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					Establishing the Republic


     HUM 2051: Civilization I
           Fall 2010
        Dr. Perdigao
       October 8-13, 2010
                           Transference
Shared cultures—Roman names to Greek gods—but, more significantly, cross-
   cultural contact
Zeus
   Jupiter: father
Hera
   Juno: queen
Athena
   Minerva: wisdom
Aphrodite
   Venus: love
Hades
   Pluto: underworld
Hermes
   Mercury: trade; messenger
Poseidon
   Neptune sea
Ares
   Mars: war
Hephaestus
   Vulcan: fire; blacksmith
                               Key Virtues
n   Patria potestas (“father’s power”) in Roman family

n   Virtue (virtus); dignity (dignitas); fame (fama), competition for political
    power and privilege (Perry 120)

n   Piety toward gods and family, friends, and state

n   Mos maiorum (the way of the elders)

n   Virtus (virtue): courage, strength, loyalty—but also moral purity

n   Faithfulness (fides)
                      Changing of the Guard
n   Foundation of the Republic to counter mythological beginnings (509 BCE),
    begins with overthrow of Etruscan monarchy by landowning aristocrats
    (patricians); Empire in 27 BCE with Octavian (Augustus) as first Roman
    emperor after 500 years of republican self-government (Perry 118)

n   Inheritances from Etruscans—road construction, sanitation, hydraulic
    engineering (Perry 118)

n   Rome—republic at end of sixth century BCE (509 BCE) with landowning
    aristocrats (patricians) overthrowing Etruscan king

n   Struggle of the Orders—conflict between patricians and commoners
    (plebeians); government—consuls, Centuriate Assembly, popular assembly
    controlled by nobility, and Senate; plebeians won right to own assembly,
    the Plebeian Assembly and later Tribal Assembly (119-120)
                               Foundations
n   Twelve Tables as first Roman code of laws in 450 BCE (Perry 120)

n   287 BCE Tribal Assembly gives full civil equality and legal protection to
    plebeians although upper class remains in power (Perry 120); class struggle
    remains for two hundred years

n   146 BCE—Rome as dominant state in Mediterranean world: uniting Italian
    peninsula; war with Carthage where Rome emerges as ruler of western
    Mediterranean; subjugation of Hellenistic states, contact with Greek
    civilizations (Perry 122)
                        Evolution of Forms
n   Carthage—North African city founded by Phoenicians in 800 BCE,
    commercial center (Perry 123)

n   Wars with Carthage—264-121 BCE—Punic Wars (First Punic War 264-241
    BCE, Carthage surrenders Sicily to Rome, Rome later seizes Corsica and
    Sardinia; Second Punic War 218-201 BCE)

n   Hannibal (247-183 BCE) leading Carthaginian army; after Hannibal’s win
    at Cannae, Rome’s “worst days”; Hannibal eventually defeated by Scipio
    Africanas in 202 BCE in battle of Zama to end Second Punic War (Perry
    123-124)

n   Second Punic War—Rome as greatest power in western Mediterranean;
    Philip V of Macedonia joins Hannibal—Rome starts First Macedonian
    War, wins in 205 BCE (Perry 124)

n   Roman imperialism—Third Punic War in 146 BCE to annihilate Carthage
    (Perry 125)
                            Developments
n   Hellenization—adoption of Greek culture (Perry 125) with Greeks
    coming to Rome

n   Contact with Greek culture—Formation of Roman culture—science,
    philosophy, medicine, geography, history, poetry, drama, oratory
    (Perry 128)

n   Plautus’ plays—modeled on Greeks’, with Greek characters, settings,
    style of dress; Catullus as lyric poet; Lucretius, Roman Epicurean
    philosopher; Cicero, orator

n   Marius as consul in 107 BCE (Perry 134), Sulla in control in struggle
    with Mithridates, but Marius’ supporters return command to Marius;
    after Marius’ death, Sulla becomes dictator

n   First Triumvirate in 60 BCE, Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar,

n   Caesar crossing the Rubicon, civil war in Republic, dictator for ten
    years
                          The Next Chapter
n   Temporary dictatorship made lifelong office

n   44 BCE—March 15—aristocrats assassinate Caesar, including general and
    orator Brutus (Perry 136)

n   Mark Antony and Lepidus join Octavian to defeat Brutus and Cassius;
    Antony and Octavian fight for control of Rome, Octavian defeats Antony
    and Cleopatra to emerge master of Rome and then first Roman emperor
    (Perry 137)

n   Move from republican institutions to dictatorship (Perry 136); expansion
    and disintegration

n   Next era—Octavian—move to peace as Augustus (backdrop for Virgil’s
    text)

				
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