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					                         Student Pages
             From the Black Laws to Civil Rights:
                      the fight for equality
                 A WebQuest/KnowledgeQuest
                        for 9th-12th Grade
          (United States History and US Government)



Designed by:
Barb Figg and Karen Giles                                           November
figg@mullenhigh.com and                                                 2005
giles@mullenhigh.com
J.K. Mullen High School

  Intro   Task   Process    Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
          Directions for Students
u   Click once OR press the space key to advance to
    the next slide
u   Press the backspace key to go back one slide

u   Use the buttons at the bottom of each slide to go
    back and review any steps AFTER you have gone
    through all slides individually.

u   Follow the directions on each slide


Intro   Task   Process   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
        Introduction for Students
u   This lesson will provide you with historical
    information about the Civil Rights movement
    in the United States from the 1860’s through
    the beginning of the 1960’s. You will be
    analyzing a variety of primary sources that
    relate to this period from court cases,
    pictures, maps, writings, political cartoons
    and more.
u   You will have the opportunity to decide if
    society and the courts have done enough to
    promote equality.

Intro   Task   Process   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
        The Task for Students…
You will be asked to examine a variety of cases,
primary resources, photos, maps, and political
cartoons, that span the movement from the Black
Laws of the 1860’s through the integration laws of
the 1950’s.




Intro   Task   Process   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
        …The Task for Students …
Essential questions you need to consider:
uWhat was life like for the African Americans?

uHow did society view them from the end of
the Civil War through the Civil Rights
movement?
u How has the legislative, executive, and
judicial branches of our government dealt with
the Civil Rights Movement?
uHas the road to Civil Rights accomplished
educational and occupational equality?
Intro   Task   Process   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
        The Process for Students
1. You will view the power point and
   respond to the essential questions on a
   prepared worksheet.
2. Then you will be broken up into 4-5
   groups and given different primary
   documents concerning the “Black Laws”
   to read in your groups. As a member of
   the group, you will then complete
   questions about the documents.
3. You will be asked to jigsaw the activity
   and then share the information with your
   classmates.
Intro   Task   Process   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
        The Process for Students
 4.Now each of your groups will prepare a visual drawing to
     explain how the Black Laws denied civil rights to African
     Americans
5. Using a copy of “school integration, Barnard School”,
     you will complete a photo analysis worksheet.
6.   The teacher will now lead you in a class analysis of the
     photograph you worked on.
7.   In groups of your choice, you will listen to narratives
     from Black Americans who lived during the Black Laws
     and then develop questions that you have and then share
     with the class in a discussion arena.
7.   Following your discussion , you will be given more
     primary source documents to analyze concerning the
     “Plessy v. Ferguson” case.
8.   You will be given similar activities using cartoons, maps,
     photos, and court documents to analyze.

Intro   Task   Process   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
         The Process for Students
u       9. You will be involved in keeping
        an individual sequential time line of
        the materials you are studying.




Intro    Task   Process   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
           Evaluation for Students
u       You will be evaluated individually on
        the completion of your photo
        analysis and your worksheets.
u       Your participation in the group
        Socratic seminar will be assessed
u       Your position paper will be used to
        complete your debate


Intro    Task   Process   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
          Conclusion for Students
u       Upon completion of this project, you will
        have traced the judicial, cultural,
        political, and educational path taken by
        African Americans in the United States to
        gain their civil rights.

u       Based on the primary documents you
        have read, your knowledge of history,
        and your own personal experiences, has
        equality been established?

Intro    Task   Process   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
               Credits & References
u     The black laws : speech of Hon. B.W. Arnett of Greene
      County, and Hon. J.A. Brown of Cuyahoga County, in the
      Ohio House of Representatives, March 10, 1886.
    –    http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
         bin/query/r?ammem/murray:@field(DOCID+@lit(lcrbmrpt0d
         06)):@@@$REF$
u     Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal
      Writers' Project, 1936-1938
    –    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/snhtml/snhome.html
u     The Barbarous Decision of the United States Supreme
      Court
      Declaring the Civil Rights Act Unconstitutional and
      Disrobing
      the Colored Race of All Civil Protection. The Most Cruel
      and Inhuman Verdict
      Against a Loyal People in the History of the World. Also
      the Powerful Speeches
      of Hon. Frederick Douglass and Col. Robert G. Ingersoll,
      Jurist and Famous Orator:
    –    http://docsouth.unc.edu/church/turnerbd/turner.html

Intro   Task    Process   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
               Credits & References
u   Drinking fountain on the county courthouse
    lawn, Halifax, North Carolina.
     – http://memory.loc.gov/pnp/fsa/8a03000/8a03
       200/8a03228u.tif
     – http://memory.loc.gov/pnp/fsa/8a03000/8a03
       200/8a03231u.tif
u   Notes, William O. Douglas to Earl Warren, 11 May
    1954; Harold H. Burton to Warren, 17 May 1954;
    and Felix Frankfurter to Warren, 17 May 1954,
    concerning Chief Justice Warren's decision in
    Brown v. Board of Education.
     – http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mcc/052/0001.jpg
     – http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mcc/052/0002.jpg
     – http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mcc/052/0003.jpg

Intro   Task    Process   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
                Credits & References
u       Delegates to 42nd Annual Conference, NAACP,
        Atlanta, Georgia, June 26 - July 1, 1951.
    –     http://memory.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3c10000/3c11
          000/3c11500/3c11554v.jpg
u       41st Annual Conference, National Association
        Advancement Colored People, Boston, Mass.,
        June 20-25, 1950.
    –     http://memory.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3c10000/3c11
          000/3c11500/3c11556v.jpg
u       Felix Frankfurter's draft decree to enforce
        the Brown v. Board of Education decision,
        [8 April 1955].
        (Felix Frankfurter Papers)
    –     http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mcc/073/0001.jpg
    –     http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mcc/073/0002.jpg

