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Ancient Greece

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					             Unit 4: Ancient Greece
•   Essential Questions
    –   How did geography influence the history and peoples of
        Ancient Greece from the Minoans/Mycenaeans to later
        Greek City-States & the conquests of Alexander the
        Great?
    –   What factors allow a civilization to have enduring
        significance? What were Ancient Greece’s contributions
        to human progress? Why were they so enduring?
    –   How would you describe the evolution of government in
        Ancient Greece? What skills must citizens have to
        effectively participate in a democratic state? How do
        multiple perspectives enhance democracy?
    –   Who was responsible for the spread of Greek culture
        throughout the world? How was this accomplished?
    –   How did the Hellenic & Hellenistic Civilizations differ?
     Ancient Greece: Timeline
                   Pre-Hellenic Period
I. 2600-1450 B.C.E. = Minoans
II. 1900-1200 B.C.E. = Mycenaean – The Trojan War “The Iliad”

                      Hellenic Period
III. 1150-750 B.C.E. = Dorians – Greek Dark Ages
IV. 750-550 B.C.E. = Greek City-States – Sparta & Athens
V. 492-479 B.C.E. = Democratic Athens – Persian War
VI. Athenian Empire – Delian League
VII. 479-431B.C.E = Greece’s “Golden Age”
VIII. 431-404 B.C.E. = Peloponnesian War – Athens v. Sparta

                     Hellenistic Period
IV. 336-323 B.C.E. = Conquests of Alexander the Great & Beyond
X. 323-Present Day = Spread of Greek Culture
  UNIT 4: Ancient Greece
  What factors allow a civilization to have enduring significance? What were
  Ancient Greece’s contributions to human progress? Why were they so
  enduring?

v Ancient Greece – Contributions to Human Progress:
  u    Government = democracy
  u    Philosophy = Socrates (__), Plato (__) & Aristotle (__)
  u    Architecture = Parthenon, columns, etc.
  u    Drama = Comedy & Tragedy
  u    Science = medicine: Hippocrates -“father of medicine”
  u    History = Herodotus & Thucydides (wrote w/less bias)
  u    Sports = Olympics
  u    Art = idealization of the human form, Colossus of Rhodes
UNIT 4: Ancient Greece
What factors allow a civilization to have enduring significance? What were
Ancient Greece’s contributions to human progress? Why were they so
enduring?

vAncient Greece – Vocabulary Page:
 §    patriarchal =                       §   phalanx =
 §    hellas =                            §   draconian =
 §    arete =                             §   politics =
 §    hubris =                            §   Oracle at Delphi =
 §    self-sufficient =
                                          §   ostracism
 §    polis =
 §    acropolis =
 §    monarch =
 §    aristocracy =
 §    oligarchy =
 §    tyranny =
 §    democracy =
UNIT 4: Ancient Greece
How did geography influence the history and people of Ancient Greece?
I. Geography
  A.       Greece
       •      Balkan Peninsula – about the size of Maine
       •      Hellas = __________________
       •      Aegean Sea (Mediterranean Sea)
  B.       Balkan Mountains – 2/3 of peninsula
       –      Disunity = mountains led to fiercely independent city-states
       –      Communication - restricted
       –      Farming = 20% arable land = ↓ population, seek? _________
  C.       Natural Harbors & Islands
       –      Stimulate Trade (Sea-farers & Traders)
       –      Surrounded by Water =
             a)   Mediterranean Sea
             b)   Aegean Sea
             c)   Ionian Sea
             d)   Black Sea
       –      Colonies Abroad = what purpose do they serve?
  D.       Mediterranean Climate
       –      Greeks develop outdoor culture = Agora, Amphitheatre and Gymnasium
              are all open air arenas
       –      Olives & Grapes
UNIT 4: Ancient Greece
How did geography influence the history and people of Ancient Greece?
II. Minoan & Mycenaean Civilizations
A.       Minoans: Crete & Surrounding Islands (2000-1200 B.C.E.)
     •     Minos – legendary king, founding story
     •     Economy & Trade – island served as stepping stone for trade
           a)   Well constructed ships
           b)   Products = olive oil, wine, metal ware & pottery
     •     Where does our knowledge of the Minoans come from?
           a)   Written Language? = yet to be deciphered - __________________
           b)   Archeological Discoveries – Sir Arthur Evans – especially paintings
B.       Mycenaeans (1600 B.C.E.)
     –     Mycenae – fortressed city on Balkan Peninsula
           a)   Sea Raiders & Traders
           b)   Patriarchal Society = _________________________________
     –     Economy & Trade
           a)   What = agriculture (olive oil – liquid gold), pottery, tools/weapons &
                piracy
           b)   Who = colonies in Asia Minor (present day ____) & Knossos, _____
     –     Archeological Discoveries - Writing System – Linear B
UNIT 4: Ancient Greece
How did geography influence the history and people of Ancient Greece?
II. Minoan & Mycenaean Civilizations
C. Troy – Site of Homer’s Iliad
    •   Location = Dardanelles Strait – Aegean & Black Seas
        a) Control sea traffic & land routes b/w Europe & Asia
        b) Schliemann – 9 buried cities
    •   Iliad – Summary = Helen, Sparta’s Queen is abducted
        by Paris, Prince of Troy. Agamemnon (King of
        Mycenae) besieges Troy for 10 years
        a) Trojan Horse = city destroyed by fire, possibly besieged
        b) 1200 B.C.E. = fall of Hittites & Egyptian Empire - _____
D. Fall of Mycenaean Civilization – Dorian Invasion
   (c.1100 B.C.E.)
    •   Invasions from the North
    •   Iron over Bronze
UNIT 4: Ancient Greece
EQ: Contributions with enduring significance & the evolution of democracy.
III. Greek Dark Age – Homeric Age - Dorians
A. Dark Ages =
B. Homer & Heroic Values
   •    Homer’s Epics: The Iliad & The Odyssey
           •   Iliad = Trojan War     •   Odyssey = journey home
                –   Helen                 –   Odysseus
                –   Achilles              –   Sirens & Cyclops
                –   Agamemnon             –   Scylla & Charybdis
                –   Prince Paris          –   Telemachus
                –   Hector                –   Penelope

