INEE Working Group on Education and Fragility

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					INEE Working Group on Education and Fragility
Why conflict sensitivity?

• An organisation is part of the context it operates in
• We have intended and unintended results, positive 
  & negative 
• Improve development results if we can reduce the
  unintended negative side-effects
• Highly dynamic / fragile / conflict-affected 
  operational contexts require an adapted working 
A Quick ‘Refresher’ – What is Conflict-Sensitivity?

Conflict sensitivity refers to the ability of an 
 organization to:

Step1: Understand the context in which the 
  organization operates;
Step 2: Understand the interaction between the 
  organization's intervention(s) and the context; 
Step 3: Act upon the understanding of this 
  interaction, in order to avoid negative impacts
  and maximize positive impacts.
Conflict-Sensitivity vs. Peacebuilding?
  Conflict sensitivity is attributed to the working in
  Peacebuilding is attributed to the working on
A Quick ‘Refresher’ – What is Conflict-Sensitivity?
           The conflict sensitivity cycle
 10 principles for good engagement in fragile states 
                        and situations
1: Take context as a starting point
2: Do no harm
3: Focus on state building as the central objective
4: Prioritize prevention
5: Recognize the links between political security and
   development objectives
6: Promote non discrimination as a basis for inclusive and
   stable societies
7: Align with local priorities in different ways and in different
8: Agree on practical coordination mechanisms between
   international actors
9: Act fast but stay engaged long enough to give success a
10: Avoid pockets of exclusion
What we did……



•Next steps



  • Identified existing approaches of WG member agencies;
  • Identified commonalities, strengths and opportunities to 
    further increase conflict sensitivity;
  • Shared analysis;

