VIEWS: 67 PAGES: 136 POSTED ON: 7/22/2013
Zoonotic Diseases Commonly Associated With Dogs and Cats Note: The images in this presentation are for non-profit, educational use only. Neil Grove University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill Division of Laboratory Animal Medicine What we will cover n We will attempt to answer the following questions about each zoonotic disease: n What is it? n How can I get it? n What are the symptoms? n What precautions or preventive measures can be taken to avoid acquiring it? What diseases will we cover? n Toxocara n Sarcoptes n Cheyletiella n Rabies n Ringworm n Toxoplasmosis n Cat Scratch Disease n Capnocytophaga canimorsus Toxocariasis – What is it? n Toxocariasis is a zoonotic infection caused by the parasitic roundworms commonly found in the intestine of dogs (Toxocara canis) and cats (T. cati). n In the United States, an estimated 10,000 cases of Toxocara infections occur yearly in humans. (1) Prevalence n A recent national survey of shelters revealed that almost 36% of dogs nationwide, and 52% of dogs from southeastern states harbored helminths capable of causing human disease. n Every year at least 3,000-4,000 serum specimens from patients with presumptive diagnoses of toxocariasis are sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), state public health laboratories, or private laboratories for serodiagnostic confirmation. (2) How Do I get it? n The most common Toxocara parasite of concern to humans is T. canis, which puppies usually contract from the mother before birth or from her milk. n The larvae mature rapidly in the puppy’s intestines; when the pup is 3 or 4 weeks old, they begin to produce large numbers of eggs that contaminate the environment through the animal’s stool. The eggs soon develop into infective larvae.(1) How Do I get it? n You or your children can become infected after accidentally ingesting (swallowing) infective Toxocara eggs from larvae in soil or other contaminated surfaces.(1) n Eggs are extremely resistant and can remain viable for years. Toxacara eggs Symptoms n There are two major forms of toxocariasis, Ocular larva migrans, and Visceral larva migrans : n 1) Ocular larva migrans (OLM): n An eye disease that can cause blindness. n OLM occurs when a microscopic worm enters the eye; it may cause inflammation and formation of a scar on the retina. (1) Elevated granuloma in toxocariasis Symptoms n Each year more than 700 people infected with Toxocara experience permanent partial loss of vision.(1) Symptoms n 2) Visceral larva migrans (VLM): n Heavier, or repeated Toxocara infections, while rare, can cause VLM, a disease that causes swelling of the body’s organs or central nervous system. Symptoms of VLM, which are caused by the movement of the worms through the body, include fever, coughing, asthma, or pneumonia. (1) Symptoms n In most cases, Toxocara infections are not serious, and many people, especially adults infected by a small number of larvae (immature worms), may not notice any symptoms. (1) Symptoms n The most severe cases are rare, but are more likely to occur in young children, who often play in dirt, or eat dirt (pica) contaminated by dog or cat stool.(1) Precautions/Prevention n Have your veterinarian treat your dogs and cats, especially young animals, regularly for worms. n Wash your hands well with soap and water after playing with your pets and after outdoor activities, especially before you eat. Teach children to always wash their hands after playing with dogs and cats and after playing outdoors. Precautions/Prevention n Do not allow children to play in areas that are soiled with pet or other animal stool. n Clean your pet’s living area at least once a week. Feces should be either buried or bagged and disposed of in the trash. n Teach children that it is dangerous to eat dirt or soil. Review Questions n How do you get toxocariasis? Answer n By accidentally ingesting (swallowing) infective Toxocara eggs from larvae in soil or other contaminated surfaces.(1) Question n What are the two major forms of larval migrans? Answer n Ocular larval migrans and visceral larval migrans Sarcoptic Mange – What is it? n Microscopic sarcoptic mange mites cause sarcoptic mange, also known as scabies. n Sarcoptic mange mites affect dogs of all ages, during any time of the year. n Sarcoptic mange mites are highly contagious to other dogs and may be passed by close contact with infested animals, bedding, or grooming tools.(3) How do I get it? n People who come in contact with an infected dog may acquire the mite.