Intro    Task    Process   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
                    Credits & References
u           Civil rights : the outrage of the Supreme Court of the
            United States upon the black man : reviewed in a reply to
            the New York "Voice", the great temperance paper of the
            United States / by Bishop H.M. Turner.
        –      http://docsouth.unc.edu/church/turnercivil/turner.html
u           Letter, Eleanor Roosevelt to Walter White detailing the
            First Lady's lobbying efforts for federal action against
            lynchings, 19 March 1936.
        –      http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mcc/015/0001.jpg
u           A Colored Woman in a White World.” Mary Church Terrell. Draft
            manuscript. Mary Church Terrell Papers 1940
        –      http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mssmisc/awh/awh0260/0260001u.tif
        –      http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mssmisc/awh/awh0260/0260002u.tif
        –      http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mssmisc/awh/awh0260/0260003u.tif
        –      http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mssmisc/awh/awh0260/0260004u.tif
        –      http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mssmisc/awh/awh0260/0260007u.tif
        –      http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mssmisc/awh/awh0260/0260005u.tif
        –      http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mssmisc/awh/awh0260/0260006u.tif



Intro        Task    Process    Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
                  Credits & References
u         Press release for Executive Order No. 9981, establishing the
          President's Committee on Equality of Treatment and
          Opportunity in the Armed Forces.
          July 26, 1948.
        –     http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0901001r.j
              pg
u         "By Executive Order--President Truman Wipes Out Segregation
          in Armed Forces."
          Chicago Defender, July 31, 1948.
        –     http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0902001r.j
              pg
u         Oliver W. Harrington.
          Dark Laughter.
          "My Daddy said they didn't seem to mind servin' him on the
          Anzio beach head. . ."
          Published in the Pittsburgh Courier,
          April 2, 1960.
          Crayon, ink, blue pencil, and pencil on paper.
        –     http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0928001r.j
              pg

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               Credits & References
u     Kenneth B. Clark.
      The Genesis of Racial Identification and Preferences in Negro
      Children, 1940. In the "doll test," popularized by social
      psychologists Kenneth Bancroft Clark and his wife, Mamie Phipps
      Clark, children were given a black doll and a white doll and
      asked which one they preferred.
    –    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0915001r.jp
         g
u     Thurgood Marshall to the NAACP, Tuskegee Institute, Research
      Department.
      November 17, 1941.
    –    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/08/0816001r.jp
         g
u     George E.C. Hayes, Thurgood Marshall, and James Nabrit,
      congratulating each other, following Supreme Court decision
      declaring segregation unconstitutional, 1954.
      Copyprint.
    –    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0911001r.jp
         g

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                  Credits & References
u         Daisy Bates to Roy Wilkins, December 17, 1957, on the
          treatment of the Little Rock Nine.
          Holograph letter.
          NAACP Collection
        –     http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mssmisc/ody/ody0918a/0918a0
              01v.jpg
        –     http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mssmisc/ody/ody0918a/0918a0
              02v.jpg
u         The Little Rock Nine, ca 1957-60. Copyprint. NAACP Collection
        –     http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0918002r.j
              pg
u         "5,000 at Meeting Outline Boycott; Bullet Clips Bus."
          Montgomery, Alabama, Bus Boycott.
          Montgomery Advertiser, December 6, 1955.
        –     http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0903001r.j
              pg
u         Marion S. Trikosko. James Meredith, Oxford, Mississippi, 1962.
          In September 1962, a federal court ordered the University of
          Mississippi to accept James Meredith, a twenty-eight-year-old
          Air Force Veteran, much to the consternation of segregationists.
Intro      Task    Process   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
                   Credits & References
        –     http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0908001r.j
              pg
u         Mahalia Jackson at the May 17, 1957, Prayer Pilgrimage of
          Freedom in Washington, D.C.
          Silver gelatin print.
          NAACP Collection,
        –     http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0916001r.j
              pg
u         Max Roach. We Insist! Max Roach's Freedom Now Suite. New
          York: Candid Records, 1960. Record jacket. Jazz performers
          responded to the force of the civil rights movement by
          recording and performing their music.
        –     http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0906001r.j
              pg
u         Ronald Martin, Robert Patterson, and Mark Martin stage sit-
          down strike after being refused service at an F.W. Woolworth
          luncheon counter, Greensboro, N.C. 1960.
          Copyprint.
          New York World-Telegram & Sun Photograph Collection,
        –     http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0909001r.j
              pg
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               Credits & References
    Background Map: 1961 Freedom Rides.
          [New York]: Associated Press Newsfeature, [1962]. The
          Freedom Riders of the early 1960s, organized by the
          Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), rode through the South
          seeking integration of the bus, rail, and airport terminals.
         u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/090400
              1r.jpg
         u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/090400
              2r.jpg
         u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/090400
              3r.jpg
u     Warren K. Leffler. Bayard Rustin, n.d. Copyprint. U.S. News and
      World Report Photograph Collection. Although the chairperson
      of the 1963 March on Washington was the venerable labor
      leader A. Philip Randolph, the man who coordinated the staff,
      finances, travel arrangements, accommodations, publicity, and
      logistics was Randolph's close associate, Bayard Taylor Rustin.
    –     http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0905001r.j
          pg


