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AO2v – Explaining the Writers Use of Language

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AO2v – Explaining the Writers Use of Language Powered By Docstoc
					Unit 1 – Understanding Non-
Fiction and Media Texts

   AO3(iii) Explain and evaluate how
    writers use linguistic features to
    achieve effects and engage and
          influence the reader
Assessment Objective
AO3(iii) Explain and evaluate how writers use
   linguistic features to achieve effects and
   engage and influence the reader

§   Know some language terms
§   Be able to explain the effects of these
§   Evaluate HOW and WHY they are used
The Exam
n   On Foundation Tier, you will be asked
    to analyse the language used in one
    text

n   On Higher Tier, you will be asked to
    compare the language used in two texts
Linguistic Devices
n   You need to learn some examples of
    linguistic devices
n   In the exam, you must be able to recall
    these
n   You need to be able to identify these
    and give precise explanations of how a
    writer has used them
Address
n   Does the writer address the reader directly?
    n   Look for the use of pronouns such as ‘you’, ‘we’
        and ‘us’ or the use of rhetorical questions
n   Addressing the reader directly draws us into
    the text
n   It makes us feel like the ideas matter to us
    and that we are responsible
Types of sentences
n   Short sentences will often be used for
    impact
n   Longer sentences will be used to
    develop particular ideas or examples
n   Look out for the following:
    n   Exclamations = shock, surprise, anger
    n   Imperatives = instructions or commands
    n   Questions = to make the reader think
Register
n   Formal vocabulary and sentences
    n   Create a sense of authority or knowledge
    n   Create distance between the reader and writer i.e.
        the writer is superior to us
n   Informal / colloquial vocabulary and
    sentences
    n   Create humour / irony / sarcasm
    n   Make the writer appear friendly and approachable
        i.e. equal to the reader
Emotive language
n   These words are used deliberately to
    make us feel an emotion e.g. anger,
    fear, guilt, hope
n   Identify specific words that are
    supposed to have this effect
n   Explain what emotion they are
    supposed to make us feel
Factual language
n   Factual language will indicate that
    something is true or has happened
n   It will support the writer’s opinions and
    ideas
Vocabulary
n   Look at particular types of words such as
    adjectives, verbs and adverbs
    n   Adjectives – describe objects or ideas
    n   Verbs – actions
    n   Adverbs – describe how something is done
n   Think about why the writer has used this
    particular word
n   What does it mean and how does it support
    the writer’s views?
Lexical sets / semantic fields
n   These are groups of words that all have
    a related meaning
n   They help hold the text together and
    emphasise key ideas e.g. soldiers,
    trenches, gunfire, mud would all make
    us think of war
Repetition of keywords
n   Look for particular important words or
    phrases that are repeated
n   The writer will want you to remember
    these phrases
n   Explain the reason why the writer wants
    you to remember these words
Rhetorical devices
n   You should look for specific phrases that are
    used for persuasive effect – there are a whole
    range of devices to look for
n   Remember to explain HOW the device affects
    the reader and WHY the writer has used it
n   Give a precise explanation of the rhetorical
    device linked to the purpose of the text
Reading Framework
n   Read the questions
n   Read the text
n   Work out the PAFT and message
n   Highlight examples – check the
    question
n   Plan your response – use a PEE table
Model Question


n   How is language used for effect by the
    writer?
       PURPOSE: what job is the writer trying to do?
        PURPOSE: what job is the writer trying to do?
       Argue
        Argue             Inform
                            Inform           Analyse
                                              Analyse            Imagine
                                                                  Imagine
       Persuade
        Persuade          Explain
                            Explain          Review
                                              Review             Explore
                                                                  Explore
       Advise
        Advise            Describe
                            Describe         Comment
                                              Comment            Entertain
                                                                  Entertain


