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Discrimination & Complex Stimulus Control Chs12 & 13 Reinforcement-Based Discrimination SD After Before Behavior SD After D Discriminative Stimulus (S ) • A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished D S-delta (S ) • A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will not be reinforced or punished Reinforcement-Based Discrimination SD After Brelandlesss Chicken target has food Before Behavior Chicken Chicken has no food pulls the trigger After SD Chicken has no food Breland Discrimination Training Procedure • Reinforcing or punishing a response in the presence of one stimulus and extinguishing it or allowing it to recover in the presence of another stimulus. Stimulus discrimination (stimulus control) • The occurrence of a response more frequently in the presence of one stimulus than in the presence of another, usually as a result of a discrimination training procedure Differential Reinforcement vs. Stimulus Discrimination One Stimulus Two Stimuli One Response No Stimulus Class differentiation discrimination or discrimination Two Response Response Combined Classes differentiation differentiation & discrimination Concept training • Intuition? – Control by a concept or set of contingencies the person or organism does not define or describe • Concept of PERSON is complex Herrnstein & Loveland • Concept training procedure with nonverbal animal Concept Training SD After Various Pigeon has pictures of grain people Before Behavior No grain Pigeon pecks key Sdelta After Various Pigeon has pictures no grain with no people Concept Training SD After Various Pigeon has Picasso grain paintings Before Behavior No grain Pigeon pecks key Sdelta After Various Pigeon has painting by no grain others Complex Stimulus Control • Conceptual stimulus control Stimulus class (concept) • A set of stimuli all of which have some common physical property • A stimulus class is the same thing as a concept Stimulus generalization • The behavioral contingencies in the presence of one stimulus affects the frequency of the response in the presence of another stimulus • E.g. – reinforcement for pecking in presence of 1 Picasso painting affects likelihood of pecking in presence of another Picasso painting (more likely) Concept Training • Reinforcing or punishing a response in the the presence of one stimulus class and extinguishing it or allowing it to recover in the presence of another stimulus class Concept training Vs. Conceptual stimulus control Conceptual stimulus control • Responding occurs more often in the presence of one stimulus class and less often in the presence of another stimulus class because of concept training Testing for stimulus generalization • Test for stimulus generalization using novel stimuli • If respond correctly to novel stimuli, can say the behavior is under the stimulus control of concepts. Stimulus generalization vs. stimulus discrimination • Responds in presence of SD but not in the presence of SD. This is ______________ • Responds at similar rates in presence of SD and SD. This is __________________ Stimulus Generalization Stimulus Discrimination Stimulus-Generalization Gradient Generalization vs. Discrimination • Amount of generalization is the opposite of the amount of stimulus discrimination (stimulus control) Fading, Errorless Learning, Imitation Chapter 13 & 14, Part 2 Fading • Stimulus dimensions – The physical properties of stimuli Stimulus Dimensions • Stimuli differ from each other vs. – House vs. car • Obvious dimensions – Size, weight, shape, material, etc. Stimulus Dimensions • The more dimensions along which objects differ, the easier to establish a discriminative stimulus control • The fewer dimensions along which objects differ, the harder it is to establish discriminative stimulus control Example • Good golf balls (SD) vs. bad golf balls (SD) • This is a discrimination that is difficult • How can the discrimination be established? • The 2 golf balls are similar in so many dimensions….and differ in only a few – Roundness, resiliency, hardness of cover Make stimulus dimensions more salient, then use fading • Color the bad golf ball green • Leave the good golf ball alone • Reinforce picking out good golf balls • Don’t reinforcer picking bad (green) golf balls Fading • Gradually fade out the difference between good balls and bad balls by reducing the “green” Fading procedure • At first, the SD and the SD differ along at least two stimulus dimensions (green & white, new & old). • The difference between the SD and the SD along all but one dimension is reduced until there is no difference along the reduced dimensions. • The the SD and the SD differ along only one dimension Errorless Discrimination Procedure • The use of a fading procedure to establish a discrimination, with no errors during training. Jimmy Jimmy Susan Jimmy Susan Jimmy Susan Jimmy Susan Jimmy Susan Jimmy Susan Reinforcement-Based Discrimination SD After Jimmy on a Jimmy has white à a raisin black card Before Behavior Jimmy has Jimmy no raisin picks card After SD Jimmy has Susan on a no raisin black card Stimulus Dimensions • Lettering • Shading • At first, choice of cards was under the control of the dimension of ________ • Then, after fading, responding was under the control of the dimension of _______ Techniques of Gradual Change Procedure Area of Purpose Application Shaping Response To bring about a response not made by differentiation the organism To maintain responses Reinforcer Type & amount already made or to Reduction of reinforcer establish a particular pattern of responses To bring the response Fading Stimulus under the control of discrimination stimuli that didn’t exert control initially Reinforcer Reduction • Move from primary to secondary reinforcers • Change from 3 pellets to 1 pellet Imitation • The form of the behavior of the imitator is controlled by similar behavior of the model Imitation Training: Stimulus Discrimination SD After Raised arm and Marilla has “do this” food & praise Before Behavior Marilla has Marilla no food & raises arm praise After SD Marilla has No arm raised or no food & no “do this” praise Imitation Training: Differential Reinforcement After Behavior Marilla has Marilla food & Before raises arm praise Marilla has no food & After praise Behavior Marilla has Marilla no food & raises arm praise Training Imitation • Train imitation with a partner – Touch nose – Touch toes – Raise hand – Etc…… Generalized Imitation • Imitation of the response of a model without previous reinforcement of imitation of that specific response.
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