organic farming by davidarafat1

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									                           ORGANIC FARMING




Organic and Natural Farming free seminars to Consumers

"The Time for Action forum was a great introduction to the development and
current state of organic produce in the Philippines. Most of the speakers
highlighted the current regulatory framework on organic food, and their own
personal contributions and experience towards an organic production of food" said
Mr. Leo Hizon, a consumer of organic produce.

The forum offered rich content on the challenges and joys of producing organic
food. The experiences in lobbying with the government for organic production of
food compared to tradition, GMO or pesticide based food production. New hybrids
and technologies that can make organic food production a viable business were
also presented.

"The presentations were inspiring since we can still look for niche markets and
were encouraged to produce our own vegetables and fruits to counter high cost of
logistics and reduce our carbon footprint. The discussions were reinforced by the
farmers themselves selling their produce near the forum area. For a person
interested in organic produce, the market place provided a bountiful resource of
people and produce to peruse." he stressed.

The Food Bowl Night Market offers free seminars on organic and natural farming
technologies, formulations and updates in the industry. It is open every Friday and
Saturday, 4pm to 11pm at the ETON Centris Walk, Edsa corner Quezon Ave.
(MRT Station), Quezon City. For queries, (02) 806-2448 or 0920-969-3242.
Madali lang gumawa ng FFJ (Fermented Fruit Juice) and/or FPJ
(Fermented
> > Plant Juice). Just chop it then mix molassses. After 7 days,
drain the
> >liquid
>>
> > and use like Fertilive para sa plants. Maganda rin i-mix sa
inumin or pagkain
>>
> > ng hayop.
=====================================================================


ORGANIC FARMING

WHAT DOES IT TAKE TO BE AN ORGANIC FARMER?
By: Rogel A. Marsan (Cosmic Farm)

This will discuss some of the personal qualities an aspiring organic
farmer need and some of the conditions, which he should meet if you
want to be successful in Organic Farming. Each of them is important and
the absence of one component may mean failure in your farm venture.
The requirements are not discussed in an order of importance since all of
them are important and worthy of careful consideration.

You have to like Organic Farming to be successful.
An important requirement for success in organic farming is a true liking
for farm life. Starting an organic farm is not based on a fleeting desire.
Perhaps in a few days, a change of mind will occur and quite suddenly
you find yourself giving up on what seemed like a viable decision. This
uncertainty is not an option if you truly want to succeed. After all, the
only thing that can prove the farm is the place for you is your reaction to
actual farm work, farm problems and daily farm living.

You need some special abilities.
Do I know how to run an organic farm? If you have already worked on a
farm and know what your abilities are, you won't need to worry about
this question. If you haven't got any farm experience yet, you better
think of how much you are willing to learn. But don't overestimate the
training and experience required. Organic farming is complicated, even
in the modern business and other occupations are also complicated
anyway. Organic farming can be learned, and the man who has tested his
liking for it needs not to worry about being able to learn the methods and
processes needed for its implementation. With some skill and
intelligence, a lot of interest and patience, anyone can become an
organic farmer.

Economic condition influences your success.
Economic conditions are factors that affect the material goods and
resources that are useful in the organic farming (like having the money
to start and support the business, since organic farming is expensive at
the beginning). In this case, if the beginner has the means of starting and
continuing the farm, he will already be successful because even though
he fails, at least he is still capable of backing up the losses and he surely
will learn a lot from this failure and strive higher in achieving to have an
organic farm.

Money, Financial Matters are essential.
Generally, it takes several thousand of pesos to start even a small
organic farm, and this can be entirely wasted if it is not invested
properly. Beginners usually need more capital than farmers who have
already a well-established organic farm, since getting the business
started takes more capital than to just keep it running.
It would be fine if prospective farmers with the necessary attitude and
training could dispense with capital, but sadly they can't.
The exact amount of capital the beginner farmer will need varies per
situation. His training, knowledge, and special skills have to be taken
into consideration. A person can sometimes start without a peso of his
own, as a farm operator or a farm renter. But it is safer, especially for
beginners to have small amounts of ready cash handy for trial and error,
and to tide them over while learning the basics. Money is important in
any venture and how much your might need in starting an organic farm
would definitely depend on the size and location of your plot of land.

