Opposition to Tsardom

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					   Autocratic system-change can only come from
    the top down
   Reform was dependant on individual tsars so
    tended to be sporadic
   Any reform would weaken a tsar’s authority.
    Even a reforming tsar would pull back from
    changes which would seriously undermine his
    power
   Emancipation of the
    serfs 1861
   Setting up of the
    zemstva
   Legal reforms to
    simplify the legal
    system
   Relaxation of controls
    over press and
    universities
   SERFDOM                     ZEMSTVA
   enforced labour of          Rural councils
    serfs on the fields of      Supposedly elected
    landowners, in return        bodies but voting
    for protection and the       regulations meant that
    right to work on their       mostly landowners
    leased fields.               and local gentry were
   Good way to keep             elected
    control of peasants
   Future problems?- limits of reforms
   New freedom in universities and the press led
    to greater expression of ideas and the
    development of an intellectual, enlightened
    class who would begin to criticise tsardom
   Alexander’s assassination in 1881 led his son
    Alexander III and Grandson Nicholas II to be
    very conservative and oppressive
   Repressive measures introduced under
    Alexander III
   Special government controlled courts,
    Okhrana’s powers extended, tighter
    censorship, universities under strict gov.
    control, independence of the Zemstva reduced
   Russification- policy of forcing the Russian
    language on all nationalities-led to pogroms
   Reaction and
    Russification led to
    the increased
    frustration of political
    and national groups
    fed up with represion
    and incompetence
   Political parties were
    illegal so often
    resorted to extreme
    measures
   The Populists
   Social Revolutionaries (SRs)
   Social Democrats (SDs)
   The Liberals
   For each group work out-origins of group, key
    aims, leaders and methods
   Born 5th May 1818 in
    Prussia. Died 1883 in
    London
   1835- went to Bonn
    university to study law
    but preferred drinking
   1844-met Engels in Paris
    and was influenced by
    his work on the
    working class
   Became interested in
    the French Revolution
    and the working class
    whilst in France
   Published Communist
    Manifesto Feb 1848
   Moved to London in
    1849 after being
    forced to leave France
    for ‘incitement to
    armed rebellion’
   Two key classes           Other classes
   Proletariat- working      Lumpenproletariat-
    class-work for and         criminals, vagabonds,
    exploited by the           beggars, with no stake
    bourgeoisie                in the economic system
   Bourgeoisie-own the        who will sell themselves
    means of production        to the highest bidder
                              Peasantry-
                               disorganised, incapable
                               of carrying out change
   Exploitation is an
    inherent feature of
    Capitalism. The
    bourgeoisie make
    their profit from the
    difference in value of
    the product made by
    the worker and the
    actual wage the
    worker receives
1.   First stage- Primitive
     Communism
2.   Slave society
3.   Feudalism
4.   Capitalism
5.   Communism- when
     the working class
     become class
     conscious
   Lenin added
    Socialism as the fifth
    stage
   Communes in control
    of production,
    common property,
    people self governed
    through a system of
    communes
   People paid for the
    work done
   An ideal society
   No classes
   No government
   Common ownership
    as the means of
    production
   No money

				
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posted:7/24/2013
language:English
pages:15