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Designs and Dilemmas an overview Nelson Kasfir by malj

VIEWS: 11 PAGES: 16

									DECENTRALIZED
DEVELOPMENT
AND NGOS
Peace Medie
Brandon Boylan
Monica Jacobo
GOLDEN OLDIES
   Kasfir, “Designs and Dilemmas: An Overview,” In
    Local Government and the Third World (Mawhood ed.)

   Mawhood, “Decentralization: The Concept and the
    Practice,” In Local Government in the Third World
    (Mawhood ed.)

   John Armstrong, The European Administrative Elite
DESIGNS AND DILEMMAS:
AN OVERVIEW NELSON KASFIR

1) Why did African states lose such a decentralization?
     a)   Colonial legacy on traditional social practices
     b)   Fundamental poverty
     c)   Central government needed for economic growth
     d)   Fear to criticism/opposition



2) What are the chances of success of more recent
  proposals?
 For most countries, new decentralization arrangement will fail
 because of discontinuities between institutions, deepening
 poverty, current beliefs about the necessity of vertical control, and
 threats perceived by those in power.
MAWHOOD-DECENTRALIZATION:
THE CONCEPT AND THE PRACTICE
 Pure decentralization is rarely implemented
 Instead, most countries practice deconcentration

 A decentralized body should have
       Its own body
       Separate legal existence
       Authority to allocate substantial resources
       A range of different functions
       Representation of the people
MAWHOOD-DECENTRALIZATION:
THE CONCEPT AND THE PRACTICE
   Countries could combine two tiers of
    management

   Purpose of central-local relations
     Political control
     Economic regulation
     Minimum standards of welfare
     Administrative efficiency
ARMSTRONG: EUROPE AND
DECENTRALIZATION
Focus on relationship between prefects and prefectures

France
 -prefects’ primary responsibility was to suppress
 opposition
 -prefects controlled police

Russia
 -prefects dominated police
 -prefects influenced engineering corps (infrastructure)
 -prefects did not control tax system
ARMSTRONG: EUROPE AND
DECENTRALIZATION
Prussia
 -collegiality among prefects led to exclusion of others with
 different training
 -group decision-making, thus, was slow and efficient
 -too legalistic, without focus on policy potential

Britain
 -central system promoted system of grants instead of
 direct control
 -inspection, not direction
 -local districts had more control over tax collection, but
 not allocation
LITERARY MAP
SYNTHESIS
MARTINUSSEN:
DECENTRALIZATION AND
DEVELOPMENT
   Four types of decentralization
     Deconcentration
     Delegation
     Devolution
     Privatization

 Decentralization has been used to promote
  efficiency and effectiveness but local
  governments are not always capable
 Central and local government and NGOs should
  work together to fill gaps
MARTINUSSEN:
DECENTRALIZATION AND
DEVELOPMENT
 Society and state centered concepts of economic
  development.
 Myrdal’s concept of the soft state which assumes
  that state is the primary engine of growth.
 Critiqued by market and participation theories

 Ethnic identities can be politicized and can affect
  development planning and distribution of
  resources.
STAUDT: NGOS
   People’s participation can enhance development
    planning and practice

   Bottom-up mobilization is most effective

   The role of NGOs along with their funding
    sources have e
CLARK, TURNER AND HULME
 Are NGOs & decentralization necessary for
 development?

    NGOs are not a panacea for poverty reduction. They have
     comparative advantages but cannot be a substitute for state
     provision of social services (T&H).

    Decentralization in developing countries has not made
     government interventions more effective in promoting
     development (T&H).

    Given the world crisis, NGOs have a critical role to play. Their
     opportunity to influence the development process has never
     been greater. However, this new role demands an evolution
     from their starting point. The challenge is to move from a
     tactical to a strategic approach (Clark).
EDWARDS & HULME: SCALING UP

Five Types of NGO Scaling Up
1) Additive Strategy (increase in size)

2) Multiplicative Strategy (encourage others to expand)

3) Explosive Strategy (Adapting large-scale projects to
   local circumstances)
4) Associational Strategy (Interconnectedness)

5) Self-Spreading and Self-Improving Strategy
   (advocating good practice)
HODSON: NGO GROWTH
   Problems with NGO growth
     Workers’ suspicion of hierarchy
     Participatory decision-making



   Factors that affect NGO growth
       Voluntary and involuntary changes, resistance to
        growth, compromised solution, training, leadership,
        decision-making processes

								
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