(3) Symptoms - Dogs n Sarcoptic mange mites burrow through the top layer of the dog’s skin and cause intense itching. (3) Symptoms - Dogs n Clinical signs include: n Generalized hair loss n Skin rash n Crusting n Skin infections may develop secondary to the intense irritation.(3) Symptoms - People n People who come in close contact with an infected dog may develop a rash and should see their physician.(3) Precautions/Prevention n Look for fleas, ticks, and coat abnormalities any time you groom your dog. n See your vet if your pet excessively scratches, chews, or licks its haircoat, or persistently shakes its head. This may indicate presence of external parasites or other conditions requiring medical care. n Prompt treatment of parasites lessens your pet’s discomfort, decreases the chances of disease trasnmission from parasite to pet, and may reduce the degree of home infestation.(3) Precautions/Prevention n Discuss the health of all family pets with your vet when one becomes infested. Some parasites cycle among pets, making control of infestation difficult unless other pets are considered. Consult your veterinarian before beginning treatment. n Tell your vet if you have attempted any parasite remedies, as this may impact your vet’s recommendation.(3) Precautions/Prevention n Be especially careful when applying insecticides to cats, as cats are particularly sensitive to these products. Never use a product that is not approved for cats , as the result could be lethal. n Follow label instructions carefully. n Leave treatment to the experts. Your vet offers technical expertise and can assist you in identifying products that are most likely to effectively and safely control your pet’s parasite problem. (3) Review Questions n Sarcoptic mange is also known as ______. Answer n Scabies Question n How do people come in contact with the mange mite? Answer n People who come in contact with an infected dog may acquire the mite.(3) Cheyletiellosis n What is it? n Cheyletiellosis is a very contagious dermatosis caused by relatively large mites living on the skin surface. n Cheyletiella mites are obligate parasites and have a life cycle of approximately 3 to 4 wk in total. n They are not host specific and may transfer readily between dogs, cats, and rabbits. (4) What is it? n The disease caused by Cheyletiella mites is often called 'walking dandruff.' n On close observation of an infested dog, cat, or rabbit, it may be possible to see movement of the dandruff on the skin. n The movement is caused by the mites motoring around under the scales. n Cheyletiella mites are found on animals throughout the United States. They generally do not cause significant disease. (5) How do I get it? n Humans in contact with pets carrying Cheyletiella spp. are at risk of becoming transiently infested.(4) Symptoms – Animals n The mites cause skin irritation, usually along the back of the animal. n Slight hair loss n Scales (dandruff) n Itching n Possibly some thickening of the skin. n Cats and rabbits may not show any signs of infestation (5) Symptoms - Humans n Uncomfortable, pruritic dermatosis, characterized by papular lesions that, typically, appear on the arms, legs, trunk, and buttocks. n Cheyletiella spp. are not capable of reproducing on humans, so appropriate treatment of the pet host should prevent further infestation, making human acaricidal therapy unnecessary. (4) Precaution/Prevention n How will I know if my pet has Cheyletiellosis? n Mites may be seen on the animal, especially if you use a magnifying glass. n Examining dandruff, hairs, or scrapings of the skin under the microscope can positively identify the mites.(5) Precaution/Prevention n If you suspect that your pet has Cheyletiellosis, seek the advice of your veterinarian, who will recommend appropriate treatment. n The mite can live for several days off the host, so the environment needs to be cleared of mites as well. n At the same time the animals are treated, the environment may be fogged or sprayed. n Since the mites only live for several days off the host, it is often effective to remove the rabbit, dog, or cat from the premises for several days until the mites die. This would prevent reinfestation.