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					                                                                                              Girly Grass
                                              Dana Devin-Clarke. Sally Brown, Michael Muramoto*, and Michael Doubrava*
                                                 University of Washington and *King County Environmental Laboratory


Background                                                                 Study Design                                                                   Methods of Extraction
Many pharmaceuticals and personal care products or PCPPs enter and                                                                                                                    The leachate is collected and transferred to
                                                                           6’’ X 6’’ squares of Fairway and Tee turf grass were transplanted from the                                 King County for extraction and analysis.
leave wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) unaltered or incompletely
                                                                           Foster Links Golf Course to pots in the CUH greenhouse.
removed and are subsequently released into the environment through                                                                                                                    Ibuprofen and Triclosan:
wastewater outflows. Fish exposed to PPCPs in wastewater outflows
have been shown to exhibit intersex characteristics.                                                                                                                                  -Liquid/ Liquid extraction
                                                                                                                                                                                      -Concentration on Turbovap
                                                                                                                                                                                      -Analysis on GC/MS


                                                                                                                                                                                      The Estrogens:
                                                                                                                                                                                      -ZHE Filtration
Instead of releasing effluent into streams, wastewater can be further                                                                                                                 -Vacuum Degassing
treated and beneficially reused for irrigation of golf courses, farmland
                                                                            These grasses were then assigned one of five treatments including:                                        -C-18 SPE loading
or forestry plantations. However, the persistence of PCPPs once
applied to a soil system, such as a golf course, is yet to be                                                                                                                         -NH2 Cleanup
researched.                                                                 • T1 =Control (Tap water + 100%Fert)
                                                                                                                                                                                      -Silica Cleanup
Subsequently, this study was created to assess the benefits and             • T2 = Reclaimed water (RW) only                                                                          -Alumina Cleanup
potential for exposure to PCPPs by using reclaimed water produced
                                                                            • T3 = RW + 50% Fertilizer                                                                                -Derivatizing the Extracts
by Renton Treatment Plant to grow turf grass from the Foster Links
Golf Course in Tukwila. The PCPPs that will be monitored for mobility                                                                                                                 -Analysis on the GC/MS
as well as presence in the soils include: ibuprofen, triclosan and the      • T4 = RW + 100% Fertilizer
natural and synthetic estrogens: estriol, 17β-estradiol and
ethinylestradiol                                                            • T5 = Biosolids (Tap water only)                                                                         * The soil extraction and analysis methods
                                                                                                                                                                                      are currently being researched.
Compounds of Interest                                                       Each pot is watered with 500 mL of water and received fertilizer amendments
                                                                            of 50% and 100% actual course application rates                               Preliminary Conclusions
Ibuprofen: an anti-inflammatory drug                                                                                                                      Samples             Estrone (E1)       Estradiol (E2)     Ethinylestradiol
                      - Concentrations as low as 1 μg/L affect                                                                                                                                                      (EE2)
                      the heat shock response in trout fry                                                                                                Reclaimed Water     130 ng/ 500 mL     18 ng/ 500 mL      15 ng/ 500 mL
                                                                                                ;la;fkd                                   theklekrj       (source)
                      -USGS stream surveys in thirty states revealed a
                      detected stream concentrations:
                                                                                                                                                          Control Leachate    ND*                ND                 ND
                      Median = 0.20 µg/L Max =1.0 µg/L                                            lsfdlkdfj
Triclosan: anti-microbial compound in household products                                                                                                  Fairway Leachate < MDL**               < MDL              ND
                      - Lethal conc. (LC50 rainbow trout = 0.35 μg/L)
                      - The degradation byproducts: methyl-TCS, which                                                                                     Tee Leachate        30                 < MDL              ND
                      bioaccumulates in fish and dioxin, a known           The source water and leachate is collected every other week and tested
                       carcinogen                                          at the King County Environmental Laboratory.                                   Biosolids           < MDL              ND                 < MDL
                      -Stream conc: Median(0.80 mg/L) and Max. (40 mg/L)                                                                                  Leachate
                                                                           These are tested to determine:
                                                                           • the total concentration of compounds being loaded into the system            * ND = Not Detected, < MDL = less than methods detection limit
Natural and Synthetic estrogens:
                                                                           • the amount of compound that may potentially pass through the system          ** Note these are the preliminary numbers from the first extraction. More
                      -Fish exposed to concentrations as low as 1 ng/L                                                                                    data is required to fully characterize the fate and concentration of
                                                                           in the leachate
                      begin to develop intersex characteristics                                                                                           compounds within this system
                      -Stream conc.: a median and maximum
                       0.073 and 0.831 μg/L for ethinylestradiol (EE2)     The soil and plant samples will be collected and tested at the end of the
                                                                           study to determine plant uptake as well as potential accumulation or           Initial results indicate:
                       0.009 and 0.2 μg/L for estradiol (E2)
                       0.027 and 0.112 μg/L for estrone (E1)               persistence of compounds in a sediment system.                                 • The estrogens, added with the reclaimed water, do not pass through
                                                                                                                                                          the soil system.

				
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