Intro   Task    Process   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
               Credits & References
u     March on Washington, August 28, 1963.
      Copyprint.
      U.S. News and World Report Photograph Collection,
    –    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0913001r.j
         pg
u     Voters at the Voting Booths, ca. 1945. The Voting Rights Act
      of 1965
    –    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0917001r.j
         pg
u     "Signing the Voting Rights Act," August 6, 1965.
      U.S. News and World Report, August 16, 1965.
    –    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0920001r.j
         pg
u     Warren K. Leffler.
      Signing of the Civil Rights Act, April 11, 1968.
      Copyprint.
      U.S. News and World Report Photograph Collection
    –    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0912001r.j
         pg

Intro   Task    Process   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
                     Credits & References
u          Silphia Horton, Frank Hamilton, Guy Carawan, and Pete Seeger.
           "We Shall Overcome." "We Shall Overcome" seems to have first
           been sung by striking tobacco workers in Charleston, South
           Carolina, in 1945. In the 1960s the song became the all-but-
           official anthem of the civil rights movement.
       –      http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0919001r.jpg
       –      http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0919002r.jpg
u          Brumsic Brandon.
           "The Weary Picket," 1977.
           Ink and tonal film overlay over pencil on paper.
       –      http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0922001r.jpg
u          Jackie Robinson
       –      http://memory.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3g00000/3g06000/3g06100/
              3g06144v.jpg
u          Civil rights activist Bayard Rustin. Ed Ford, photographer, 1964.
           Prints and Photographs Division.
u          http://memory.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3c10000/3c18000/3c189
           00/3c18982v.jpg



    Intro     Task    Process   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
               Credits & References
   –     The Fourteenth Amendment. This 1866 letter to Supreme Court
         Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase is from Associate Justice Stephen J.
         Field, whose judicial opinions would significantly influence
         subsequent interpretations of the amendment.
        u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0002cp1s.jpg
        u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0002cp2s.jpg
   –     Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896. Phillip B. Kurland.
         Landmark Briefs and Arguments of the Supreme Court of the United
         States: Constitutional Law. Volume 13.
         Arlington, Virginia: University Publications
         of America, Inc., 1975.
        u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0003s.jpg
   –     The National Negro Committee, 1909. Platform adopted by the
         National
         Negro Committee, 1909.
        u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0008s.jpg
   –     The Pink Franklin Case. Albert Pillsbury to NAACP Secretary Mary
         White Ovington, July 26, 1910. Typed letter.NAACP Records,
        u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0009s.jpg




Intro   Task    Process    Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
                   Credits & References
        –    Buchanan v. Warley. In the Supreme Court of the United States,
             October Term, 1916 [no.231] Charles H. Buchanan v. William
             Warley. Pamphlet.
             NAACP Records
            u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0014s.jpg
        –    Separate and Unequal The 1896 court ruling in Plessy v Ferguson
             ushered in an era of "separate but equal" facilities and treatment
             for blacks and whites. In the area of education, it was felt that the
             children of former slaves would be better served if they attended
             their own schools and in their own communities. These images of
             schools for black students show that facilities were separate but
             never equal. ca. 1935.
            u    Broken school bus in Louisa County, Virginia
                 – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0020_3s.jpg
            u    School building in Louisa County, Virginia
                 – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0020_4s.jpg
            u    School building in Camden, Massachusetts
                 – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0020_1s.jpg
            u    Group of African American students in Seat Pleasant, Maryland
                 – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0020_2s.jpg


Intro       Task    Process   Evaluation   Conclusion    Credits   Teacher Screens
                   Credits & References
        –    The NAACP Legal Team, 1933. Walter White, NAACP
             Executive Secretary, with attorneys Charles Houston, James
             G. Tyson, Leon A. Ransom, and Edward P. Lovett, 1933.
            u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0022s.jpg
        –    Prominent NAACP Lawyer William Hastie
            u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0022bs.jpg
        –    Murray v. Maryland, 1936. Thurgood Marshall and Charles
             Houston with their client Donald Gaines Murray during court
             proceedings, ca. 1935.
            u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0028s.jpg
        –    The Garland Fund and Margold Report. Preliminary Report
             to the Joint Committee Supervising the Expenditure of the
             1930 Appropriation by the American Fund for Public Service ,
             [1931].
            u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0021p1s.jp
                 g
            u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0021p2s.jp
                 g


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               Credits & References
    –    Campaign Against Discrimination in Education. Memorandum
         for the Joint Committee of the NAACP and the American Fund
         for Public Service, Inc. from Charles H. Houston, October 26,
         1934.
        u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0025s.jpg
    –    Progress of the Hocutt v. Wilson case, 1933. Conrad O.
         Pearson to NAACP Executive Secretary Walter White reporting
         on the progress of the Hocutt v. Wilson case, March 31, 1933.
        u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0022as.jpg
    –    Integrating University of Missouri Law School. Charles H.
         Houston to Walter White reporting on the progress of Missouri
         ex rel. Gaines v. Canada, May 24, 1938. Autograph letter.
         NAACP Records
        u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0033s.jpg
    –    NAACP Leaders Joel and Arthur Spingarn. Arthur Spingarn.
        u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0011As.jpg
    –    Founding of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund.
         Thurgood Marshall to Arthur B. Spingarn and Walter White
         concerning the founding of the NAACP Legal Defense and
         Educational Fund, July 27, 1939.
         Memorandum.