(5) Review Questions n Another name for the disease caused by Cheyletiella mites is _________. Answer n walking dandruff Question n Are Cheyletiella capable of reproducing on humans? Answer n No - Cheyletiella spp. are not capable of reproducing on humans Rabies n What is it? n Rabies is a preventable viral disease of mammals most often transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal. n The vast majority of rabies cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) each year occur in wild animals like raccoons, skunks, bats, and foxes. n Domestic animals account for less than 10% of the reported rabies cases, with cats, cattle, and dogs most often reported rabid. (6) What animals carry rabies? n Any mammal can get rabies. n The most common wild reservoirs of rabies are raccoons, skunks, bats, foxes, and coyotes. n Raccoons are the most common carriers in North Carolina. n Domestic mammals can also get rabies. Cats, cattle, and dogs are the most frequently reported rabid domestic animals in the United States. n Your pets and other domestic animals can be infected when they are bitten by rabid wild animals. (7) What about rodents? n Small rodents (such as squirrels, rats, mice, hamsters, guinea pigs, gerbils, and chipmunks, ) and lagomorphs (such as rabbits and hares) are almost never found to be infected with rabies and have not been known to cause rabies among humans in the United States. n One case of a pet guinea pig was reported n Bites by these animals are usually not considered a risk of rabies unless the animal was sick or behaving in any unusual manner and rabies is widespread in your area. What about rodents? n However, from 1985 through 1994, woodchucks accounted for 86% of the 368 cases of rabies among rodents reported to CDC. (7) n Over the last 10 years Tufts Wildlife Clinic has seen a number of large native wild rodents (mostly woodchucks, but also porcupines and beavers) with neurologic signs that have tested positive for rabies.(8) How do I get it? n People usually get rabies from the bite of a rabid animal. n It is also possible, but quite rare, that people may get rabies if infectious material from a rabid animal, such as saliva, gets directly into their eyes, nose, mouth, or a wound.(7) How do I get it? n Non-bite exposures to rabies are very rare. Scratches, abrasions, open wounds, or mucous membranes contaminated with saliva or other potentially infectious material (such as brain tissue) from a rabid animal constitute non-bite exposures. Occasionally reports of non-bite exposure are such that postexposure prophylaxis is given.(7) How do I get it? n Inhalation of aerosolized rabies virus is also a potential non-bite route of exposure, but other than laboratory workers, most people are unlikely to encounter an aerosol of rabies virus.(7) How do I get it? n Bites from bats can go undetected by a person. n If a dead bat is found in the house or the bedroom it is a concern for bite and rabies exposure. Can it be transmitted person to person? n The only well-documented documented cases of rabies caused by human-to-human transmission occurred among 8 recipients of transplanted corneas, and recently among three recipients of solid organs . n Guidelines for acceptance of suitable cornea and organ donations, as well as the rarity of human rabies in the United States, reduce this risk. (7) Can it be transmitted person to person? n In addition to transmission from cornea and organ transplants, bite and non-bite exposures inflicted by infected humans could theoretically transmit rabies, but no such cases have been documented. n Casual contact, such as touching a person with rabies or contact with non-infectious fluid or tissue (urine, blood, feces) does not constitute an exposure. n In addition, contact with someone who is receiving rabies vaccination does not constitute rabies exposure. (7) Symptoms – Animals n Animals with rabies may act differently than healthy animals. n Wild animals may move slowly or act tame. n Also, some wild animals, like foxes, raccoons, and skunks, that normally avoid porcupines, may receive a face full of quills if they become rabid and try to bite these prickly rodents. n A pet that is usually friendly may snap at you and try to bite. Symptoms – Animals n There are two common types of rabies. One type is "furious" rabies. Animals with this type are hostile, may bite at objects, and have an increase in saliva. In the movies and in books, rabid animals foam at the mouth. In real life, rabid animals look like they have foam in their mouth because they have more saliva. (9) n In advanced cases animals also can’t swallow, causing saliva to pour out. Symptoms - Animals n The second and more common form is known as paralytic or "dumb" rabies. The dogs pictured have this type. An animal with "dumb" rabies is timid and shy. It often rejects food and has paralysis of the lower jaw and muscles.