through questioning, ss â encouraged to
  discuss, analyze, synthesize, and apply what
  whey have read
• Ss â encouraged to work in groups/
  individually on research projects, both oral
  and written
• Examining the roots of the
  contemporary problems in the past
  (great literature/classics etc)
• Education at any level should teach ss
  to think
• Subject-matter curriculum
• Back-to-basics approach in education
REALISM (Chisholm, Whitehead)
Generic Notions:
• Meaning comes through empirically proven
• Reality is made up of natural laws, facts.
• The idea that reality is what it is and
  possesses an independent identity,
  regardless of the beliefs of the observer.
• We perceive the actually existing physical
Goal of Education
• Develop intellectual abilities
• To equip ss with information to understand current
  event (Tabula Rasa)
Role of the Teacher
• having a solid grounding in science, maths, and the
• relying on test scores to place students
  (competency testing of students with various
• readily adopting new technology
• teacher’s responsibility âto teach skill+disciplined
• T should be competent in a specific
  subject matter
• T âpresenting ideas in a clear &
  consistent manner & demonstrating
  that there are definite ways to judge
  works of art, music, poetry and
• Enabling ss to learn objective methods
  of evaluating the works above
Methods of Instruction

• lecture, question &answer (formal ways of teaching
• inductive & scientific reasoning
• competency-based assessments as a way ensuring that
  ss learnt what they are being taught
• emphasis on critical reason aided by observation (our
  experiences) & experimentation
• emphasizing realistic novels such as Oliver Twist, Great
  Expectations, For Whom the Bell Tolls etc. to give live’s
  laws and principles and such novels are the keys for ss
  to reach the ideal world through material world
• stressing precision and accuracy in math, science, social
  studies and writing
• curriculum consists of the basics – maths,
  science, reading etc.
• attention is given to didactic & object studies in
  education (use of pictures, TV, videos in
  educational process)
• use of objects in education (Montessori)
• emphasis is on subject matter (highly organized &
  systematic in approach)

CRITICISM: Empirical facts always subject to change.
Jean-Paul Sartre, Nietzche)
Generic Notions