Intro   Task    Process   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
               Credits & References
        u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0036s.jpg
    –    George W. McLaurin Segregated to the Anteroom. George W.
         McLaurin, 1948.
        u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0047s.jpg
    –    The Henderson, McLaurin and Sweatt Cases. Complete Text of U.
         S. Supreme Court Decisions: The Henderson Case, The McLaurin
         Case, The Sweatt Case. Pittsburgh: The Pittsburgh Courier, 1950.
         Pamphlet.
        u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0046s.jpg
    –    Reading Lesson in Washington, D.C. Marjory Collins.
         Reading lesson in African American elementary school in
         Washington, D.C., 1942.
        u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0057Cs.jpg
    –    Bolling v. Sharpe, (Washington D.C.) U. S. Supreme Court Records
         and Briefs, 1954 Term. Supreme Court Records and Briefs,
        u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0057bs.jpg
    –    Brief of the Attorneys for the Plaintiffs in Brown. Brief of the
         Attorneys for the Plaintiffs (Charles E. Bledsoe, Charles Scott,
         Robert L. Carter, Jack Greenberg, and Thurgood Marshall) in the
         case of Oliver Brown, . . .delivered in the United States Court for
         the District of Kansas,
         June 1951.

Intro   Task    Process   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
               Credits & References
        u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0054p1s.jp
             g
        u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0054p2s.jp
             g
   –     Finding of Fact for the Case of Oliver Brown. Opinion and
         Finding of Fact for the case of Oliver Brown, et al. v. Board
         of Education Topeka, Shawnee County, Kansas, et al.
         Delivered in the United States Court for the District of
         Kansas, 1951.
        u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0055p1s.jp
             g
   –     A Court Rules: Equalization, Not Integration. United States
         District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. Final
         Decree, [1952]. Typed memorandum. Kenneth Clark Papers
        u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0059s.jpg
   –     Brief for Appellants, Brown v. Board, 1953. Brief for
         Appellants in the cases of Brown v. Board of Education:
         Oliver Brown, et al. v. Board of Education, Kansas et al.; . .
         . in the United States Supreme Court-October Term, 1953.
        u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0073s.jpg
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               Credits & References
    –    Eisenhower and Davis. Ike with John W. Davis at the Herald Trib
         Forum 10/21, 1952. Photograph. New York World-Telegram & Sun
         Collection
        u      http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0073As.jpg
    –    Waiting for Courtroom Seats. Waiting for courtroom seats, 1953.
        u      http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0074s.jpg
    –    The Warren Court. U. S. Supreme Court Justices, 1953.
        u      http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0102s.jpg
    –    Brown Attorneys After the Decision. George E. C. Hayes, Thurgood
         Marshall, and James M. Nabrit congratulating each other, 1954.
        u      http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0099s.jpg
    –    "Segregation in Schools is Outlawed". The Russell Daily News
         (Russell, Kansas), Monday, May 17, 1954.
        u      http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0084s.jpg
    –    Warren Works For Unanimity. Earl Warren to members of the
         Court, May 7, 1954. Typed memorandum.
        u      http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0080s.jpg
    –    "A Beautiful Job". William Douglas to Earl Warren, May 11, 1954.
         Holograph letter.
        u      http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0081as.jpg

Intro   Task      Process    Evaluation    Conclusion     Credits      Teacher Screens
                   Credits & References
        –      "A Great Day for America". Harold H. Burton to Earl Warren, May
               17, 1954. Holograph letter.
              u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0082s.jpg
        –      Warren's Reading Copy of the Brown Opinion, 1954. Earl Warren's
               reading copy of Brown opinion, May 17, 1954.
              u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0083s.jpg
        –      Celebration of the Supreme Court's Decision. Mrs. Nettie Hunt and
               daughter Nikie on the steps of the Supreme Court, 1954.
              u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0097s.jpg
        –      Thurgood Marshall. Time magazine, September 19, 1955. Cover.
              u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0115s.jpg
        –      Barnard Elementary, Washington, D. C. Thomas J. O'Halloran.
               School integration, Barnard School, Washington, D.C., 1955
              u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0202s.jpg
 u          Brown vs. Board – Aftermath
        –      Mrs. Rosa Parks Fingerprinted in Montgomery, Alabama. Mrs. Rosa
               Parks being fingerprinted in Montgomery, Alabama, 1956.
        –      http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0119s.jpg




Intro       Task     Process    Evaluation    Conclusion    Credits   Teacher Screens
                   Credits & References
        –    Rosa Parks Arrest Record. Rosa Parks's arrest record, December 5,
             1955.
            u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0118p1s.jpg
            u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0118p2s.jpg
        –    Black Monday, 1954. Tom P. Brady. Black Monday Title page
             Winona, Mississippi: Association of Citizens' Councils, 1955.
            u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0120p2s.jpg
        –    University of Alabama Students Protest Desegregation. University
             of Alabama Students burn desegregation literature, 1956.
            u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0121As.jpg
        –    Autherine Lucy's Attorneys. Thurgood Marshall and Arthur Shores,
             February 29, 1956.
            u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0123s.jpg
        –    Autherine Lucy's Expulsion. Telegram. NAACP Executive Secretary
             Roy Wilkins to Herbert Brownell concerning the expulsion of
             Autherine Lucy, February 7, 1956.
            u    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0121s.jpg




Intro       Task    Process   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Teacher Screens
                      Teacher Pages
         From the Black Lawsw to Civil Rights: the
                     fight for equality
               A WebQuest/KnowledgeQuest
                       9th-12th Grade
        (United States History and US Government)



Designed by:
Barb Figg and Karen Giles                                                                 November
figg@mullenhigh.com and                                                                       2005
giles@mullenhigh.com
J.K. Mullen High School
Intro   Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                                     Directions
u       Click once OR press the space key to advance to
        the next slide
u       Press the backspace key to go back one slide

u       Use the buttons at the bottom of each slide to go
        back and review any steps AFTER you have gone
        through all slides individually.

u       Follow the directions on each slide


Intro    Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                                  Introduction
u       This lesson was designed to help students study
        the sequential order of civil rights from the
        1700’s through the 1950’s in conjunction with the
        Endowment for the Humanities “Stoney the road
        we walk” summer seminar program in
        Birmingham, Alabama.

u       This lesson surrounds the use of primary
        documents such as pictures, maps, cartoons,
        newspapers, personal letters, and civil rights
        cases to help students grasp the rough road to
        civil rights in this country for the African
        American.