The farm must be of the right size and in a right place.
Not only must soil and climate be favorable, markets should be good and
easy to get to. The farm must be large enough to employ the family, full
time and yield a satisfactory living. A farm of sufficient size has enough
good land to grow the crops to provide the farm family with enough
income. If the farm is too small, no matter how much work you put in,
you will not make satisfactory living. Also, remember that a large farm
isn't worth anything if the soil is so poor that you can't grow much on it.
A small farm of the same type with good soil would be more likely to
give you more income than another farm with bad soil. In other words, it
is the number of productive areas that counts not the total number of
areas on the farm.

Your soil/land must be able to grow crops.
You can't be successful on organic farming unless your farm can
produce good crops with low costs. Be sure to find out what good crops
will yield or grow naturally in a given location. Also, it is good to know
whether crops of fairly good yield were obtained by very expensive
methods, a great amount of work, or with normal use of fertilizer and
crop rotation partnered with good management.
On the other hand, it should be kept in mind that poor farming rather
than poor soil (in which case may have caused low yield or low
production) can be solved or overcome by applying wisely the
knowledge you acquired about organic farming. Most of the farmers
went back to conventional farming because the experiences have failed
them. The inexperienced should be very careful and make sure they can
overcome the obstacles that caused the failure.

Now that I've got the materials for farming, what should I do next?

1. Get Experience
Farm Experience will prepare you for success. Get some farm
experience on the kind of farm/garden you want to rent or own. It isn't
necessary that this testing period be long.
In less than a year's time of actual farm work, the beginner can already
learn and have the skills in doing common farm jobs. By that time, he
can already find out what kind of farmer he would be.

2. Analyze the Market
The Organic Farmer must go to market. The most serious problems that
the farmer will have to face in the years to come are problems of
marketing. No matter how efficient a farmer is in production, he will not
be successful unless he can sell his products in a right price.
The organic farmers must know how to adjust the practices to fit the
market requirement (Modern Market not the wet market).

Requirement of the market. Contract Production, Consistent Supply,
Quality Assurance (Variety-Quality-Volume-Safety, Free from any toxic
residue), Price, Sustainability.

Best Practices to fit the Market improve the yield production (without
increasing the inputs) Produce off session crops, Value added (to make it
more useful to the customer).

When and Where to market.
Two of the most perplexing questions that any organic farmers have to
answer are when and where to market. In determining the answers the
farmer should make use of all the information possible. Many farmers
give little or no thought at all to these questions, yet here the farmer has
the choice and a chance to improve his income by making wise
decisions.
Target Market
Supermarket, Concessionaires, Fast food chains, Food Processing,
Hotels and Inns, Restaurants, Hospitals and Wet market.

The Organic Farmer must know how to buy too.
Not all of the market operations of the farmer are selling operations. It is
almost as necessary that the farmer be an efficient buyer. It is only
through that he can be an effective seller. It is just as important that he
buys right. The same knowledge, alertness, up-to-date information and
accurate evaluation are necessary in farmer's buying operations since
they are necessary in a farmers' buying operation since they are
necessary in selling his product to their advantage. The farmer must be
familiar with market conditions. The farmer must know the supply,
demand, and price situations at the time of selling.

3. Maximize your Network

Who helps the farmer?
The farmer must seek out the agencies that will help. There are many
public and private agencies that serve the farmers through aiding with
capital, supplying technology and information, and providing
advertisement. These agencies do many things for the farmers that they
cannot do for themselves. An example is agricultural research, which
pays large returns for the farmers and to the community. Agricultural
research is not a job for the farmer individually or even for groups of
farmers. It seldom attracts private sectors, partly because of the cost and
because no one can monopolize the benefits of the discovery of
agricultural facts. The organic farmers must update himself with the
changes and trends in the organic movement to ensure his success.
Always keep in mind that Organic Farming has its own peculiar
problems. But also has its own sweet rewards. The success in organic
farming cannot be measure in financial gains alone. Organic Farming
might not make a willing farmer a multimillionaire but it will give him
the satisfaction of knowing that for one day more he provided nutritious
foods to his fellowmen.




