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Girly Grass Dana Devin-Clarke. Sally Brown, Michael Muramoto*, and Michael Doubrava* University of Washington and *King County Environmental Laboratory Background Study Design Methods of Extraction Many pharmaceuticals and personal care products or PCPPs enter and The leachate is collected and transferred to 6’’ X 6’’ squares of Fairway and Tee turf grass were transplanted from the King County for extraction and analysis. leave wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) unaltered or incompletely Foster Links Golf Course to pots in the CUH greenhouse. removed and are subsequently released into the environment through Ibuprofen and Triclosan: wastewater outflows. Fish exposed to PPCPs in wastewater outflows have been shown to exhibit intersex characteristics. -Liquid/ Liquid extraction -Concentration on Turbovap -Analysis on GC/MS The Estrogens: -ZHE Filtration Instead of releasing effluent into streams, wastewater can be further -Vacuum Degassing treated and beneficially reused for irrigation of golf courses, farmland These grasses were then assigned one of five treatments including: -C-18 SPE loading or forestry plantations. However, the persistence of PCPPs once applied to a soil system, such as a golf course, is yet to be -NH2 Cleanup researched. • T1 =Control (Tap water + 100%Fert) -Silica Cleanup Subsequently, this study was created to assess the benefits and • T2 = Reclaimed water (RW) only -Alumina Cleanup potential for exposure to PCPPs by using reclaimed water produced • T3 = RW + 50% Fertilizer -Derivatizing the Extracts by Renton Treatment Plant to grow turf grass from the Foster Links Golf Course in Tukwila. The PCPPs that will be monitored for mobility -Analysis on the GC/MS as well as presence in the soils include: ibuprofen, triclosan and the • T4 = RW + 100% Fertilizer natural and synthetic estrogens: estriol, 17β-estradiol and ethinylestradiol • T5 = Biosolids (Tap water only) * The soil extraction and analysis methods are currently being researched. Compounds of Interest Each pot is watered with 500 mL of water and received fertilizer amendments of 50% and 100% actual course application rates Preliminary Conclusions Ibuprofen: an anti-inflammatory drug Samples Estrone (E1) Estradiol (E2) Ethinylestradiol - Concentrations as low as 1 μg/L affect (EE2) the heat shock response in trout fry Reclaimed Water 130 ng/ 500 mL 18 ng/ 500 mL 15 ng/ 500 mL ;la;fkd theklekrj (source) -USGS stream surveys in thirty states revealed a detected stream concentrations: Control Leachate ND* ND ND Median = 0.20 µg/L Max =1.0 µg/L lsfdlkdfj Triclosan: anti-microbial compound in household products Fairway Leachate < MDL** < MDL ND - Lethal conc. (LC50 rainbow trout = 0.35 μg/L) - The degradation byproducts: methyl-TCS, which Tee Leachate 30 < MDL ND bioaccumulates in fish and dioxin, a known The source water and leachate is collected every other week and tested carcinogen at the King County Environmental Laboratory. Biosolids < MDL ND < MDL -Stream conc: Median(0.80 mg/L) and Max. (40 mg/L) Leachate These are tested to determine: • the total concentration of compounds being loaded into the system * ND = Not Detected, < MDL = less than methods detection limit Natural and Synthetic estrogens: • the amount of compound that may potentially pass through the system ** Note these are the preliminary numbers from the first extraction. More -Fish exposed to concentrations as low as 1 ng/L data is required to fully characterize the fate and concentration of in the leachate begin to develop intersex characteristics compounds within this system -Stream conc.: a median and maximum 0.073 and 0.831 μg/L for ethinylestradiol (EE2) The soil and plant samples will be collected and tested at the end of the study to determine plant uptake as well as potential accumulation or Initial results indicate: 0.009 and 0.2 μg/L for estradiol (E2) 0.027 and 0.112 μg/L for estrone (E1) persistence of compounds in a sediment system. • The estrogens, added with the reclaimed water, do not pass through the soil system.
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