Intro    Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                    About Your Learners
u       This lesson was designed for secondary students in
        grades 9 – 12 in either American history or for use in
        studying civil rights in U.S. government classes. Parts
        of it could easily be used for middle school students
        too with slight revisions by the teacher.


u       Students will need to have had background
        information concerning slavery in the United States
        from the 1700’s to the end of the Civil War with the
        passage of the Civil Rights Amendments: Amendment
        13, 14, and 15.

Intro    Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                    Learning Standards…
u       History:
u       1. Students understand the chronological organization of history
        and know how to organize events and people into major eras to
        identify and explain historical relationships.
u       2. Students know how to use the processes and resources of
        historical inquiry.
u       Reading and Writing:
u       1. Students read and understand a variety of materials.
u       2. Students write and speak for a variety of purposes and
        audiences.
u       3. Students write and speak using conventional grammar, usage,
        sentence structure, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling.
u       4. Students apply thinking skills to their reading, writing,
        speaking, listening, and viewing.

Intro    Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                    …Learning Standards
u       Information Literacy Standards:
u       The student who is information literate
        – accesses information efficiently and effectively.
        – evaluates information critically and competently.
        – uses information accurately and creatively.
u       The student who contributes positively to the learning community
        and to society is information literate and
        – participates effectively in groups to pursue and generate information.
        – Recognizes the importance of information to a democratic society.
        – Practices ethical behavior in regard to information and information
          technology.
        v The student who is an independent learner is information literate and
             v   Pursues information related to personal interests.
             v   Appreciates literature and other creative expressions of information.
             v   Strives for excellence in information seeking and knowledge generation.


Intro    Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                               The Process
u       The introductory power-point lesson was
        designed to be used either by an entire class or
        by individual students to see how much
        students know about the civil rights movement.
        The use of various primary documents with
        photo-analysis worksheets, sequential
        timelines, debates, and research packets can
        make this lesson a few days to two weeks. This
        could be used by both American history classes
        with the historical information and be taught at
        the same time in the government classes to
        cover the Supreme Court cases and how the
        legislative, executive, and judicial system as
        dealt with civil rights.

Intro   Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                               The Process
u       If you have access to individual computers for
        each of your students, run off the sheets for
        them to answer as they go through the power-
        point at their own speed. Otherwise, you can
        show the introductory power point to the entire
        class, stop it when you need to, and answer the
        questions orally with the class discussing the
        pictures and information as you move through
        it.

u       Give your “lower” functioning students the
        easier photos and documents for analysis in
        their small groups so that they won’t become
        discouraged with the more difficult cases.

Intro   Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                               The Process
u       This can be done by a novice
        teacher up to those who are
        extremely experienced with U.S.
        history and government It is
        helpful to have experience with
        reading case law and it’s an “added
        plus” if you grew up during this
        period of history so that you can
        relate personal experiences to your
        students.
Intro   Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                     Resources Needed
u       Computers with internet access for the
        power-point presentation
u       Student copies of the “power-point”
        presentation questions.
u       Photo Analysis worksheet for each
        student
u       Student copies of the cartoons, maps,
        case law, and readings.
u       Grading rubrics

Intro   Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                                   Evaluation
u       Students will be evaluated on the completion
        and the thoroughness of their analysis
        worksheets.
u       Students will be assessed on their essay, their
        timeline, and their individual research topic
        presentation to the class according to the
        grading ruberic.
u       Students will actively participate in a Socratic
        seminar to complete the process and share
        their information with their classmates
Intro   Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                                  Conclusion
u       Upon completion of this project,
        students will have analyzed primary
        sources, formed an informative
        timeline and completed a project
        activity of their choice that
        exemplifies the fight for equality
        from the Black Laws to Civil Rights.



Intro   Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                    Credits & References
u         List here the sources of any images, music or text that you're using. Provide links back to the
          original source. Say thanks to anyoThe black laws : speech of Hon. B.W. Arnett of Greene
          County, and Hon. J.A. Brown of Cuyahoga County, in the Ohio House of
          Representatives, March 10, 1886.
        –       http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
                bin/query/r?ammem/murray:@field(DOCID+@lit(lcrbmrpt0d06)):@@@$REF$
u         Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938
        –       http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/snhtml/snhome.html
u         The Barbarous Decision of the United States Supreme Court
          Declaring the Civil Rights Act Unconstitutional and Disrobing
          the Colored Race of All Civil Protection. The Most Cruel and Inhuman Verdict
          Against a Loyal People in the History of the World. Also the Powerful Speeches
          of Hon. Frederick Douglass and Col. Robert G. Ingersoll, Jurist and Famous Orator:
        –       http://docsouth.unc.edu/church/turnerbd/turner.html


u        ne who provided resources or help.
u        List any books and other analog media that you used as information sources as well.
u        Include the link back to the AAM-Colorado page, so that others can acquire the latest version of
         this template and training materials.
u        Template created 2005 by An Adventure of the American Mind – Colorado. Based on a template
         from The WebQuest Page and a PowerPoint project created by Sandy Breed, Library Information
         Specialist at Golden High School, Golden, CO.