  • Now…..develop guiding questions;
  • Then….develop a ‘checklist’ for field practitioners.
Existing Approaches
Organization   Definition of Conflict              Stages/ Components                                                             Source
               Sensitivity/ Key Aspects
Conflict       Conflict sensitivity refers to      Guiding principles for implementing a conflict-sensitive approach:             Conflict Sensitivity Consortium (2004), 
Sensitivity    the ability of an organization      - Participatory process                                                        Conflict-Sensitive Approaches to
Consortium     to:                                 - Inclusiveness of actors, issues and perceptions                              Development, Humanitarian Assistance and
Resource       - Understand the context in         - Impartiality in relation to actors and issues                                Peacebuilding: Resource Pack, available here
Pack           which the organization              - Transparency
               operates;                           - Respect for people’s ownership of the conflict and their suffering
               - Understand the interaction        - Accountability for one’s own actions
               between your intervention           - Partnership and co-ordination
               and the context; and                - Complementarity and coherence
               - Act upon the understanding        - Timeliness
               of this interaction, in order to 
               avoid negative impacts and 
               maximize positive impacts.
UNDP           Conflict sensitivity refers to      Understanding the context, by conducting a thorough Conflict Analysis à        UNDP BCPR (2009), “Compendium #1 – 
Bureau of      the capacity of a development       Understand the interactions between the development organization and           Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation in 
Conflict       organization:                       the context, linking the results of conflict analysis with programming         Conflict Prevention and Recovery Settings, 
Prevention     - Understand the context in         decisions à                                                                    BCPR”, in Guidelines for Planning, Monitoring
and Recovery   which it operates                   Minimize harm, by conducting planning processes that ensure that as far        and Evaluation in Conflict Prevention and
               - Understand the interactions       as possible a balance is maintained in which all key stakeholders views are    Recovery Settings
               between the organization’s          represented at all stages à
               interventions and the context       Maximizing peacebuilding impact, ensuring that programmes/ projects 
               - Act upon this understanding       contribute to peacebuilding as much as possible, regardless of whether 
               to minimize harm and avoid          efforts are directly focused on contributing to peacebuilding
               negative impacts
               - Act to maximize the positive, 
               peacebuilding impacts of 
               development interventions
Existing Approaches
 World Bank     The World Bank has                  In an attempt to provide conflict sensitive development assistance, the       Ruckstuhl, Sandra (2009), “Renewable 
                identified two fundamental          World Bank adheres to the following eight principles:                         Natural Resources: Practical Lessons for 
                components of conflict-             i) ‘do no harm’ particularly to avoid reinforcing or triggering conflict      Conflict-Sensitive Development”, Conflict,
                sensitive development               causes;                                                                       Crime and Violence Issue Note, Social 
                practice:                           ii) make peace dividends visible to the population;                           Development Department: The World Bank, 
                i) safeguarding against             iii) include short-term issues, especially the restoration of security;       September, available here
                causation and/or escalation         iv) limit the potential for mass mobilization;                                 
                of conflict, and                    v) address the structural causes of conflict;                                 World Bank (2007), Toward a Conflict-
                ii) capitalizing on                 vi) address the perceptual and attitudinal legacy of the conflict;            Sensitive Poverty Reduction Strategy: A
                opportunities for building          vii) ensure that development assistance is consistent and sustained;          Retrospective Analysis, World Bank, Second 
                peace to constructively             viii) consider the regional context.                                          Edition, available here
                manage future conflicts,             
                should they arise.                  The Bank also stresses the need to apply a ‘conflict lens’ throughout the 
                                                    project cycle and ensure programs are flexible to change and adaptation.
 Swiss Agency   Conflict Sensitive Programme        Conflict sensitivity, along with an awareness of the wider context, should     SDC, A Quick Guide: Conflict Sensitive
 for            Management (CSPM) is a              permeate all stages of the project cycle.                                     Programme Management, available here 
 Development    management approach that            Creating and managing a constructive interchange is the challenge of           
 and            addresses values, procedures,       conflict sensitive management. The SDC approach offers a tool box of          SDC (2006), Conflict-sensitive Programme
 Cooperation    tools and communications for        frameworks and techniques that could be used at each stage of a conflict      Management CSPM: Integrating conflict
 (SDC)          steering development and            sensitive programme management cycle.                                         sensitivity and prevention of violence into
                humanitarian programmes                                                                                           SDC programmes, available here  
                and their projects in a context                                                                                    
                of political tensions, prior,                                                                                     Helvetas (2010), Feedback from Conflict
                during or after violent conflict.                                                                                 Sensitive Programme Management
                                                                                                                                  workshop in Tajikistan: Livelihood platform, 
                                                                                                                                  available here
Existing Approaches
 DFID    In order to be conflict             DFID’s conflict sensitive approach includes the following key stages:          Department for International Development 
         sensitive, DFID, and the            Conducting a Country Governance Assessment (Conflict Analysis) à               UK (2006), Preventing Violent Conflict, DFID 
         partners with whom they             Tailoring implementation/ service delivery accordingly à conducting a          Policy Paper, available here
         work, emphasis the need to          ‘conflict audit’, using baselines from conflict analysis to monitor changes 
         appreciate the interaction          à continually adapting and redefining program implementation 
         between development                 according to changing circumstances
         activities and the potential for 
         violent conflict, and design 
         and adapt approaches and 
         programmes accordingly. 
         DFID also recognize that 
         conflict-sensitivity applies to 
         all contexts, not solely in 
         countries currently affected 
         by violent conflict. 
 USAID   “In essence, conflict-sensitive     In a USAID mission the ideal sequence in which to take steps in applying       Management Systems International (MSI) 
         programming involves explicit       a conflict and peacebuilding perspective would be:                             and USAID (2004), Analysis to Action: A
         consideration of the role of        i) The analysis of the causes of conflict and the causes of peace;             Guidebook for Conflict-Sensitive USAID
         development, humanitarian           ii) The development of a conflict-sensitive Country Strategic Plan (CSP)       Programming in Africa, DRAFT, available here
         assistance, and peacebuilding       and conflict-sensitive programs;
         programs and projects in            iii) Implementation of programs and activities; and
         contributing to conflict and        iv) Ongoing monitoring for peace and conflict impacts, and evaluation 
         promoting peace. Conflict-          including peace and conflict impacts, which would immediately feed 
         sensitive programming               back into the next programming cycle. 
         applies to all phases of peace 
         and conflict, from stable 
         peace, to unstable peace or 
         latent or pre-conflict, to 
         manifest or violent conflict, to 
Existing Approaches
 GTZ/ BMZ     The Germany government,              Key steps:                                                                 GTZ (2009), Sustainable Economic
              including GTZ and BMZ, has           1. Start the (re)planning process with a peace and conflict assessment     Development in Conflict-Affected
              adopted a whole-of-                  (PCA).                                                                     Environments, German Federal Ministry for 
              government approach to               2. Define conflict-related objectives and strategies for the SED           Economic Cooperation and Development, 
              conflict sensitivity, essentially    intervention                                                               available here 
              comprised of an early                3. Select the appropriate SED approaches and management practices           
              warning system and an                4. Make the M and E system conflict-sensitive                               
              appreciation of the nature of         
              an intervention vis-à-vis            Note: The particular framework cited here adopts the general conflict-
              conflict dynamics.                   sensitive framework of the government, specifically geared towards 
              The sector strategy aims at          mainstreaming conflict sensitivity into Sustainable Economic 
              mainstreaming crisis                 Development (SED).
              prevention and conflict 
              transformation as a cross-
              sectoral issue with the intent 
              to anchor conflict sensitivity 
              in German development 
 Kenya        Key Aspects:                         The approach emphasis the need to afford a consideration of conflict        Kenya Conflict Sensitivity Consortium (2011), 
 Conflict     - Understanding the context          sensitivity  at the centre of programmatic interventions. The approach      Conflict Sensitivity Practitioners’ Training
 Sensitive    and the conflict                     notes that conflict sensitive lenses should applied to the analysis of the  Manual, available here
 Consortium   - Understanding the                  context, and in turn inform the development and implementation of the 
              interaction between the              project cycle. 
              intervention and that context         
              - Acting upon that                    
              understanding of the                  
              contextual realities                  



