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					                  CM 220
               Unit 3 Seminar




General Education, Composition
      Kaplan University




                                 1
           Unit 3 Reading
• Introduction to unit
• Schamberger, M. (1997). Elements of
  quality in a qualitative research interview.
  S. A. Archives Journal, 3925. Retrieved from
  Academic Search Premier database.
• Interview Tips (posted in Doc Sharing)
• Research Resources (posted in Doc
  Sharing)

                                             2
        Other Assignments
• Invention lab: Analysis of Senate hearing
  videos from Fred Rogers and Al Gore
•  Seminar: Interview techniques and
  listening skills
• Tech lab (ideas for unit 7 IL presentation
  revised for final): Creating websites
  (Kaplan optimal resume website builder,
  Google sites, Weebly, GoDaddy)
• No project due in unit 3

                                               3
 Purpose of Unit 3 Assignments
• Discuss what constitutes effective
  communication
• Review effective listening skills
• Prepare for the unit 4 project, which
  includes a pre-interview worksheet and
  discussion of 3 secondary sources



                                           4
    Evaluating Communication
• What is the setting?
• What is the appearance of speaker?
• Is the speaker reading the speech from notes?
• Does the speaker have appropriate pauses and
  make eye contact with audience? Use gestures?
• Does the speaker gear the speech to the intended
  audience? How does the speaker attempt to
  connect with the audience?
• How does the speaker emphasize specific points?
• Does the speaker have any annoying habits that
  detract from the speech?

                                                     5
      Understanding Context
• Everything is written (or spoken) to someone for some
  purpose. The email you send to your sister should be
  written differently than a proposal you send to a
  business client, and a speech delivered to a group of
  second graders would differ from the President speaking
  to Congress.
• Knowing the audience, purpose, and the context is
  vitally important to good writing and speaking. Ask
  yourself:
   – Why am I writing or saying this?
   – Who is my audience?
   – What am I trying to say?


                                                        6
        Writing vs. Speaking
• Writing only uses       • Speaking uses words,
  words                     tone, gestures, facial
• Message must be           expressions, posture,
  clearly and correctly     eye contact
  written to convey       • May be accompanied
  ideas                     by visual aids (Power
• Demonstrate               Point, etc.)
  competence by using     • Appearance is
  Standard American         important!
  English

                                                     7
Unit 3 seminar

CONDUCTING INTERVIEWS


                        8
          Finding Sources
• Kaplan Library (see library presentation in
  Doc Sharing, as well as video on library
  home page)
• Google Scholar
• Newspapers and appropriate magazines




                                            9
             Interviews
• What are the benefits of conducting an
  interview?
• How do you determine what information
  is useful and reliable?
• How would you choose an interview
  subject?



                                           10
How to Conduct an Interview
1.   Select interview subject
2.   Prepare for interview
3.   Conduct interview
4.   Follow up




                                11
    Select Interview Subject
• Who would be a good source of
  information for your subject?
• How well known is this person? Is this
  person an expert on the subject?
• How do you locate this person?
• How do you request and schedule an
  interview?


                                           12
  Preparing for an Interview
• Research your interviewee
• Establish a goal or purpose for the
  interview
• Prepare questions in advance
• Prioritize the questions




                                        13
     Determining Questions
• Ask yourself: “What do I need to know?”
• Write a list of things you want to find out
• Write a list of research questions that will help
  your interviewee discuss this information
• Avoid biased questions: “Don’t you think we
  could improve campus parking by building
  another parking garage?”
• Check the questions carefully to see if the
  wording could be offensive to your interviewee
  (“How to Conduct an Interview,” 2008).

                                                      14
      Open and Closed-ended
            Questions
Yes/no questions can be answered with a simple
  yes or no. They may not be very productive or
  elicit much information. These are “closed-
  ended” questions.
Ask open-ended questions when possible, which
  allow the interviewee to explain, clarify and
  defend an idea.
Yes/no: Will you support the new tax increase?
Open Ended: How will increased taxes benefit or
  hurt local businesses?

                                                  15
       During the Interview
• Be gracious and thank the person for his or her
  time.
• Respect this person’s time by being on time and
  prepared.
• Pay attention to what the person is saying and
  use the opportunity to ask follow up questions
• Take notes or record the interview (with
  permission)
• Stick to the subject but be flexible.



                                                    16
           Listening Skills
• When you interview or are the subject of
  an interview, listening is a very important
  skill.
• Look at your interviewee. We learn a lot
  from a person’s facial expressions, tone,
  posture, eye contact.
• How can YOU show you are listening and
  paying attention?

                                            17
                   Follow-up
• A follow up thank you note would be appropriate.
• Transcribe your notes as quickly as possible after the
  interview.
• Give the interviewee an opportunity to review the notes
  to be sure they are accurate.




                                                        18
Unit 3 seminar

DEVELOPING QUESTIONS
FOR AN INTERVIEW SUBJECT

                           19
   Unit 4 Project: Pre-Interview
            Worksheet
• Describe the interviewee and reflect on why
  this person would be helpful for your
  research
• Discuss any research you have done on the
  topic
• Come up with three open-ended and three
  closed-ended questions and discuss your
  reasons for asking them
• Anticipate answers to questions
• Come up with additional questions

                                                20
        Selecting a Subject
• Topic: Banning smoking in public places
• Possible interviewee: Michael Siegel, a
  professor at Boston University’s School of
  Public Health and an anti-smoking
  advocate
• How to find out information? Faculty
  profile on BU website, internet search,
  other interviews, search in KU Library for
  articles written by subject

                                               21
“His primary research interest is in the area of tobacco
control, focusing on secondhand smoke health effects,
exposure, and policies, cigarette advertising and
marketing practices and their effects on youths, and
evaluation of tobacco control policies and their impact
on youth and adult smoking behavior. His primary
teaching is in the areas of mass communication,
marketing, and public health advocacy. He is co-author
of a book, entitled Marketing Public Health: Strategies
to Promote Social Change, that grew out of his teaching
experience at the School. He has been active in
promoting smoke-free bar and restaurant policies
throughout the country and has served as an expert
witness in several major tobacco litigation cases”
(Boston University School of Public Health, 2010).

                                                           22
What questions               • While Siegel is an anti-
might you have for             tobacco advocate, he worries
Siegel?                        that researchers exaggerate
Closed-ended (yes/no)          the impact of tobacco on non-
example:
                               smokers’ health. An article
Do you believe smoking
                               published on Kansas
bans reduce the number         Watchdog.org quotes Siegel
of smokers?                    regarding the relationship
                               between second-hand smoke
Open-ended example:
                               and heart attacks and third-
How have your public           hand smoke. He feels that the
criticisms of claims about     claims are “hysterical” and
dangers of second and
third-hand smoke affected      pose a threat to reducing the
your own efforts to            number of smokers (Soutar,
reduce smoking?                2010, para. 32).

                                                           23
              Your Turn
Whom would you like to interview and
 why?
What questions would you like to ask?
What kind of information would you like to
 get from the interview?
How will you arrange the interview?




                                         24

				
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