Intro    Learners   Standards   Process    Resources    Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
u       Drinking fountain on the county courthouse
        lawn, Halifax, North Carolina.
         – http://memory.loc.gov/pnp/fsa/8a03000/8a03
           200/8a03228u.tif
         – http://memory.loc.gov/pnp/fsa/8a03000/8a03
           200/8a03231u.tif
u       Notes, William O. Douglas to Earl Warren, 11 May
        1954; Harold H. Burton to Warren, 17 May 1954;
        and Felix Frankfurter to Warren, 17 May 1954,
        concerning Chief Justice Warren's decision in
        Brown v. Board of Education.
         – http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mcc/052/0001.jpg
         – http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mcc/052/0002.jpg
         – http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mcc/052/0003.jpg
Intro    Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                Credits and References
u       Delegates to 42nd Annual Conference, NAACP,
        Atlanta, Georgia, June 26 - July 1, 1951.
         – http://memory.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3c10000/3
           c11000/3c11500/3c11554v.jpg
u       41st Annual Conference, National Association
        Advancement Colored People, Boston, Mass., June 20-
        25, 1950.
         – http://memory.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3c10000/3
           c11000/3c11500/3c11556v.jpg
u       Felix Frankfurter's draft decree to enforce the
        Brown v. Board of Education decision, [8 April
        1955].
        (Felix Frankfurter Papers)
         – http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mcc/073/0001.jpg
        – http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mcc/073/0002.jpg

Intro    Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                Credits and References
u       Civil rights : the outrage of the Supreme Court of the
        United States upon the black man : reviewed in a reply to
        the New York "Voice", the great temperance paper of the
        United States / by Bishop H.M. Turner.
        – http://docsouth.unc.edu/church/turnercivil/turner.html
u       Letter, Eleanor Roosevelt to Walter White detailing the
        First Lady's lobbying efforts for federal action against
        lynchings, 19 March 1936.
        – http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mcc/015/0001.jpg
u       A Colored Woman in a White World.” Mary Church Terrell. Draft
        manuscript. Mary Church Terrell Papers 1940
        –   http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mssmisc/awh/awh0260/0260001u.tif
        –   http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mssmisc/awh/awh0260/0260002u.tif
        –   http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mssmisc/awh/awh0260/0260003u.tif
        –   http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mssmisc/awh/awh0260/0260004u.tif
        –   http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mssmisc/awh/awh0260/0260007u.tif
        –   http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mssmisc/awh/awh0260/0260005u.tif
        –   http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mssmisc/awh/awh0260/0260006u.tif

Intro    Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                Credits and References
u       Press release for Executive Order No. 9981, establishing the
        President's Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity
        in the Armed Forces.
        July 26, 1948.
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0901001r.jpg
u       "By Executive Order--President Truman Wipes Out Segregation in
        Armed Forces."
        Chicago Defender, July 31, 1948.
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0902001r.jpg
u       Oliver W. Harrington.
        Dark Laughter.
        "My Daddy said they didn't seem to mind servin' him on the Anzio
        beach head. . ."
        Published in the Pittsburgh Courier,
        April 2, 1960.
        Crayon, ink, blue pencil, and pencil on paper.
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0928001r.jpg


Intro    Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                Credits and References
u       Kenneth B. Clark.
        The Genesis of Racial Identification and Preferences in Negro
        Children, 1940. In the "doll test," popularized by social
        psychologists Kenneth Bancroft Clark and his wife, Mamie Phipps
        Clark, children were given a black doll and a white doll and asked
        which one they preferred.
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0915001r.jpg
u       Thurgood Marshall to the NAACP, Tuskegee Institute, Research
        Department.
        November 17, 1941.
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/08/0816001r.jpg
u       George E.C. Hayes, Thurgood Marshall, and James Nabrit,
        congratulating each other, following Supreme Court decision
        declaring segregation unconstitutional, 1954.
        Copyprint.
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0911001r.jpg



Intro    Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                Credits and References
u       Daisy Bates to Roy Wilkins, December 17, 1957, on the treatment
        of the Little Rock Nine.
        Holograph letter.
        NAACP Collection
         – http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mssmisc/ody/ody0918a/0918a001
            v.jpg
         – http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mssmisc/ody/ody0918a/0918a002
            v.jpg
u       The Little Rock Nine, ca 1957-60. Copyprint. NAACP Collection
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0918002r.jpg
u       "5,000 at Meeting Outline Boycott; Bullet Clips Bus." Montgomery,
        Alabama, Bus Boycott.
        Montgomery Advertiser, December 6, 1955.
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0903001r.jpg
u       Marion S. Trikosko. James Meredith, Oxford, Mississippi, 1962. In
        September 1962, a federal court ordered the University of
        Mississippi to accept James Meredith, a twenty-eight-year-old Air
        Force Veteran, much to the consternation of segregationists.

Intro    Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                Credits and References
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0908001r.jpg
u       Mahalia Jackson at the May 17, 1957, Prayer Pilgrimage of
        Freedom in Washington, D.C.
        Silver gelatin print.
        NAACP Collection,
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0916001r.jpg
u       Max Roach. We Insist! Max Roach's Freedom Now Suite. New
        York: Candid Records, 1960. Record jacket. Jazz performers
        responded to the force of the civil rights movement by recording
        and performing their music.
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0906001r.jpg
u       Ronald Martin, Robert Patterson, and Mark Martin stage sit-down
        strike after being refused service at an F.W. Woolworth luncheon
        counter, Greensboro, N.C. 1960.
        Copyprint.
        New York World-Telegram & Sun Photograph Collection,
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0909001r.jpg


Intro    Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                Credits and References
         Background Map: 1961 Freedom Rides.
            [New York]: Associated Press Newsfeature, [1962]. The
            Freedom Riders of the early 1960s, organized by the Congress
            of Racial Equality (CORE), rode through the South seeking
            integration of the bus, rail, and airport terminals.
              u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0904001r.
                jpg
              u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0904002r.
                jpg
              u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0904003r.
                jpg
u       Warren K. Leffler. Bayard Rustin, n.d. Copyprint. U.S. News and
        World Report Photograph Collection. Although the chairperson of
        the 1963 March on Washington was the venerable labor leader A.
        Philip Randolph, the man who coordinated the staff, finances,
        travel arrangements, accommodations, publicity, and logistics was
        Randolph's close associate, Bayard Taylor Rustin.
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0905001r.jpg