                                                                                  12next
Jean Rojas:
HI Rex,                                                   09-Nov-07
What a cool site! Highly informative and very             121.1.53.x
useful.Congratulations!
Rex:

JEAN,
                                                                   09-Nov-07
Thank you so much for helping me create this website. Hope it      121.97.186.x
will benefit friends and those interested in Natural Agriculture
Farming ASystems.
JOEL L. DELA CRUZ:
Thanks for this info, I'm not good in farming and I donnot have even a square
meter of lot but hope in the future I can acquire some and used this knowledge
                                                                                     10-Nov-07
or for awhile I will learn it better and share it to other small farmers. Sharing my
                                                                                     122.2.144.x
knowledge is my weakness.

Mabalos!
Frida:
Awsome, 10-Nov-07
proud of 76.86.23.x
you.
Frida:
                                                          10-Nov-07
Kuya Rex, thanks for sharing we're proud of you.
                                                          76.86.23.x
Take care.
Hernani Lopez:
Hi Rex,
Congratulation to Jean for the nice piece of work, informative and 10-Nov-07
very helpful. Also to you Rex for pouring all your effort to make 124.106.218.x
our industry for strong and profitable by your information. We
will link this to our yahoo groups for the benefit of our members.
Alex Bellen:
Hi Rex, Thanks for your e-mail confirming my doubts re Dr B.P. AND for 22-Dec-07
inviting me to visit this very relevant and informative site. I appreciate your 58.69.1.x
way of sharing. Cheers!
Geri Barrica:
I really needed to do more research after finding out the dosage of HOC was
not included in the bottle. I learned it is 1-2 Tbsp for every gallon. How
                                                                                05-Jan-08
much for 16 liters?
                                                                                203.87.182.x
Its so good I got to visit your web give me a lot of inputs.
Regards,
Geri
Rex:
Gerry,
                                                                               05-Jan-08
Thank you for visiting my website. Hope it has given you the information
                                                                               121.97.186.x
you needed.

Rex
Lian Entienza:
Hi Rex:

Thank you so much for the articles you wrote. I wanted to grow langkawas 21-Jan-09
and dayap in our place -Calauag, Quezon. Just need to know if organic           121.1.18.x
farming is applicable for this agricultural products. Appreciate if articles on
dayap and langkawas are also posted in your website.
Best regards,
Lian
Minn Swe Thant:
Hi Rex,
You have a very comprehensive article written. I am rather interested in
organic farming as well as environmental issues. At present, I am looking
                                                                               04-May-09
for information on liquid fish fertilizer. I think it may become very useful
                                                                               203.81.72.x
after sufficient research. How is your opinion.

Yours sincerely
Minn Swe Thant
Frederick Malate:
Rex,

Thanks for this very informative site. We are promoting the natural farming
systems technology here in Leyte through our organization. We are still at 27-Jul-09
the information dessimination stage. This site has given me another data on 125.212.115.x
the technology. Thank you very much and God bless.

Erick
Leyte, Philippines
Daniel :
                                      09-Aug-09
Thank You' for gudelines and
                                      58.69.195.x
procedure
Gej:
Hi. Great to find your blog.
                                                                               09-Jan-10
                                                                               119.92.26.x
I have an organic farm too caled the Kitchen Herbs Farm. Would be great to
meet you, visit your farm, share ideas.
Gee Tan:
Hello Rex,
Thank You for taking time to create this site and write these articles. For
unselfishly sharing your insights & ideas. You truly are heaven sent. God 26-Feb-10
                                                                            222.127.223.x
bless you.

Gee - Batangas
Anneth S. Rigon:
Hi, I am based in Vietnam but read about your organic mango production
                                                                           03-Apr-10
guide. We have a 36-hectare mango plantation in Bulacan and will get in
                                                                           115.73.152.x
touch with you during our summer holiday in August. Your work is much
appreciated. Thank you
Dayrit, Teresita:                                                 11-May-10
Hi Rex, wanna know how much does it cost. is it per liter?        203.87.178.x
Toto Algarme:                                           15-May-10
Hi Rex,                                                 210.4.10.x
Can I get a copy of this book? How much would it cost?
Liezel Manla:
                                                                    19-Aug-10
hai rex, I just want to know if your product will be applicable to  192.168.2.x
snap beans..
Liezel Manla:
                                                            19-Aug-10
Im doing a research about organic foliar fertilizer applied
                                                            192.168.2.x
to snap beans..
                                                                                       12next
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ORGANIC FARMING
INTRODUCTION

          We can grow healthful food without depending too much on toxic chemicals
and chemical fertilizers with NATURAL ORGANIC AND BIOLOGICAL FARMING
systems. The knowledge and simple but practical technology in this manuscript can
save your crops and help you earn more from your garden and farm. Let’s return to the
“Natural” ways. The growing market demand is for safe organically grown fruits and
vegetables.