• Existentialists believe that individuals are placed on this
  earth alone & must make sense out of the chaos they
• Sartre â believed “existence precedes essence” – that is
  people must create themselves, and they must create their
  own meaning.
• Thus, individuals are in a state of constantly becoming,
  creating chaos and order, creating good and evil. The
  choice is up to the individual.
• In short, existentialism teaches that each person must
  simply live his/her life & by doing so creates his/her own
  values, almost as an afterthought.
• Reality for individuals is eternal. Each individual’s point of
  view is significant. Aim is not to provide standard people.
Goal of Education
• Existentialists
   – believe that education should focus on the
     needs of individuals, both cognitively and
   – also believe that education should stress
     individuality. (Education should include
     discussion of the nonrational and rational
• Education is an activity liberating the individual
  from a chaotic, absurd world.
• Individuals are responsible of consequences.
  Individuals should be given credit for the
  creation of concepts like peace, truth, and
  justice. So, focus is on humans and their ideas.
• Good education would encourage individuals
  to ask such questions: “Who am I?”, “Where
  am I going?”, “Why am I here?”
• âSo, good education is one that
  – emphasizes individuality through intellectual
    journeys so that we can see and understand
  – helps individuals to examine the
    abnormal/corrupted side of life, the irrational as
    well as the good side. (life/death, wars, peace …)
• âAIM: to make the world better
        Role of the Teacher
• emphasizes individual choices (there is no
  common way of viewing world)
• T should understand his/her own ‘lived
  world’ to help ss achieve their best ‘lived
• Both T and ss learn from each other & their
  relation is more friend to friend
• Ts must take risks; expose themselves to
  resistant ss; & work constantly to enable
  their students to become ‘wide awake’.
• Introspection is useful in order to enable ss
  to become in touch with their worlds and to
  empower them to choose and act on their
• Thus the role of teacher is an intensely
  personal one that carries with it a
  tremendous responsibility.
• Due to the greater experience & knowledge,
  it is the T’s responsibility to develop an
  educational environment that promotes
  awareness of the past and present, and of
  the future possibilities.
• T helps ss become sensitive to human
  possibility and understand that they
  themselves are both necessarily and fully
  determined by the past (every present is
  conditioned by the past, but every present is
  pregnant with future possibilities for change
  and new direction – individuals can change
• Therefore, T should understand that the chief
  requirement is too help ss explore the world
  and open up new possibilities of the world
  for ss
      Methods of Instruction
• stressing individual freedom
• empowering ss to make choices about what and how
  they will learn
• Buber “I-thou approach” – S&T learn cooperatively
  from each other in an nontraditional, nonthreatening
  friendship. (posing questions, generating activities,
  and working together)
• Educational methods which help T in rediscovering
  the excitement of learning and opening up a whole
  new world of possibilities for ss.
• Ss become more articulate and capable of
  comprehension and self-expression with the help of
  teacher’s existentialist approach.
• stressing arts an literature, little emphasis is given
  on maths an science
• the humanities are considered in an existentialist
  curriculum because they deal with the essential
  aspects of human existence, such as the relations
  between people, the tragic side of human life as well
  as the happy, the absurdities as well as the meaning
• Through humanities, the existentialists try to awaken
  modern individuals to the dangers of being
  swallowed up by the megalopolis and runaway
  technology (wide awaken)
• Existentialists do not have definite
  rules about what the curriculum should
  comprise. They believe that the S-in-
  situation making a choice should be
  the deciding factor. (Curriculum from
  the standpoint of the learner rather
  than as a collection of discrete
     PRAGMATISM (Dewey and
• Generic Notions
• Pragmatism is the philosophy that encourages
  people to find processes that work in order to
  achieve their desired ends.
• Reality is that everything changes. (Theme: the
  world is constantly changing and we have to adapt)
• They study the past but they are generally more
  interested in contemporary issues and in
  discovering solutions to problems in present-day
• They are action-oriented, experientially grounded,
  and will generally pose questions such as
• “ What will work to achieve my desired
• problem âspeculative thought
  âaction âresults
• â then Question: “Do the results
  achieved solve the
•    problem?” â Then solution is valid.
         Goal of Education
• Primary goal of education is growth.
• Education is for life.
• Teaching ss how to live (standing on their
• Education should not be locked upon merely
  as schooling and the acquisition of academic
  subject matter but as a part of life itself.
• Schools should balance the needs of the
  society and community on the one hand and
  the needs of the ss on the other.
• To integrate children into not just any
  type of society, but a democratic one
  where cooperation and community are
  desired ends.
• Helping people direct, control and
  guide personal and social experience
• Schools should foster habits of thought,
  invention and initiative that will assist people
  in growing right direction toward democratic
• Education should promote our true
  individualism (self-directed learning)
• Education has a moral influence and should
  pay a vital part in helping us become the kind
  of moral persons who are interested not only
  in promoting our own growth but also in
  promoting the growth of others.
       Role of the Teacher
• applies democratic methods
• classroom is a community of learners
•  T â facilitator not authoritarian
• T âencourages, offers suggestions,
  questions and helps plan and
  implements courses of study
• T â writes curriculum and must have a
  command of several disciplines to
  create and implement curriculum
       Methods of Instruction
• Problem solving, experiential learning, inquiry
  methods, field trips, projects (not all ss can learn in
  the same way – vary strategies)
• Learning in groups and individuality
• Formal instruction is abandoned (flexible methods
  are used) moveable chairs, freedom n class etc.
• Lockstep, rote memorization of traditional schools
  are replaced with individualized studies.
• Action-oriented education (activity-oriented
  approach to curriculum)
• Learner-centered curriculum
• Pragmatist curriculum is composed of
  both process (experience) and content
• All academic and vocational disciplines
  in an integrated and connected way
• Problem-centered learning/project
  method: such approaches to
  curriculum start with a central
  question, core/problem. Ss attack the
  problem in diverse ways according to
  interest and need. They work
  independently or in groups. They
  evaluate their growth and development.
• Child interest to be considered in
  curriculum. Varied needs, interests
  âdifferent curricula
• There is a way of dealing with all various
• Eclecticism is not a philosophical system or
  model, but rather is the synthesizing and
  personal interpretation of various models to
  draw out the best components for yourself
• Thus, you pull the best from various models
  in any effort to build your own statement of
  personal philosophy.
• Humanistic School
• show respect to ss
• consideration of ss’ needs, expectations,
  feelings, values
• accepting ss as they are
• active learning strategies
• conflict resolution
• incorporating whole class
• Meaning: Intellect distinguishes humans from
• What is Reality: Humans have potential and
  innate goodness
• Nature of Humanness: Autonomy, dignity, and
  freedom are sacred
• Educational Aim: Individual
  potentiality; self-actualization
• Educational Method: Facilitation; self-
  direction; team work
• Educational Content: Any curriculum is
  a vehicle for meeting needs
• Main Criticism: Important societal goals
  can be missed
• Key proponents: Maslow, Knowles,
  Elias/Merriam, Tough
•   Programs/Practices:
•   Individualized instructional process
•   learning projects
•   sensitivity training
•   teacher effective training
•   active listening
•   conflict resolution
•   invitational learning
•   values clarification
•   moral education
•   multiethnic educational approaches
• Humanistic Approaches to English Language
• Active Listening
• letting s’s to express her/his feelings & then
  paraphrasing what s/he has said
• No advice is given during active listening
• Conflict Resolution
• the involved people talk how problems
  emerge and how they can get rid of those
  problems/negative attitudes
• problem solving & meaningful learning
  strategies are used
• Invitational Learning
• communicating with the student by
  making her/him feel that s/he is
  ‘responsible, able and valuable’
• procedure:
  – know your s’s name
  – have individual contact with each student
  – show him you respect her/him
  – be honest with her/him
  – not take rejection by the s’s personality
  – respect her/him as a human being
• Values Clarification
• technique that clients
  – identify how they feel or what they believe about
  – value that feeling or belief and,
  – if valued, act on it
• aim: to raise s’s consciousness and values
  and help them to act on it.
• Ex: Do you think using drugs should be
•      What can you do?
• Moral Education
• related to character education &
  citizenship education
• aim: to help clients to develop more
  responsible behaviour
• Strategies:
  – serving as role models who are always
    respectful and caring to others
  – creating a family or community
    atmosphere so that clients feel worthwhile
    and care about people
  – encouraging students to hold high
    academic & behavioral standards

• How can we solve the world’s
• revolutions
• wars
• education
• …
•   Education                                            School
•   -Broad                                                        -
•   -Take place anywhere,                                -particular
•     anytime, anyplace                       -limited definition
•   - behaviour change processes                  -place for education
•                                         collective body of pupils
•   -lack of formalization                                -formalized
•   -no assessment processes                      - assessment
•   -non-official                                         -official
•   -lack of system                                       -systemic
•       -no need to certified person                      -certified
•       -no specific time limit for learning     -compulsory period
•     for attendance

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