Intro    Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                Credits and References
         Background Map: 1961 Freedom Rides.
            [New York]: Associated Press Newsfeature, [1962]. The
            Freedom Riders of the early 1960s, organized by the Congress
            of Racial Equality (CORE), rode through the South seeking
            integration of the bus, rail, and airport terminals.
              u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0904001r.
                jpg
              u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0904002r.
                jpg
              u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0904003r.
                jpg
u       Warren K. Leffler. Bayard Rustin, n.d. Copyprint. U.S. News and
        World Report Photograph Collection. Although the chairperson of
        the 1963 March on Washington was the venerable labor leader A.
        Philip Randolph, the man who coordinated the staff, finances,
        travel arrangements, accommodations, publicity, and logistics was
        Randolph's close associate, Bayard Taylor Rustin.
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0905001r.jpg

Intro    Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                Credits and References
u       March on Washington, August 28, 1963.
        Copyprint.
        U.S. News and World Report Photograph Collection,
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0913001r.jpg
u       Voters at the Voting Booths, ca. 1945. The Voting Rights Act of
        1965
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0917001r.jpg
u       "Signing the Voting Rights Act," August 6, 1965.
        U.S. News and World Report, August 16, 1965.
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0920001r.jpg
u       Warren K. Leffler.
        Signing of the Civil Rights Act, April 11, 1968.
        Copyprint.
        U.S. News and World Report Photograph Collection
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0912001r.jpg



Intro    Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                Credits and References
u       Silphia Horton, Frank Hamilton, Guy Carawan, and Pete Seeger.
        "We Shall Overcome." "We Shall Overcome" seems to have first
        been sung by striking tobacco workers in Charleston, South
        Carolina, in 1945. In the 1960s the song became the all-but-
        official anthem of the civil rights movement.
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0919001r.jpg
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0919002r.jpg
u       Brumsic Brandon.
        "The Weary Picket," 1977.
        Ink and tonal film overlay over pencil on paper.
         – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/09/0922001r.jpg
u       Jackie Robinson
         – http://memory.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3g00000/3g06000/3g06100/3
           g06144v.jpg
u       Civil rights activist Bayard Rustin. Ed Ford, photographer, 1964.
        Prints and Photographs Division.
         – http://memory.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3c10000/3c18000/3c18900/3
           c18982v.jpg


Intro    Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
               Credits and References
        – The Fourteenth Amendment. This 1866 letter to Supreme Court Chief
          Justice Salmon P. Chase is from Associate Justice Stephen J. Field,
          whose judicial opinions would significantly influence subsequent
          interpretations of the amendment.
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0002cp1s.jpg
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0002cp2s.jpg
        – Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896. Phillip B. Kurland.
          Landmark Briefs and Arguments of the Supreme Court of the United
          States: Constitutional Law. Volume 13.
          Arlington, Virginia: University Publications
          of America, Inc., 1975.
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0003s.jpg
        – The National Negro Committee, 1909. Platform adopted by the
          National
          Negro Committee, 1909.
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0008s.jpg
        – The Pink Franklin Case. Albert Pillsbury to NAACP Secretary Mary
          White Ovington, July 26, 1910. Typed letter.NAACP Records,
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0009s.jpg




Intro   Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
               Credits and References
        – Buchanan v. Warley. In the Supreme Court of the United States,
          October Term, 1916 [no.231] Charles H. Buchanan v. William Warley.
          Pamphlet.
          NAACP Records
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0014s.jpg
        – Separate and Unequal The 1896 court ruling in Plessy v Ferguson
          ushered in an era of "separate but equal" facilities and treatment for
          blacks and whites. In the area of education, it was felt that the
          children of former slaves would be better served if they attended their
          own schools and in their own communities. These images of schools
          for black students show that facilities were separate but never equal.
          ca. 1935.
            u Broken school bus in Louisa County, Virginia
                 – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0020_3s.jpg
            u School building in Louisa County, Virginia
                 – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0020_4s.jpg
            u School building in Camden, Massachusetts
                 – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0020_1s.jpg
            u Group of African American students in Seat Pleasant, Maryland
                 – http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0020_2s.jpg

Intro   Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
               Credits and References
        – The NAACP Legal Team, 1933. Walter White, NAACP Executive
          Secretary, with attorneys Charles Houston, James G. Tyson,
          Leon A. Ransom, and Edward P. Lovett, 1933.
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0022s.jpg
        – Prominent NAACP Lawyer William Hastie
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0022bs.jpg
        – Murray v. Maryland, 1936. Thurgood Marshall and Charles
          Houston with their client Donald Gaines Murray during court
          proceedings, ca. 1935.
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0028s.jpg
        – The Garland Fund and Margold Report. Preliminary Report to
          the Joint Committee Supervising the Expenditure of the 1930
          Appropriation by the American Fund for Public Service , [1931].
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0021p1s.jpg
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0021p2s.jpg




Intro   Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
               Credits and References
        – Campaign Against Discrimination in Education. Memorandum for the
          Joint Committee of the NAACP and the American Fund for Public
          Service, Inc. from Charles H. Houston, October 26, 1934.
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0025s.jpg
        – Progress of the Hocutt v. Wilson case, 1933. Conrad O. Pearson to
          NAACP Executive Secretary Walter White reporting on the progress of
          the Hocutt v. Wilson case, March 31, 1933.
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0022as.jpg
        – Integrating University of Missouri Law School. Charles H. Houston to
          Walter White reporting on the progress of Missouri ex rel. Gaines v.
          Canada, May 24, 1938. Autograph letter. NAACP Records
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0033s.jpg
        – NAACP Leaders Joel and Arthur Spingarn. Arthur Spingarn.
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0011As.jpg
        – Founding of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund.
          Thurgood Marshall to Arthur B. Spingarn and Walter White concerning
          the founding of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, July
          27, 1939.
          Memorandum.