It is not the intention of this paper to entirely eliminate the use of beneficial agricultural
chemicals and fertilizers that help to suppress and control destructive pest and diseases
and provide food nutrients to the plants. We also encourage the adoption of the latest
improved technology and farming systems that are environmentally and ecologically
friendly. We encourage farmers to adopt practical Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

This paper will attempt to help and teach interested farmers adopt natural and practical
farming systems that will reduce the use of costly and toxic agricultural chemicals and
replace them with organic preparations the farmers themselves can produce and use.
This can result to producing healthful organic food at lower cost with higher productivity
as the soil and environment improves. This may be debatable, but possible and
attainable.

There is a worldwide shift for safe, chemical free food and a demand for organically
grown food crops. The alarming increase in the use of toxic chemicals to control pests
and diseases on both farm animals and plants has endangered the environment and
reduce bio diversity as well as the health of consumers. We become too dependent like
addicted people as the soil becomes poorer and insect pest become resistant to
chemicals used.

The world that we have created is dominated by a disregard for Nature and a greed that
destroys for profit the environment, the ecosystem and the capacity of the land to
produce without artificial human interventions.

Useful insects and predators of pests are killed together with the insect pests with the
wide and intensive use of toxic agricultural chemicals. The surviving pest finds no
natural enemies, thus they increase rapidly resulting in more destructive infestation with
more resistant pest to chemical control. We have to recognize the natural laws,
governing and balance of nature, its biodiversity and life itself.

These simplified guides can help farmers reduce their production cost and become self
reliant with renewable crop protection products they can grow and formulate in their own
farms, together with their commercial crops and livestock. They can also make their
own fertilizers and soil amendments that will turn their land into productive farms. This
can make farmers self reliant and self sustaining

Through Natural Farming, we can feed the increasing population of the world with
healthful food free from toxic chemical residue.

                                  NATURAL FARMING

To understand natural farming we need to know the cycle of life and matter. Natural
farming as we envision is learning nature’s laws, and using them with care. Take note:
Natural Laws are the laws of God who created Nature.

Natural farming is a culture where plants are grown in 100% natural environment with
the least human interference and no harmful chemicals or synthetic products used. It is
practically leaving the crops grow and produce in their natural environment, and man
comes enhances the natural conditions to improve productivity. Then, harvest or gather
its products for man’s use. However, in the context of our discussion, we will be
introducing farming systems that will employ and apply more and more organic and
biological farm practices.

Dr. Saturnina Halos, an agricultural scientist says: “Strictly speaking, farming interferes
with nature. There are a lot of human interventions in farming.” This is very true, and if
we are not careful enough, we may totally lost natures’ resources and capacity to
produce the food that our growing population needs. We seek to learn natural organic
and biological farming to safeguard the environment and sustain its productive
capability.

While there is a growing demand for organically grown fruits and vegetables, it is
difficult and almost impossible not to use chemical products to increase the production
per unit area in a shorter period of time to meet the growing food demand of the
increasing population. Besides plant roots and leaves can only absorb nutrients in their
chemical form. Organic materials have first to be broken down into its basic chemical
component to be utilized by plants. Synthetic chemical products being used in
Agriculture were processed and synthesized from organic and/or mineral materials.

 Before life was created, matter first existed. In the beginning we have water, rocks,
gases, light, solar energy, the earth and atmosphere. There was yet no life. (Read the
Holy Scriptures ‘The Holy Bible’ Genesis on Creation). When the environment became
ready, life began to appear in many forms from single cell to the complex form of plants
and animals. We learn that evolution is God’s continuing process of creation.