(9) Symptoms - Animals n Signs of rabies in animals include: n changes in an animal’s behavior n general sickness n problems swallowing n an increase in drool or saliva n wild animals that appear abnormally tame or sick n animals that may bite at everything if excited n difficulty moving or paralysis n death (9) Symptoms - People n In humans, signs and symptoms usually occur 30-90 days after the bite. Once people develop symptoms, they almost always die. This is why it is very important to go to your doctor right away if you have been bitten by an animal that might be rabid. n Early symptoms of rabies include fever, headache, sore throat, and feeling tired. As the virus gets to the brain, the person may act nervous, confused, and upset. (9) Symptoms - People n Other symptoms of rabies in humans include: n pain or tingling at the site of the bite n hallucinations hydrophobia ("fear of water" due to spasms in the throat) n paralysis n As the disease advances, the person enters into a coma and dies. (9) Prevention/Precautions n There is no treatment for rabies after symptoms of the disease appear. n There is an available rabies vaccine regimen that provides immunity to rabies when administered after an exposure (postexposure prophylaxis) or for protection before an exposure occurs (preexposure prophylaxis). (10) Prevention/Precautions n Preexposure vaccination is recommended for persons in high-risk groups, such as veterinarians, animal handlers, and certain laboratory workers. n Other persons whose activities bring them into frequent contact with rabies virus or potentially rabid bats, raccoons, skunks, cats, dogs, or other species at risk of having rabies should also be considered for preexposure prophylaxis. (10) Prevention/Precautions n What to do after a possible exposure: n If you are exposed to a potentially rabid animal, wash the wound thoroughly with soap and water, and seek medical attention immediately. A health care provider will care for the wound and will assess the risk for rabies exposure. The following information will help your health care provider assess your risk: Prevention/Precautions n the geographic location of the incident n the type of animal that was involved n how the exposure occurred (provoked or unprovoked) n the vaccination status of animal n whether the animal can be safely captured and tested for rabies Prevention/Precautions n Steps taken by the health care practitioner will depend on the circumstances of the bite. n Your health care practitioner should consult state or local health departments, veterinarians, or animal control officers to make an informed assessment of the incident and to request assistance. n The important factor is that you seek care promptly after you are bitten by any animal.(10) Prevention/Precautions n What you can do to help prevent the spread of rabies n Be a responsible pet owner: n Keep vaccinations up-to-date for all dogs, cats and ferrets. This requirement is important not only to keep your pets from getting rabies, but also to provide a barrier of protection to you, if your animal is bitten by a rabid wild animal. n Keep your pets under direct supervision so they do not come in contact with wild animals. If your pet is bitten by a wild animal, seek veterinary assistance for the animal immediately. (10) Prevention/Precautions n Call your local animal control agency to remove any stray animals from your neighborhood. They may be unvaccinated and could be infected by the disease. n Spay or neuter your pets to help reduce the number of unwanted pets that may not be properly cared for or regularly vaccinated. n Avoid direct contact with unfamiliar animals: Prevention/Precautions n Enjoy wild animals (raccoons, skunks, foxes) from afar (including animals on work grounds). Do not handle, feed, or unintentionally attract wild animals with open garbage cans or litter. n Never adopt wild animals or bring them into your home. Do not try to nurse sick animals to health. Call animal control or an animal rescue agency for assistance. (10) Prevention/Precautions n Teach children never to handle unfamiliar animals, wild or domestic, even if they appear friendly. "Love your own, leave other animals alone" is a good principle for children to learn. n Prevent bats from entering living quarters or occupied spaces in homes, churches, schools, and other similar areas, where they might come in contact with people and pets. (10) Prevention/Precautions n When traveling abroad, avoid direct contact with wild animals and be especially careful around dogs in developing countries. Rabies is common in developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America where dogs are the major reservoir of rabies. Tens of thousands of people die of rabies each year in these countries. (10) Prevention/Precautions n Before traveling abroad, consult with a health care provider, travel clinic, or your health department about the risk of exposure