   2. Heroic Values = epics illustrate cultural concepts of:
        a) arete = strive for virtue & excellence
        b) hubris = destructive or excessive pride in oneself
        c) war leader – “first among equals”
UNIT 4: Ancient Greece
EQ: Contributions with enduring significance & the evolution of democracy.
 III. Greek Dark Age – Homeric Age - Dorians
C.       Society during the Homeric Age
     •      Patriarchal Society – dominated by aristocrats = ____
           a) aristocracy = government by the best
           b) women – maintain order at home
     •      Economy: dark ages? = ____- self-sufficient agriculture
D.       The Rise of Democracy
     •      Evolution: Monarchy – Oligarchy – Tyranny – Democracy
     •      Monarchy =
           a) polis =                         → politics =
           b) acropolis =
     •      Oligarchy or Aristocracy = ______________ or _________________
           a)   Abolished assemblies & took the best land
           b)   Promoted colonization – appease angry/hungry masses & stimulate economy
     •      Tyrants = ________________
           a) phalanx (citizen soldier) =
           b) dynasties?
UNIT 4: Ancient Greece
EQ: How would you describe the evolution of government in Ancient Greece?
 IV. Steps to Athenian Democracy
A.       Solon (594 B.C.E.)
     •      Ends policy of enslavement for debt – cancels debt for small farmers
     •      Introduces Economic Stimulus Package
           a)   All citizens must learn a trade
           b)   All will work through increase in industry & trade
           c)   Changes class distinction from birth to wealth (not rigid)
B.       Pisistratus (560 B.C.E.)
     •      redistributes land
     •      Initiates public works projects - ___________________
     •      ends land requirement to vote
C.       Cleisthenes (508-502 B.C.E.)
     •      Step 1: diminish power of nobles – disbands tribes & est. new ones
     •      Step 2: ostracism = exile potential threat (i.e. tyrant) for 10 yrs.
     •      Step 3: Branches of Gov’t
           a)   Assembly (U.S. example _____) – power to initiate legislation
           b)   Est. Council of 500 (U.S. example _____) – advise assembly, prepare leg.
           c)   Democratic Court (U.S. example _____) – citizen jurors
D.       Trouble on Horizon = Sparta & Persia
UNIT 4: Ancient Greece
EQ: How would you describe the evolution of government in Ancient Greece?
V. Sparta vs. Athens
Focus Question: Why did both of these polis’ develop different forms of rule?
                                    Athens                              Sparta
     Form of             Democracy – rule of the people,    Totalitarian – system of gov’t in
                         all citizens part.                 which the state controls all aspects
    Government
                                                            of an individuals life

   Military Service      2 yrs. of military training        20-60 yrs. old


      Education          Mind, body & arts. Valued          Body. Valued duty strength &
                         individuality, beauty & freedom.   discipline.
       (Values)
      Economy            Prosperous overseas trade          Forbidden to travel, money made of
                         (grapes & olive oil)               iron bars