Matter on the other hand is never lost, it just change in form and substance from solid to
liquid and gas and back to solid. From its mineral chemical form to organic compound
and back to mineral and chemical. (Remember man that thou art dust and unto dust
thou shall return.). Roots absorb nutrient in simple chemical form decomposed organic
compounds have to be converted to chemical form and are absorbed by plants.

Evolution as science discovers, life started in the waters in single cell microorganisms in
animal and plant form. In ages and millennium the seed of life developed into higher
forms as we see them today. Together with life or biological progression, weathering of
the environment prepared the development of ecological diversity. So even at our time,
we witness the continuing process of creation and evolution of new varieties and forms
of life.

Man with his God given intellect is an instrument in the development through the
science of breeding and lately genetic engineering and cloning. Man’s technological
advances are still following natural laws, which without that, it will be impossible.

If we observe the growth and vegetation of natural forests, we will notice the healthy
growth of trees, shrubs, grass and other forest vegetation. The soil is fertile, rich in
organic humus and there is very limited pest and disease damage. Animal life, also
abound from microorganisms like bacteria, fungus to worms, reptiles, birds and
mammals.

The plants and animals have grown in their natural environment without interference of
man. They may not be as productive as we wish them to be, but we can learn from their
growth, survival and production in their natural habitat. Ecological and biological
diversity can be observed existing and living in harmony.
The soil is kept fertile with the leaves, branches and other plant parts that
   mature and drop to the soil surface are decomposed with the aid of bacteria, fungi and
   other minute organisms that eat and digest them up with moisture (water). This results
   to the buildup of humus and organic fertilizer, which break down into simple chemical
   form rich in readily available plant nutrients for roots to absorb.

Beneficial microorganisms abound in the fertile organic rich soil that help both in
   the decomposition of organic materials and suppress or control the spread and
   multiplication of pests and diseases. Probiotics or beneficial microorganisms help
   suppress and control the growth of disease causing microbes (bacteria, fungus and
   virus) and even soil born pests like nematodes and insects.

Insect pests are kept down as both destructive and friendly insects are
   balancing their population in their natural habitat. This control the buildup of insect
   infestation is a continued process when left to their natural estate. Example of these
   are: the use of Trichogramma ostriniae against corn corer and Braconidae or Braconid
   Wasps which parasitize other arthropods. Braconid wasps can be endo- or ecto-
   parasite, solitary or living in groups as primary or secondary parasites. Different species
   may attack every stage of an insect development; there are braconids that are egg
   parasites, larval parasites, and parasites of pupae and adult insects. Many parasites are
   valuable as biological control of pests.

Big and tall trees protect the soil and other living organisms beneath from too
   much heat and inclement weather conditions. Soil erosion and depletion is minimized or
   totally prevented. Trees serve as umbrella in forest and natural habitat. Tree planting in
   certain sections of the farm is advisable and encouraged. Keep and grow spots of mini
   forest in your farm to preserve and protect the environment and eco system for the
   habitation of bio diversity.

The environment is preserved as bio-diversity is protected in natural forest
   vegetation where man has not set its foot on. All of creation and living things have a
   purpose and role. Herbal and medicinal plants have been destroyed and eliminated with
   the past century of clearing and cultivating lands for agriculture and crop production.

Zero tillage is propagating plants without the artificial means of cultivation.
   Plants and seeds are spread by growth of rhizomes, vines, carried by wind, water and
   birds. Modern natural farming systems can learn much from nature’s way of propagating
   and preserving its species even without the usual land clearing and land preparation
   involving digging, plowing and harrowing.

Following is a farming practice by ancient farmers up to the 50s where the land
   is made to rest for a year or two to allow nature to rejuvenate it and enrich the soil
   fertility and productive capacity. Resting the soil for one year after six years of crop
   production. Today, this is less practiced due to the limited farming areas. Farmlands are
   chopped down by CARP into small lots 3 hectares and smaller. Farmers need to make
them produce continually without resting, so artificial methods are done to keep it
producing using chemical and organic fertilizers.

To adopt natural farming system, we have to understand how the ecosystem responds
to man’s interventions. The moment we clear the land, remove the protective trees and
cultivate the soil, we have destroyed the natural environment and the existing eco-
system and bio-diversity. The lesser we destroy or remove the natural environment; the
closer we get into natural farming.
However, we can gradually return to natural ways by learning the natural laws
governing plant and animal propagation, growth and production.

