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Environmental Impact Assessment _EIA_ and Mitigation Measures

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					               Training Course of
 Small Scale Water Resources Project (SSWRP-II)



 Environmental Impact
 Assessment (EIA) and
 Mitigation Measures

Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam
Assistant Professor
IWFM, BUET, Dhaka
          EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Lecture Topic
n   Environmental Parameters
n   Potential Impact on infrastructure development
    projects
    ¨ Thana Road Project
    ¨ Thana Irrigation Schemes
    ¨ Thana Drainage and Embankment Projects

n   Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
n   Environmental Protection Measures
          EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




    Environmental Parameters
• components of environment.
• can be grouped into major
components.                                      ECOLOGY




                            PHYSICO-
                            CHEMICAL
                                                           HUMAN
                                                         INTEREST
         EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Ecology
n   Aquatic                               n   Terrestrial
    ¨ Fisheries                                ¨ Forest
    ¨ Eutrophication                           ¨ Wildlife
    ¨ AquaticWeeds                             ¨ Speciesdiversity
    ¨ Species diversity                        ¨ Endangered species
    ¨ Endangered species
             EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Physico-chemical
n   Land
                                              n    Groundwater
    ¨ Erosion and Siltation
                                                    ¨ Regional Hydrology
    ¨ Backwater Effect
                                                    ¨ Recharge
    ¨ Bank stability
                                                    ¨ Water table
    ¨ Drainage
                                                    ¨ Water Pollution
    ¨ Soil characteristics
n   Surface water
                                              n    Atmosphere
    ¨ Regional       Hydrology
                                                    ¨ Airpollution
         Load
    ¨ Silt
                                                    ¨ Dust Pollution
    ¨ Water Pollution
                                                    ¨ Noise Pollution
         EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Human Interest
n   Health                                n   Socio-Economic
                                               ¨ Land   Loss
    ¨ Diseases
                                               ¨ Crop Production
    ¨ Sanitation                               ¨ Aquaculture
                                               ¨ Irrigation
    ¨ Nutrients
                                               ¨ Navigation
n   Aesthetic                                  ¨ Flood Control
                                               ¨ Transport
    ¨ Landscape
                                               ¨ Re-settlement
    ¨ Recreation                               ¨ Employment
                                               ¨ Agro-industrial
          EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Potential Impacts on Environment
n   A change in system exerts certain influence on
    many different environmental parameters
    resulting a net positive or negative impact on
    the environment.

n   Impact on major Infrastructure development
    projects such as:
    ¨ Thana road projects
    ¨ Thana irrigation schemes
    ¨ Thana   Drainage and embankment projects
            EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Ecological Impact
n   (a) Fisheries:
    ¨ (-) Roads prevent longitudinal and lateral migration of
      fishes in the flood plain
    ¨ (-) Obstruct movement of fishes onto natural feeding
      and breeding grounds in the flood plain.
n   (b) Forest:
        Roads running through forest area and plantations
    ¨ (-)
      may be the cause of destruction of trees in the forest
      and alteration of ecology of the forest.
            EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Ecological Impact
n   (c) Plantation:
    ¨ (+)The roadsides may be used for plantation of trees
      which is favorable impact of road construction.
n   (d) Wetland and Wetland Habitant:
    ¨ (-)The road may encroach wetlands which may alter
      the ecology of wetlands and may cause destruction of
      wetland habitat.
n   (e) Nuisance Plant/Eutrophication:
    ¨ (-)The Roads running through forest area and
      plantations may be the cause of destruction of trees in
      the forest and alteration of ecology of the forest.
            EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Physico-chemical Impact
n   (a) Erosion and Siltation
        causes erosion during flood and siltation in the
    ¨ (-)
      downstream.
n   (b) Drainage Congestion /Water logging
    ¨ (-) roads interfere with cross drainage and can cause
      flooding or drainage congestion in adjacent areas
      during periods of high precipitation.
    ¨ (-) May cause crop damage, water pollution and
      breeding of mosquitoes.
            EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Physico-chemical Impact
n   (c) Regional Hydrology/Flooding
    ¨ (-)Roads constructed across flood plains
      perpendicular to the direction of water flow cause back
      water effect and increase duration, frequency and
      extent of flooding in the up stream.
n   (d) Obstruction to Waste water flow
    ¨ (-)Roads may obstruct the drainage of sewage and
      industrial waste water loading to serious pollution
      problem.
n   (e) Dust /Noise Pollution
    ¨ (-)Dust raised from unpaved rural roads and blown by
      the vehicles can pose a health hazard and damage
      vegetation along the sides of the road.
            EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Impact on Human Interest
n   (a) Loss of Agricultural Lands
    ¨ (-)Construction of any road is associated with the
      loss of agricultural lands.
n   (b) Generation of Employment Opportunities
    ¨ (+)Construction of road generates temporary
      employment during project implementation and
      permanent employment during maintenance phase.
n   (c) Navigation and Boat Communication
        Roads interference with navigation and boat
    ¨ (-)
      communication at least for certain period of the year.
            EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Impact on Human Interest
n   (d) Commercial and Service Facilities
    ¨ (+) The thana roads provide benefit of fast
       communication, transport facilities etc.
n   (e) Industrial Activities
    ¨ (+)   Road communication promotes industrial activities.
n   (f) Irrigation Facilities
    ¨ (+)   Borrow-pits by the side of the roads provide facility
       for small scale irrigation.
n   (g) Landscape
    ¨ (-) Scattered borrow pits, unauthorized growth around
       road , erosion result in marred landscape.
              Training Course of
Small Scale Water Resources Project (SSWRP-II)




Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA)
           EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET


Environmental Impact Assessment
(EIA)
n   Assessment of the beneficial and adverse
    changes in environment resources or values
    resulting from a proposed project.

n   Essential Elements
    ¨   Identification of possible positive or negative
        impacts of the project.
    ¨   Quantifying impacts with respect to common base.
    ¨   Preparation of mitigation plan to offset the negative
        impacts.
          EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Methods of Assessment
n   Environmental Impact Value




n   Vi = Relative change of the environmental
    quality of parameters
n   Wi= Relative importance or weight or parameter
n   N = total number of environmental parameters
          EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET


Quantification of Environmental
Impact
n   Changes of environmental
    parameters
    ¨ Severe  (+5 or -5)
    ¨ Higher (+4 or -4)
    ¨ Moderate (+3 or -3)
    ¨ Low (+2 or -2)
    ¨ Very Low (+1 or -1)
    ¨ No change (0)
          EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET


Relative importance of
Environmental Parameters
n   All parameters are not equal importance or
    weight.
n   It varies from country to country
n   In Bangladesh flood, employment, agriculture,
    fisheries carry more importance.
n   In next slide, a summary of relative importance
    of parameters for Thana Road project is
    presented.
       EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




EIA Procedure
n   Preparatory Works – study report
n   Data collection – from all sources,
    survey
n   Data Analysis – convert to change scale
n   Impact Evaluation – relative weight
n   Mitigation and Monitoring Plan
n   Preparation of Report – help decision
    makers
              EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET


ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS                              Relative  Degree of         EIV
                                                      Importanc Impact
                                                      e Value
I. ECOLOGICAL                                                                     -19
   Fisheries                                          10               -2
   Forest                                             5                0
   Tree Plantation                                    2                +1
   Wetland/Wetland Habitant                           4                0
   Nuisance Plant/Eutrophication                      1                -1

II. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL                                                              -13
    Erosion and Siltation                             2                -1
    Regional Hydrology/Flooding                       6                -1
    Drainage Congestion/Water logging                 5                -1
    Obstruction to Waste Water Flow                   3                0
    Dust Pollution/Noise Pollution                    2                0
           EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET

ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS                          Relative        Degree    EIV
                                                  Importan        of Impact
                                                  ce Value
III. HUMAN INTEREST                                                            +27
    Loss of Agricultural Lands                    8               +3
    Employment Opportunities                      8               +4
    Navigation/Boat Communication                 3               -3
    Commercial and Service Facilities             6               +3
    Industrial Activities                         3               +2
    Irrigation Facilities                         2               +3
    Landscape                                     2               -1

Total Environmental Impact Value                                               -5
               Training Course of
 Small Scale Water Resources Project (SSWRP-II)