   • Summary of current approaches;

   • Inputs consolidated and draft analysis prepared;

   • Shared with Sub-Group and Working Group;

   • Next steps ….
Step 1: Understand your context…… 

   Context Analysis, examining:
      • Conflict context factors
      • Actors involved

   In addition, consider:
   • Children/ School level
   • Community level
   • National level
   • Education system

   • Need to ensure context analysis is linked to program
     implementation and reflected in planning process.
Step 2: Understand interactions between context 
and interventions
   • ‘How to’ guidelines/ checklists;
   • Training field staff and/or working with implementing 
   • “Do No Harm” principles

   • Need to maximize positive, transformational impact
     of education!
   • i.e. IRC’s ‘Healing Classrooms’
Step 2: Understand interactions between 
context and interventions
 • Indicators focus on: 
     • Child protection and rights;
     • Equitable access;
     • Safe learning environments;
     • Resilience;
     • Policies vis-à-vis conflict;
     • “Do No Harm”

 • Need to consider interaction between
   organization, intervention, and conflict.
Step 3: Develop options to maximize positive 
impact and minimize negative impact

    • Flexibility;
    • Revising analysis.

    • Again, need to ensure context analysis is linked to
      program implementation and reflected in planning



•Next steps
   • Guiding Questions
   • Checklist for Field Practitioners
 The groups will be focusing at different levels: 

 All groups are developing guiding questions.

 The guiding questions developed by those at the programme level 
 will be based mainly on the three steps and will be further 
 developed into a practical checklist. 

 The guiding questions developed by those at the strategic level will 
 be based mainly on the 10 principles for good engagement in fragile 
 states and situations as a basis to develop the guiding questions.

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