Intro   Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                 Credits and References
             u   http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0036s.jpg
        –   George W. McLaurin Segregated to the Anteroom. George W.
            McLaurin, 1948.
              u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0047s.jpg
        –   The Henderson, McLaurin and Sweatt Cases. Complete Text of U. S.
            Supreme Court Decisions: The Henderson Case, The McLaurin Case,
            The Sweatt Case. Pittsburgh: The Pittsburgh Courier, 1950. Pamphlet.
              u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0046s.jpg
        –   Reading Lesson in Washington, D.C. Marjory Collins.
            Reading lesson in African American elementary school in Washington,
            D.C., 1942.
              u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0057Cs.jpg
        –   Bolling v. Sharpe, (Washington D.C.) U. S. Supreme Court Records
            and Briefs, 1954 Term. Supreme Court Records and Briefs,
              u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0057bs.jpg
        –   Brief of the Attorneys for the Plaintiffs in Brown. Brief of the Attorneys
            for the Plaintiffs (Charles E. Bledsoe, Charles Scott, Robert L. Carter,
            Jack Greenberg, and Thurgood Marshall) in the case of Oliver Brown, .
            . .delivered in the United States Court for the District of Kansas ,
            June 1951.

Intro   Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                Credits and References
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0054p1s.jpg
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0054p2s.jpg
        – Finding of Fact for the Case of Oliver Brown. Opinion and
          Finding of Fact for the case of Oliver Brown, et al. v. Board of
          Education Topeka, Shawnee County, Kansas, et al. Delivered
          in the United States Court for the District of Kansas , 1951.
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0055p1s.jpg
        – A Court Rules: Equalization, Not Integration. United States
          District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. Final Decree,
          [1952]. Typed memorandum. Kenneth Clark Papers
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0059s.jpg
        – Brief for Appellants, Brown v. Board, 1953. Brief for
          Appellants in the cases of Brown v. Board of Education: Oliver
          Brown, et al. v. Board of Education, Kansas et al.; . . . in the
          United States Supreme Court-October Term, 1953.
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0073s.jpg




Intro   Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                Credits and References
        – Eisenhower and Davis. Ike with John W. Davis at the Herald Trib
          Forum 10/21, 1952. Photograph. New York World-Telegram & Sun
          Collection
            u   http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0073As.jpg
        – Waiting for Courtroom Seats. Waiting for courtroom seats, 1953.
            u   http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0074s.jpg
        – The Warren Court. U. S. Supreme Court Justices, 1953.
            u   http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0102s.jpg
        – Brown Attorneys After the Decision. George E. C. Hayes, Thurgood
          Marshall, and James M. Nabrit congratulating each other, 1954.
            u   http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0099s.jpg
        – "Segregation in Schools is Outlawed". The Russell Daily News
          (Russell, Kansas), Monday, May 17, 1954.
            u   http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0084s.jpg
        – Warren Works For Unanimity. Earl Warren to members of the Court,
          May 7, 1954. Typed memorandum.
            u   http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0080s.jpg
        – "A Beautiful Job". William Douglas to Earl Warren, May 11, 1954.
          Holograph letter.
            u   http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0081as.jpg

Intro   Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
                 Credits and References
        – "A Great Day for America". Harold H. Burton to Earl Warren, May 17,
          1954. Holograph letter.
             u   http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0082s.jpg
        – Warren's Reading Copy of the Brown Opinion, 1954. Earl Warren's
          reading copy of Brown opinion, May 17, 1954.
             u   http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0083s.jpg
        – Celebration of the Supreme Court's Decision. Mrs. Nettie Hunt and
          daughter Nikie on the steps of the Supreme Court, 1954.
             u   http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0097s.jpg
        – Thurgood Marshall. Time magazine, September 19, 1955. Cover.
             u   http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0115s.jpg
        – Barnard Elementary, Washington, D. C. Thomas J. O'Halloran.
          School integration, Barnard School, Washington, D.C., 1955
             u   http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0202s.jpg
u       Brown vs. Board – Aftermath
        – Mrs. Rosa Parks Fingerprinted in Montgomery, Alabama. Mrs. Rosa
          Parks being fingerprinted in Montgomery, Alabama, 1956.
u       http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0119s.jpg


Intro    Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens
               Credits and References
        – Rosa Parks Arrest Record. Rosa Parks's arrest record, December 5,
          1955.
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0118p1s.jpg
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0118p2s.jpg
        – Black Monday, 1954. Tom P. Brady. Black Monday Title page Winona,
          Mississippi: Association of Citizens' Councils, 1955.
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0120p2s.jpg
        – University of Alabama Students Protest Desegregation. University of
          Alabama Students burn desegregation literature, 1956.
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0121As.jpg
        – Autherine Lucy's Attorneys. Thurgood Marshall and Arthur Shores,
          February 29, 1956.
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0123s.jpg
        – Autherine Lucy's Expulsion. Telegram. NAACP Executive Secretary
          Roy Wilkins to Herbert Brownell concerning the expulsion of Autherine
          Lucy, February 7, 1956.
            u http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0121s.jpg




Intro   Learners   Standards   Process   Resources   Evaluation   Conclusion   Credits   Student Screens

				
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