       Slavery           Most come from outside Greece      helots = slaves of the state taken
                         (1:4)                              from surrounding conquered
                                                            territories (7:1)
  Role of Women          Few rights, must stay at home,     Just as important in defending state
                         conceal themselves in public       = trained, part. In politics &
                                                            economy
 UNIT 4: Ancient Greece
 EQ: How would you describe the evolution of government in Ancient Greece?
 V. Sparta vs. Athens: Government
 Focus Question: Why did both of these polis’ develop different forms of rule?
• Sparta: “Wall of Men”                   • Athens: “Golden Mean”
    – 5 Ephors                                 – President
        • elected by Assembly = held           – Board of Generals
          unlimited power. “Guardians              • 1 year term.
          of the State”
                                               – Council of 500
    – Council of Elders
                                                   • Citizens 30+ yrs. = chosen to
        • 28 members all over 60 yrs. =              propose laws
          proposed laws
                                               – Assembly
    – Kings (2)
                                                   • all citizens 20+ yrs. = elected
        • elected by the Assembly they               officials & approved laws.
          served as high priests,
          judges and army                      – Democratic Court
          commanders                               • citizen jurors chosen by lot.
    – Assembly                                 – Hoplites
        • all citizens 30+ yrs. Elected            • all citizens 18-20 yrs. had to
          officials and voted on major               provide 2 yrs. of service in the
          policies.                                  Athenian military for
                                                     citizenship.
UNIT 4: Ancient Greece
EQ: How would you describe the evolution of government in Ancient Greece?
 VI. The Persian Wars (492-479 B.C.E.)
A.       Ionian Greeks (Asia Minor – Troy)
     •      Conquered by Cyrus
     •      Poleis Revolt & Seek aid from Athens
     •      Darius I ends rebellions, sets sight on Athens
B.       Major Battles
     •      492 B.C.E. – Darius attempts major invasion of Greece = _______
     •      490 B.C.E. – Plains of Marathon = _________________
     •      480 B.C.E. – Xerxes (200,000)
           a)   Sparta & 300
           b)   Athens sacked
           c)   Losses naval battle
C.       Results of Persian Wars
     •      Victory ushers in “Golden Age” = anything is possible
           a)   Full development of democracy
           b)   est. land & sea empire – Athenian Empire
     •      Delian League (Athens & 172) – defensive alliance dominated by Athens
     •      Alliance benefits who? -
     •      Imperialism (define) = good or bad? -
UNIT 4: Ancient Greece
EQ: How would you describe the evolution of government in Ancient Greece?

VII. The Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.E.)
 A.       What leads the two city-states (____) to war?
      •         Athenian Imperialism?
      •         Fear of an enemy’s growing power?
      •         Athens commercial rivalry w/Corinth (Sparta’s key ally)?
      •         431: Sparta declares war, Athenians called within walls
           a)          Advantages
                 i.       Athens = Sea
                 ii.      Sparta = Land
           b)          Sparta’s superior army = victory on land but can’t breach walls of Athens
           c)          Athens’ superior navy = sent to attack Sparta, but fails to invade
 B.       Turning Points
      •         Disease Breaks Out in Athens (typhus) = overcrowding w/in walls
      •         Syracuse (413 B.C.) = Spartan victory
      •         Athens surrenders (404 B.C.)
 C.       Consequences
      •         Anarchy & Depression
      •         Harsh Spartan Rule (404-371 B.C.) – oligarchies replace
                democracies
      •         Some Greeks hope for invasion
      •         Who will that be? -
UNIT 4: Ancient Greece
EQ: What factors allow a civilization to have enduring significance? What were

Ancient Greece’s contributions to human progress? Why were they so enduring?

VIII. Athenian Golden Age, 479-431B.C.
A.       Pericles = Athens’ leading statesman - 3 Goals
     •      Strengthen Athenian Democracy
     •      Strengthen Athenian Empire
     •      Glorify Athens = Confiscated treasury of Delian League
           a) “long walls” = surrounded Athens & protected a 6 mile corridor
               down to the port of Piraeus.
           b) Parthenon = temple to honor Athena
B.       Greek Cultural Achievements (politics, philosophy, art &
         science) – why? = social & environmental factors
     •      thought is not restricted by a “divine” ruler
     •      gods were not the answer → human resourcefulness & reason was
            * “Man is the measure of all things”
C.       Greek Religion
     •      gods & goddesses, Zeus, Mt. Olympus, Hades
     •      oracles (at __): message = “Nothing in excess” & “Know yourself”
                   List of Gods
•   Zeus      – god of sky, father of gods
•   Poseidon – god of sea, brother of Zeus
•   Hades     – god of underworld, bro of Zeus
•   Hera      – goddess of marriage, wife of Zeus
•   Ares      – god of war
•   Apollo    – god of light, prophecy, medicine
•   Athena    – goddess of wisdom
•   Aphrodite – goddess of love & beauty
•   Dionysis – goddess of wine & fertility
•   Hermes     – messenger of the gods
•   Hephaistos – god of metal working
 UNIT 4: Ancient Greece

 EQ: What’s a golden age? What made the Golden Age in Ancient Greece possible?