to rabies, preexposure prophylaxis, and how you should handle an exposure, should it arise. (10) Local Cases n Rabid fox bites woman 6/30/2005 6:23 PM By: News 14 Carolina Staff A fox with rabies attacked and bit a woman in the Orange Grove community near Hillsborough. n Authorities said the woman was walking her dogs when a fox started fighting one of them. n The woman used a stick to separate the two. That's when the fox bit her on the ankle. (20) Local Case n In September 1997, a boy swimming at Jordan Lake State Park near Raleigh, NC, was attacked and bitten by a rabid beaver. This incident prompted Park officials to close the swimming areas and seek assistance from WS. State Park personnel and WS staff conducted intensive day and night searches and removed several beaver, one of which tested positive for rabies. n This was the second case of a rabid beaver attacking a person in the Park. Earlier in the summer, a rabid beaver attempted to climb into a boat with several fishermen. Rabies in beaver is extremely unusual: only 14 cases nationwide have been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention over the past 40 years. Review Questions n True or False: n The vast majority of rabies cases occur in household pets. Answer n False - domestic animals account for less than 10% of the reported rabies cases Question n True or False n Wild animals work grounds pose no threat for carrying rabies, so it is okay to approach them and pet them. Answer n Uhhh…yeah right. Ringworm n What is it? n Ringworm is a skin infection caused by a fungus. Ringworm can affect skin on your body (tinea corporis), scalp (tinea capitis), groin area (tinea cruris, also called jock itch), or feet (tinea pedis, also called athlete's foot).(11) How do I get it? n Ringworm is contagious. It can be passed from one person to the next by direct skin-to-skin contact or by contact with contaminated items such as combs, unwashed clothing, and shower or pool surfaces. n You can also catch ringworm from pets that carry the fungus. Cats are common carriers. (11) How do I get it? n Many different kinds of animals can transmit ringworm to people. n Ringworm is transmitted from direct contact with an infected animal's skin or hair. n Dogs and cats, especially kittens or puppies, can have ringworm that can be passed to people. n Cows, goats, pigs, and horses can pass ringworm to people too. (12) How do I get it? n The fungi that cause ringworm thrive in warm, moist areas. Ringworm is more likely when you have frequent wetness (such as from sweating) and minor injuries to your skin, scalp, or nails.(11) n Microsporum canis is the most common type. Symptoms n The symptoms of ringworm include: n Itchy, red, raised, scaly patches that may blister and ooze. The patches often have sharply-defined edges. They are often redder around the outside with normal skin tone in the center. This may create the appearance of a ring. Your skin may also appear unusually dark or light. n When your scalp or beard is infected, you will have bald patches. n If nails are infected, they become discolored, thick, and even crumble. (11) This is a picture of This child's leg shows a classical- ringworm, tinea manum, on appearing ringworm lesion with the finger. This fungal central clearing and a slightly raised red border. (11) Symptoms infection is inflamed and scaly. (11) Ringworm is not seen as frequently in adults as in children, but when In the scalp, fungal infections conditions are conducive to growth, often form circular, scaly, inflamed the fungus can flourish. (11) patches. (11) Precautions/Prevention n To prevent ringworm: n Keep your skin and feet clean and dry. n Shampoo regularly, especially after haircuts. n Do not share clothing, towels, hairbrushes, combs, headgear, or other personal care items. Such items should be thoroughly cleaned and dried after use. n Wear sandals or shoes at gyms, lockers, and pools. n Avoid touching pets with bald spots. (11) Review questions n True or False: n Ringworm is a close relative to earthworms. Answer n False - ringworm is caused by a fungus. Question n True or False: n Ringworm thrives on dry skin. Answer n False - Ringworm is more likely when you have frequent wetness (such as from sweating) and minor injuries to your skin, scalp, or nails.