International cooperation in recognition and quality

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					International cooperation in
recognition and quality assurance



What can be learned from
higher education ?

By Michaela Martin
Structure of this presentation

¡   Global trends in higher education
¡   New forms of mobility
¡   Quality assurance as a global
    movement
¡   International cooperation in QA
¡   Bologna process as model for
    regional cooperation
1.Global trends in higher education
¡   Increasing student numbers
¡   Diversification of higher education
    provision
¡   Privatisation
¡   Growing levels of international
    mobility
    l   Of students
    l   Of programmes
    l   Of institutions
Growth of tertiary students worldwide since
1991
Mobility of students 1975 to 2004




 Source: UNESCO, 2006
Privatization
¡   Public provision does not meet demand
¡   Asia : some countries more than 80 % of
    enrolments in private sector
¡   Africa : private provision is expanding
    rapidly
¡   Private higher education market ($300
    billion world wide on current expenditure
    alone (IFC)
¡   Growth of cross-border higher education
New forms of mobility (1)

¡   Programme mobility
    l   Joint study programmes
    l   Franchized programmes
    l   Double degree
    l   Articulation
    l   Validation
New forms of mobility (2)

¡   Institutional
    l   Branch campuses
    l   Independent institutions
    l   Acquisition/mergers
    l   Affiliation/networks
    l   Virtual university
The consequence is :
èmore complex and diversified
 higher education systems
èloss of control of public authorities
 over parts of the HE system
èmore potential for academic fraud
ècredential evaluation more complex
èincreasing need for international
 collaboration in recognition and
 quality assurance
Within this context ….
èSome 70 countries worldwide have
 put in place external quality
 assurance mechanisms
èThey respond to domestic concerns
 needs while trying to establish
 international comparability
èMajor concern also with
 strengthening internal quality
 assurance mechanisms
EQA covers different realities

¡ Quality audit
¡ Quality assessment

¡ Accreditation

èConcepts are loosely used by
  agencies in reality
èAccreditation is becoming the most
  common mechanism of EQA
Justification for accreditation
¡   Maintain required standards
¡   Guarantee qualifications awarded
¡   Mechanism for quality
    enhancement
¡   Readability of higher education
    provision
¡   Portability of credentials (nat/int)
           Convergence of
         accreditation process

¡   Basic process elements
    l Self-study
    l Site visit/peer review

    l Reporting

    èthorough, however time-consuming
      and costly process
Areas for assessment
¡   Integrity and mission
¡   Governance and management
¡   Human resources
¡   Learning resources and infrastructure
¡   Financial management
¡   Student profile and support services
¡   Curricular aspects
¡   Teaching-learning and evaluation
¡   Research, consultancy and extension
¡   Internal Quality assurance system
Explaining convergence

èBasic model for accreditation
 process stems from the US
 experience
èImportance of international and
 regional networks
èInternational co-operation and aid
International collaboration in
quality assurance

¡   As part of its work in recognition,
    UNESCO has established Global
    Forum on QA in 2003
¡   INQAAHE
¡   Regional networks : ENQA, RIACES,
    APQN, CANTATE, AfriQua, etc
    l   Exchange of experience
    l   Codes of good practices for QA process
    l   Capacity development (GIQAC)
Ex : European region
¡   Context : European Integration within the
    European Union
¡   Bologna process : creation of a European
    HE space by 2015
¡   Common qualifications structure
¡   ECTS system
    l   Facilitate student mobility
    l   Based on student workload and LOs
    l   60 credits per year equivalent to 1500 to 1800
        hours
Ex European region
¡   Diploma supplement
    l   Standardized description of nature, level,
        context content and status of a study
        programme
    l   Including information on qualification holder,
        qualification, national higher education system
¡   Quality assurance : one of the pillars of
    cooperation
¡   ENQA : Guidelines for QA
¡   Creation of a register of quality assurance
    agencies
Ex : Africa
¡   Africa is following the Bologna process
¡   WAEMU and CAEMC (CEMAC) adopted directives
    to adopt bachelors-master’s-PhD structure
¡   SADECC region has decided to establish a
    regional qualifications framework
¡   African Union intends the creation of an African
    higher education space through harmonization of
    qualification structure
¡   Strengthening of quality assurance systems
    (AfriQua)
¡   Vision : creation of an African Qualifications
    Framework
Conclusions
¡   Increased levels of student mobility push
    the need for strengthened mechanisms of
    recognition of HE credentials
¡   Cross-border higher education creates
    strong pressure for the development of
    national QA systems
¡   Regional integration processes provide a
    political framework for co-operation on
    QA and recognition
¡   UNESCO plays an important role at the
    global level

				
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