Adverse Environmental
Impacts and Mitigation
Measures
          EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Loss fish breeding
n   1. Action:
    ¨ Loss  of breading, nursery and feeding ground in flood
      plain.
n   1. Impact:
              in Fish protein consumption.
    ¨ Reduction
    ¨ Unemployment of fisherman.
n   1. Mitigation Measures:
          controlled flooding.
    ¨ Allow
    ¨ Compensate the loss by fish culture.
         EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Obstruction to fish
n   2. Action:
    ¨ Obstruction       to mitigation of fish.
n   2. Impact:
    ¨ Same    as 1.
n   2. Mitigation Measures:
    ¨ Provide adequate opening in roads and
      embankments along routes of fish
      migration.
          EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Pesticide
n   3. Action:
    ¨ Reproduction  failure and destruction of fish by
      uncontrolled use of pesticide.
n   3. Impact:
    ¨ Same    as 1.
n   3. Mitigation Measures:
    ¨ Adopt Integrated Pest Management (IMP) for pest
      control.
    ¨ Prevent drainage from agriculture land from
      reaching water bodies.
          EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Drying wetland
n   4. Action:
    ¨ Drying up of the wetlands for agriculture purpose and
      destruction of habitat for fish, birds, amphibians etc.
n   4. Impact:
    ¨ Reduction  in Fishery.
    ¨ Elimination of species of fish, birds, amphibians etc.
    ¨ Disruption of wetland ecology.
n   4. Mitigation Measures:
    ¨ Avoid    complete drying up of wetlands and swamp
      land.
    ¨ Restore alternative habitat for endangered
      species.
          EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Cutting trees
n   5. Action:
    ¨ Clearing  of forest lands and cutting of trees within the
      right-of-way of the road.
n   5. Impact:
    ¨ Reduction  in forest cover.
    ¨ Reduction in forest products.
    ¨ Disruption of forest ecology.
n   5. Mitigation Measures:
    ¨ Find alternative route to avoid forest through
      planning exercise.
    ¨ Replace the trees by plantation along road sides.
          EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Nuisance plants
n   6. Action:
    ¨ Spreading     of nuisance plants from borrow pit.
n   6. Impact:
    ¨ Damage     crops during flood.
n   6. Mitigation Measures:
    ¨ Incorporate  destruction of such plants in
      maintenance program.
    ¨ Convert the plants into a compost for application
      as a soil conditioner/manure.
          EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Pollution from drainage
n   7. Action:
    ¨ Discharge  nutrient enriched agricultural land drainage
      in surface water.
n   7. Impact:
    ¨ Causes eutrophication and surface water pollution.
    ¨ Makes the water unsuitable for beneficial uses.
    ¨ Destroys aquatic environment.
n   7. Mitigation Measures:
    ¨ Prevent agricultural land drainage from reaching
      from reaching surface waters.
             EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Water pollution
n   8. Action:
    ¨   Reaching residues of pesticides in surface and groundwater
        from agricultural lands.
n   8. Impact:
    ¨   Cause water pollution.
    ¨   Contaminates sources of water supply.
    ¨   Pesticides residues accumulate in bio-mass.
n   8. Mitigation Measures:
    ¨   Reduce use of pesticides through IPM.
    ¨   Prevent agricultural land drainage from reaching surface
        water.
             EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Erosion and Siltation
n   9. Action:
    ¨   Erosion of road and embankment surfaces and sides, road
        openings, bed and banks of rivers/canals subsequent silation in
        down stream.
n   9. Impact:
    ¨   Cause damage to road and embankment.
    ¨   Affect stability of road/embankment and their structures.
    ¨   Increases turbidity of water.
    ¨   Siltation of canal bed and agricultural lands.
n   9. Mitigation Measures:
    ¨   Select appropriate soils for road and embankment
        construction.
    ¨   Compact the road materials properly.
    ¨   Provide proper slope for surface drainage and vegetation
        cover.
    ¨   Provide adequate opening for discharge of flood and
        accumulated rain water.
          EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET


Drainage congestions/ water
logging
n   10. Action:
    ¨ Drainage    congestion and water logging
n   10. Impact:
    ¨ Crop damage and loss of agricultural lands.
    ¨ Cause water pollution.
    ¨ Provide ground fro mosquito breeding.
n   10. Mitigation Measures:
    ¨ Provide adequate opening for drainage.
    ¨ Provide facilities for pumping of congested water.
          EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Regional Hydrology
n   11. Action:
    ¨ Disruption  of regional hydrology through obstruction
      of flood flow.
    ¨ Back water effect due to constructions across flood
      plains.
n   11. Impact:
             duration, severity and frequency of flood.
    ¨ Increase
    ¨ Changes flooding pattern and ground water recharge.
n   11. Mitigation Measures:
    ¨ Avoid  road construction across the flood plain in
      the direction perpendicular to flood flow.
    ¨ Provide adequate opening for flood flow.
         EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Backflow
n   12. Action:
    ¨ Backflow      of water through drainage canals.
n   12. Impact:
    ¨ Causes     early flooding.
n   12. Mitigation Measures:
    ¨ Installregulator to control inflow and
      outflow through drainage canal.
          EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Obstruction to waste water
n   13. Action:
               to waste water flow by roads and
    ¨ Obstruction
      embankments.
n   13. Impact:
    ¨ Create water pollution.
    ¨ Deteriorates quality of environment.
n   13. Mitigation Measures:
    ¨ Provide   drainage structure.
    ¨ Install pumping facilities.
    ¨ Install treatment plant for waste water treatment.
          EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Dust blowing
n   14. Action:
    ¨ Dustblowing from unpaved roads during construction
      and movement of vehicles.
n   14. Impact:
           hazards due to dust pollution.
    ¨ Health
    ¨ Damage to vegetation and trees along the road.
n   14. Mitigation Measures:
    ¨ Control  moisture content during construction by
      watering.
    ¨ Stabilize road surface with a suitable stabilizer.
    ¨ Increase vegetation cover on road surface and
      slopes.
            EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Polluted irrigation water
n   15. Action:
    ¨ Use of irrigation water with high and imbalance salt
      content.
n   15. Impact:
    ¨ Increase  soil salinity and alkanity/acidity
    ¨ Alteration of soil texture and permeability.
    ¨ Affects soil fertility.
n   15. Mitigation Measures:
    ¨ Use surface water where available.
    ¨ Conduct chemical analysis of ground water before
      use and select the aquifer producing good quality
      water.
    ¨ Determine salinity of surface water in coastal areas
      before use as irrigation water.
            EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Contaminated irrigation water
n   16. Action:
    ¨ Use   of irrigation water with high iron content.
n   16. Impact:
           reddish color to top soil.
    ¨ Impart
    ¨ Changes soil texture and permeability.
n   16. Mitigation Measures:
    ¨ Look  for an alternative water source, the right
      strata producing water with low iron content.
    ¨ Detain the aerated water in a reservoir, canal
      before application in the field.
          EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Loss of land
n   17. Action:
    ¨ Loss   of agricultural land.
n   17. Impact:
    ¨ Deprives  a group of farmers of their means of living.
    ¨ Increases landlessness in the area.
    ¨ Reduces employment in agriculture.
    ¨ Affects agricultural production.
n   17. Mitigation Measures:
    ¨ Plan the project to avoid fertile agricultural land.
    ¨ Rehabilitate the affected people.
    ¨ Generate employment opportunities in other
      activities.
          EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Obstruction to navigation
n   18. Action:
    ¨ Obstruction     to navigation and plying of boat.
n   18. Impact:
    ¨ Disruptionof cheap mode of transportation.
    ¨ Adverse effects on communication.

n   18. Mitigation Measures:
    ¨ Provide  openings at major routes and construct
      road structures leaving adequate clearance above
      high flood level for plying of boats.
         EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Land ownership pattern
n   19. Action:
    ¨ Change   in land ownership pattern within
      project area.
n   19. Impact:
    ¨ Inadequitable         distribution of project benefits.
n   19. Mitigation Measures:
    ¨ Regulation  of land ownership transfer in
      the project area.
          EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




Inadequate landscape
n   20. Action:
    ¨ Inadequate      considerations to land use and landscape.
n   20. Impact:
    ¨ Landscape     disfiguration by irregular borrowpits, deep
      cuts, fills, unplanned growth of shops, and other
      services.
n   20. Mitigation Measures:
    ¨ Replant disfigured surfaces.
    ¨ Use a design to blend with landscape.
    ¨ Prevent unplanned construction and
      unauthorized uses of roads and embankments.
        EIA and Mitigation Measures @ Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Islam, IWFM, BUET




n   References:

    ¨ Guidelines  on environmental issues
      related to physical planning, LGED, 1992.
                          planning
    ¨ Environmental Impact Assessment, CERM,
                             Assessment
      BUET, 2003.




                   Thank you !

				
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