(11) Toxoplasmosis n Toxoplasmosis is caused by a single-celled parasite called Toxoplasma gondii. n While the parasite is found throughout the world, more than 60 million people in the United States may be infected with the Toxoplasma parasite. n Of those who are infected, very few have symptoms because a healthy person's immune system usually keeps the parasite from causing illness. (13) Toxoplasmosis n However, pregnant women and individuals who have compromised immune systems should be cautious; for them, a Toxoplasma infection could cause serious health problems. (13) How do I get it? n By accidentally swallowing cat feces from a Toxoplasma- infected cat that is shedding the organism in its feces. This might happen if you were to accidentally touch your hands to your mouth after gardening, cleaning a cat's litter box, or touching anything that has come into contact with cat feces. (13) How do I get it? n Eating contaminated raw or partly cooked meat, especially pork, lamb, or venison; by touching your hands to your mouth after handling undercooked meat. (13) n This is a far more likely source than the family cat. How do I get it? n Contaminating food with knives, utensils, cutting boards and other foods that have had contact with raw meat. n Drinking water contaminated with Toxoplasma. n Receiving an infected organ transplant or blood transfusion, though this is rare. (13) How do I get it? n An infected pregnant woman can transmit the infection to her fetus (congenital toxoplasmosis). (14) Symptoms - Animals n Cats rarely have symptoms when first infected, so most people do not know if their cat has been infected. n The infection will go away on its own; therefore it does not help to have your cat or your cat's feces tested for Toxoplasma. (13) Symptoms - People n Symptoms of the infection vary. n Most people who become infected with Toxoplasma are not aware of it. n Some people who have toxoplasmosis may feel as if they have the "flu" with swollen lymph glands or muscle aches and pains that last for a month or more. (13) Symptoms n Severe toxoplasmosis, causing damage to the brain, eyes, or other organs, can develop from an acute Toxoplasma infection or one that had occurred earlier in life and is now reactivated. Severe cases are more likely in individuals who have weak immune systems, though occasionally, even persons with healthy immune systems may experience eye damage from toxoplasmosis. (13) Symptoms n Most infants who are infected while still in the womb have no symptoms at birth, but they may develop symptoms later in life. n A small percentage of infected newborns have serious eye or brain damage at birth.(13) Who is at heightened risk? n People who are most likely to develop severe toxoplasmosis include: n Infants born to mothers who became infected with Toxoplasma for the first time during or just before pregnancy. n Persons with severely weakened immune systems, such as individuals with HIV/AIDS, those taking certain types of chemotherapy, and those who have recently received an organ transplant. (13) Prevention/Precautions n There are several general sanitation and food safety steps you can take to reduce your chances of becoming infected with Toxoplasma. n Wear gloves when you garden or do anything outdoors that involves handling soil. Cats, which may pass the parasite in their feces, often use gardens and sandboxes as litter boxes. Wash your hands well with soap and water after outdoor activities, especially before you eat or prepare any food. (13) Prevention/Precautions n When preparing raw meat, wash any cutting boards, sinks, knives, and other utensils that might have touched the raw meat thoroughly with soap and hot water to avoid cross- contaminating other foods. Wash your hands well with soap and water after handling raw meat. Prevention/Precautions n Cook all meat thoroughly; that is, to an internal temperature of 160° F and until it is no longer pink in the center or until the juices become colorless. n Do not taste meat before it is fully cooked. (13) Precautions/Prevention for Pregnant Women n Have someone else change the litter box or wear disposable gloves if someone else can’t do it and wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water afterwards. n Change the litter box daily – the parasite does not become infected until one to five days after it is shed in the feces. n Feed your cat commercial dry or canned feed Precautions/Prevention for Pregnant Women n Never feed cats raw meat because this can be a source of toxoplasma infection. n Keep your cat indoors. n Avoid stray cats, especially kittens. n Cover outdoor sandboxes. n Do not get a new cat while you are pregnant. Precautions/Prevention for Pregnant Women n Generally if a woman has been infected with Toxoplasma before becoming infected, the infant will be infected because the mother is immune. n Some experts suggest waiting six month after a recent infection before becoming pregnant. Once infected with Toxoplasma is my cat always able to