AUDIENCE: the reader
 AUDIENCE: the reader
Children
 Children          Experts
                    Experts
Teenagers
 Teenagers
Parents
 Parents
Pensioners
                   Fans
                    Fans
                   Men
                    Men
                   Women
                                 PAFT
                                 PAFT
                                                             FORM: type of writing
                                                              FORM: type of writing
                                                             Leaflet
                                                              Leaflet
                                                             Web page
                                                                              Article
                                                                               Article
                                                                              Story
 Pensioners         Women                                     Web page         Story
Workers
 Workers           Adults
                    Adults
                                       Purpose
                                        Purpose              Letter
                                                              Letter          Email
                                                                               Email
                                       Audience
                                        Audience             Speech
                                                              Speech          Essay
                                                                               Essay
                                         Form
                                          Form               Report
                                                              Report          Advert
                                                                               Advert
Age    Interests Lifestyle
Gender Education Class                   Tone
                                          Tone
Job    Hobbies   Politics

       TONE: what is the mood of the writing? How are we addressed?
        TONE: what is the mood of the writing? How are we addressed?
       Enthusiastic
        Enthusiastic      Angry
                           Angry             Questioning
                                               Questioning       Objective
                                                                  Objective
       Passionate
        Passionate        Frustrated
                           Frustrated        Doubtful
                                               Doubtful          Subjective
                                                                  Subjective
       Hopeful
        Hopeful           Pessimistic
                           Pessimistic       Suspicious
                                               Suspicious        Neutral
                                                                  Neutral
       Optimistic
        Optimistic        Sad
                           Sad               Sarcastic
                                               Sarcastic         Cynical
                                                                  Cynical
       Humorous
        Humorous          Annoyed
                           Annoyed           Ironic
                                               Ironic            Knowledgeable
                                                                  Knowledgeable
Plan your answer – 1
n   Highlight the text, identifying the most
    important examples of language you
    can find
n   8 marks = 16 minutes
n   8 marks = at least 3 really good
    examples
n   Annotate your examples with
    explanations of the precise effect
Linguistic Devices
n   Address              n   Vocabulary
n   Types of sentences   n   Lexical sets /
n   Register                 semantic fields
n   Emotive language     n   Repetition of
n   Factual language         keywords
                         n   Rhetorical devices
        Plan your answer – 2
       Point             Evidence           Explain
(Identify a technique)   (Quotation)   (How this persuades)
Explaining effects
n   You must give explanations that are
    matched to the text you have read
n   Do not make generic statements like “it
    is effective”
n   Every explanation must use the word
    “because”
Useful analytical language
n   This   connotes…                  n   This   highlights…
n   This   means…                     n   This   shows…
n   This   suggests…                  n   This   makes us feel…
n   This   represents…                n   This   creates…
n   This   symbolises…                n   This   implies…


       Use this vocabulary to support your analytical
        and evaluative comments about language
HOW and WHY
n   For each example, you need to explain
    HOW and WHY the language is used
n   HOW has the writer used the language
    i.e. what is the effect of this word on
    the reader?
n   WHY has the writer used the language
    e.g. how does it help the writer achieve
    their purpose?
Banned answers
 YOU MUST NEVER USE THE FOLLOWING
                  PHRASES!!!
n The language is good

n The language eye-catching

n The language is effective

n The language is interesting

n The language makes the reader think

n The language means…

      … UNLESS YOU EXPLAIN WHY
Using PEEL
n   Point – Identify a technique
n   Evidence – Give a short quotation
n   Explain – The effect of this technique
    on the reader
n   Link – Refer back to the question
    (repeat some of the words)
Using PEEL – an example
How does the writer use language to persuade
  the reader?
The writer has used a series of rhetorical
  questions. For example, he writes “How
  many of us recycle regularly?” These
  questions make us think about our own
  responsibility to the environment and how
  much rubbish we create. He does this
  because he wants us to feel guilty. This is
  persuasive because he feels that we all need
  to do more and it makes us think about our
  own actions.
How this is assessed
n   Band 1
    n   Limited evidence of understanding
    n   No real appreciation of language
    n   Very few and poorly chosen examples
n   Band 2
    n   Some evidence of understanding
    n   Some appreciation of words and phrases
    n   Attempts to support with examples
n   Band 3
    n   Clear evidence of understanding
    n   Clear analysis of words and phrases
    n   Relevant and appropriate quotations used to support ideas
n   Band 4
    n   Full and detailed understanding of the content
    n   Detailed and perceptive analysis of language
    n   Relevant quotations with perceptive comments

				
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posted:7/23/2013
language:English
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