 VIII. Athenian Golden Age, 479-431B.C.
D. Greek Philosophy = love of wisdom, concern - ethics
- Nature can be explained by natural, not supernatural causes
- Three Great Philosophers
    – Socrates (469-399 B.C.) – ask questions
        a)  “the unexamined life is not worth living”
        b)  “only one good, knowledge; only one evil, ignorance”
        c)  Socratic Method = question & then answer
        d)  Socrates fate =
    –    Plato (427-347 B.C.) = studied under? – material v. spiritual world
        a) “philosophy begins in wonder”
        b) The Republic = vision for a perfect society (role of women?)
        c) founded the Academy in Athens
    –    Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) = studied under? – analysis of data
        a) “All men by nature desire to know.” “The law is reason, free from
            passion.”
        b) Developed basis for scientific method =
UNIT 4: Ancient Greece
EQ: Who is responsible for the spread of Greek Culture around the world? How was this
accomplished?

IX. Macedonia Conquers Greece
  A.       Macedonia = mountainous region north of
           Greece
  B.       359 B.C.E.: Philip II became King of Macedonia
       –     amasses great army
       –     uses phalanx (learned it when living in the Greek polis
             of Thebes, as a boy)
       –     Philip II conquered Greek states one by one
            a)   Some Greeks saw him as a unifying savior
            b)   Some Greeks saw him as a menace to their liberty.
  C.       338 B.C.E.: Victory @ Chaeronea ends Greek
           independence
  D.       336 B.C.E.: Philip II murdered @ daughter’s
           wedding = Alexander takes thrown
UNIT 4: Ancient Greece
EQ: Who is responsible for the spread of Greek Culture around the world? How was this
accomplished?

X. The Hellenistic Age (336-30 B.C.E.)
A.       Characteristics of the Hellenistic (“Greek-like”) Age
     •        Economic Expansion
     •        Cosmopolitanism =
     •        Intellectual & Artistic Achievements
     •        Distribution of Greek Culture

B.       Alexander the Great
     –        Young Alexander
         a)     studies under =
         b)     idolized epic heroes of Greece =
         c)     characteristics: athletic, charismatic, natural leader, god-like
         d)     trained in gymnastics and Macedonian military skills/tactics
     –        Philip II assassinated in 336 B.C.E.
         a)     20 year old Alexander assumes the throne
         b)     Quickly gains loyalty of Macedonian Nobles & Greek League
                (formed by father Philip II)
UNIT 4: Ancient Greece
EQ: Who is responsible for the spread of Greek Culture around the world? How was
this accomplished?

X. The Hellenistic Age (336-30 B.C.E.)
A.       Alexander’s Conquests: Unfortunately for Persia, he
         adopted the ancient Greek enemy as his own.
     –        From 334-326 B.C. he conquered
         a)      Asia Minor & the Fertile Crescent
         b)      Egypt
         c)      Persia (Darius III, 331 B.C.E.) and into India without a defeat.
     –        Some of his tactics are such masterpieces that they were studied
              by Caesar and Napoleon and are still studied today.

B.       Meet strong resistance past the edge of the known world,
         only mutiny of his troops ended his conquests.
     •        Half of his army returned to the Fertile Crescent by sea (Persian
              Gulf)
     •        Half returned by land = suffered great hardships (draught &
              famine) with 1/4 of Alexander’s army dying along the way.
     •        323 B.C.E.: Alexander dies in Babylon at 32
 UNIT 4: Ancient Greece
 EQ: Who is responsible for the spread of Greek Culture around the world? How was this accomplished?

 X. The Hellenistic Age (336-30 B.C.E.)
C.       Alexander’s Legacy:
     •      dreamed of uniting all the world’s people & cultures.
     –      Built and rebuilt 70 cities to serve as the cultural centers of his empire
           a) Alexandria, Egypt
           b) Antioch, Syria
     –      In each city, settled a group of Greeks and Macedonians - solidified
            Hellenistic Age.
     –      Encouraged the intermarriages of peoples and actually took the
            daughter of a Persian King as his wife (Roxana).
     –      He also dressed in Persian robes and took men of varied religions
            into his service
     –      He tried to est. a uniform currency to promote prosperity through
            trade.
UNIT 4: Ancient Greece
EQ: Who is responsible for the spread of Greek Culture around the world? How was this accomplished?

X. The Hellenistic Age (336-30 B.C.E.)
  D.        Hellenistic Contributions
        •     Great Advances in Astronomy (circumference of earth – 1%,
              sun 300x larger than earth, & earth revolves around sun)
        •     Mathematics (pie & geometry)
        •     Physics (lever & complex pulley)
        •     Philosophy, Art (realism in sculptures – Colossus of Rhodes)
  E.        Alexander’s Empire is Divided

				
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posted:7/23/2013
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