spread the infection to me? n No, cats only spread Toxoplasma in their feces for a few weeks following infection with the parasite. n Like humans, cats rarely have symptoms when first infected, so most people do not know if their cat has been infected. n The infection will go away on its own; therefore it does not help to have your cat or your cat's feces tested for Toxoplasma. Review Questions n True or false: n Most people with toxoplasmosis exhibit no clinical signs of having it. Answer n True Review Question n Are there any groups of people who are at heightened risk of suffering from harmful symptoms of toxoplasmosis? Answer n Yes – previously uninfected pregnant women and individuals who have compromised immune systems should be cautious; for them, a Toxoplasma infection could cause serious health problems. (13) Cat Scratch Disease n What is it? n Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial disease caused by Bartonella henselae. (15) How do I get it? n Most people with CSD have been bitten or scratched by a cat. (15) Prevalence and Symptoms in Cats n Kittens are more likely to be infected and to pass the bacterium to people. n About 40% of cats carry B. henselae at some time in their lives. n Cats that carry B. henselae do not show any signs of illness; therefore, you cannot tell which cats can spread the disease to you. (15) Symptoms - People n Mild infection at the point of injury n Lymph nodes, especially those around the head, neck, and upper limbs, become swollen. n Fever, headache, fatigue, and a poor appetite. Symptoms n Rare complications of B. henselae infection are bacillary angiomatosis (reddish elevated lesions often surrounded by a scaly ring) and Parinaud's oculolandular syndrome. (15) bacillary angiomatosis Heightened Risk n People with immunocompromised conditions, such as those undergoing immunosuppressive treatments for cancer, organ transplant patients, and people with HIV/AIDS, are more likely than others to have complications of CSD. (15) Prevention/Precautions n Avoid "rough play" with cats, especially kittens. This includes any activity that may lead to cat scratches and bites. n Wash cat bites and scratches immediately and thoroughly with running water and soap. n Do not allow cats to lick open wounds that you may have. n Control fleas. n If you develop an infection (with pus and pronounced swelling) where you were scratched or bitten by a cat or develop symptoms, including fever, headache, swollen lymph nodes, and fatigue, contact your physician. (15) Case Report n In July 2000, a boy aged 5 years was admitted to a local hospital after having fever (with temperature reaching 104° F [40°C]) for 12 days and left upper quadrant pain for 8 days. Except for fever and inflamed tympanic membranes, the physical examination was unremarkable. n The child had sustained a scratch from a kitten 2 months before onset of illness. His serologic titer for B. henselae obtained on day 14 of illness was 1:4096. (16) Review Questions n True or False: n Kittens are more likely to be infected and to pass the Cat Scratch Disease to people. Answer n True Question n People with ________conditions, such as those undergoing treatments for cancer, organ transplant patients, and people with HIV/AIDS, are more likely than others to have complications of CSD. (15 Answer n immunosuppressed Capnocytophaga canimorsus Sepsis (previously referred to as Dysgonic fermenter - 2 infection) n What is it? n Dysgonic fermenter-2 is a fastidious, gram- negative, opportunistic pathogen that can cause multiorgan disease in human beings. Capnocytophaga canimorsus What is it? n The first case of DF-2 infection was reported in 1976, when the organism was isolated from the blood and CSF of a patient who had been bitten by 2 dogs. n Dysgonic fermenter-2 is an organism of low virulence, usually causing serious illness only in people with impaired defense mechanisms against infection.(17) How do I get it? n In one study, DF-2 was isolated from the oronasal fluids of 8% of clinically normal dogs. n The organism has been recovered from the oral cavity of dogs and cats that bit persons who later developed DF-2 infection. (17) How do I get it? n Most human patients with DF-2 infection report a history of a recent dog bite. n Many of the remaining patients mention a history of animal exposure. (17) n In most (77%) cases, infection is preceded by a bite or other exposure to dogs. (18) Symptoms n Dysgonic fermenter-2 is an organism of low virulence for people with intact defense mechanisms n In most instances, dog and cat bites cause DF-2 infection only in people in high-risk groups. (17) Symptoms n The severity of clinical symptoms in DF-2 infections varies from signs of fulminant postsplenectomy sepsis, to a milder disease in patients with intact spleens,in which fever Cellulitis and cellulitis are the most common signs. (17) Symptoms n Localizing signs in severely affected patients include endocarditis, purulent meningitis, and septic arthritis. Symmetric peripheral gangrene may develop, and a necrotizing eschar may form at the bite site.(17) Heightened Risk n Most fatal infections have occurred in persons with a history of asplenia, alcoholism, or hematologic malignancy. (18) Prevention/Precautions n People in high-risk groups, especially asplenic individuals, should be aware of the dangers of being bitten by dogs and cats and should seek prompt medical attention if bitten. n Asplenic people should consider wearing a bracelet to inform health care personnel of their condition in case of emergency.(17) Prevention/Precautions n One author has recommended that "given the frequency with which DF-2 is found in the oral microflora of dogs and cats, asplenic individuals should be advised not to keep dogs and cats as pets." n Although this advice may be controversial, it would be prudent for asplenic individuals to minimize the chances for dog or cat bites at work or at home. (17) Review Questions n True or False: n Capnocytophaga canimorsus Sepsis causes severe illness in virtually anyone who is infected with it. Answer n False – it usually causes serious illness only in people with impaired defense mechanisms against infection. Question n True or false – Alcoholism is a risk factor in developing serious illness relating to Capnocytophaga canimorsus Sepsis. Answer n True References n 1. CDC. Toxocariasis Fact Sheet. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/toxocara/factsht_toxocara.htm n 2. CDC. Guidelines for Veterinarians: Prevention of Zoonotic Transmission of Ascarids and Hookworms of Dogs and Cats. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/ascaris/prevention.htm n 3. American Veterinary Medical Association. What You Should Know About External Parasites – Caring For Animals (Pamphlet). 2/04. n 4. Chailleux, Paradis. Efficacy of selamectin in the treatment of naturally acquired cheyletiellosis in cats. http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=339606 n 5. Holly Nash, DVM, MS Cheyletiella yasguri, C. blakei (Rabbit Fur Mite) yasguri, http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?articleid=725 n 6. CDC. About Rabies. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/rabies/introduction/intro.htm n 7. CDC. Rabies Questions and Answers. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/rabies/ques&ans/q&a.htm#How%20do%20people%20get%20rabies n 8. Porkas, Mark, DVM. Pro-med mail post. November 30, 2004. n 9. CDC. Rabies for Kids. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/kidsrabies/ n 10. CDC. Rabies Prevention and Control. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/rabies/Prevention&Control/preventi.htm n 11. Medline Plus. Ringworm. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001439.htm n 12. CDC. Ringworm and Animals. http://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/diseases/ringworm.htm n 13. CDC. Toxoplasmosis Fact Sheet. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/toxoplasmosis/factsht_toxoplasmosis.htm References n 14. Medline. Toxoplasmosis. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000637.htm n 15. CDC. Cat Scratch Disease. http://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/diseases/catscratch.htm n 16. CDC. Morbidity and Mortality Monthly Report. Cat-Scratch Disease in Children – Texas, September 2000 -August 2001. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5110a4.htm n 17. August, John R. Dysgonic fermenter -2 infections. JAVMA, Vol 193, December 15, 1988. n 18. CDC. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Capnocytophaga canimorsus Sepsis Misdiagnosed as Plague – New Mexico , 1992. n 19. USDA. Protection of Human Health and Safety. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ws/wshl97/health.html. n 20. http://rdu.news14.com/content/your_news/durhamchapel_hill/?ArID=71561&SecID=42 Disclaimer n This presentation was created while I was an employee of Priority One Services (POS) at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). Thus, both organizations deserve credit for supporting the work. n However, opinions expressed in this presentation are mine and do not necessarily reflect those of POS, NIEHS, or UNC DLAM.
Pages to are hidden for
"Zoonotic Diseases Commonly Associated With lawte"Please download to view full document