{ParagraphsSidebar}

©2006




ORGANIC FARMING
BACK TO THE BASICS
                                 INTRODUCTION TO:

                                NATURAL FARMING

                                        With

                              ORGANIC & BIOLOGICAL

                                   TECHNOLOGY


                              (AN ATTEMPT TO GO BACK

                                 TO MOTHER NATURE)
Cover and Table of Contents     1

Introduction    2

Natural Farming      2

Some practices in Natural Farming            4

Zero cultivation    4

Practice Clean Culture      4

IPM (Integrated Pest Management)             4

Insect traps, lure and attractant       5

Use of Biological Pest and Disease control 6

Use of organic fertilizer   6

Use of Organic Pest and Disease control              6

Use of indigenous resistant plant varieties and strain 6

Practice crop rotation and following         6

Growing and intercropping of pest repellant herbal plants      6

Integrated cropping pattern to present growth of toxic weeds       6

Growing the right crop on the right soil, climate and at the right time   6

Common insect pest and their control             7

Use of organic pest and disease control materials 8

Preparing your own pesticide        9

Know about your herbal plants           10

Organic farming     12

How to prepare your own organic pesticide and fungicide       12

Herbal Tea Preparation for Plant Protection 13
Herbal Organic Concentrate 13

Preparing Foliar Organic Fertilizer 14

Botanical Pest Control     14

Fungicidal Herbs     15

Preparation & use organic pesticides 17

HOC Herbal Organic Concentrate 22

Schedule of HOC Spraying 23

Use of indigenous resistant or tolerant plant varieties and strain   23

Practice crop rotation and following 23

Intercropping of pest repellant herbs 24

Integrated cropping pattern to control undesirable weeds      24

Biological farming    24

Biological pest control 24

How biocontrol works       25

Trichogramma control method 25

Controlling corn borer 26

Braconid     26

BIO-IPM      26

Micro biological farming        27

KOREAN TECHNOLOGY on Organic Farming 27

How to prepare FAA 29

How to make your own sugar           30

How to make Virgin coconut oil 30

Taking care of your soil the natural ways 30

Use of organic compost fertilizer and bio micro inoculant     31
Compost      31

Biological treatment technologies 31

How to prepare your own lacto basilli 32

How to make compost 32

Vermicomposting        33

Maggot composting         34

Sludge fertilizer   34

Composting crop residue in the field 35

Green manuring      35

Cover cropping      35

Indigenous potting materials          35

Soil conditioners    36

Microorganisms enhances crop productivity 36

Mulching     37

Issues and facts on organic fertilizers 38

Farmers experience, observations and practices worth sharing & emulation ```   38

Organic mango       39

Botanical pesticide for mango         39

Post harvest treatment 39

Steps on Hot Water Treatment           40

Organic farmers     40

Organic Banana growing           41

Organic fish culture        41

Herbal plants (Medicinal) 42

Acknowledgement          43
                                             INTRODUCTION



    We can grow healthful food without depending too much on toxic chemicals and chemical
fertilizers with NATURAL ORGANIC AND BIOLOGICAL FARMING systems. The knowledge and
simple but practical technology in this manuscript can save your crops and help you earn more
from your garden and farm. Let’s return to the “Natural” ways. The growing market demand is for
safe organically grown fruits and vegetables.

    It is not the intention of this paper to entirely eliminate the use of beneficial agricultural chemicals and
fertilizers that help to suppress and control destructive pest and diseases and provide food nutrients to
the plants. We also encourage the adoption of the latest improved technology and farming systems that
are environmentally and ecologically friendly. We encourage farmers to adopt practical Integrated Pest
Management (IPM)

   This paper will attempt to help and teach interested farmers adopt natural and practical farming
systems that will reduce the use of costly and toxic agricultural chemicals and replace them with organic
preparations the farmers themselves can produce and use. This can result to producing healthful organic
food at lower cost with higher productivity as the soil and environment improves. This may be debatable,
but possible and attainable.

   There is a worldwide shift for safe, chemical free food and a demand for organically grown food crops.
The alarming increase in the use of toxic chemicals to control pests and diseases on both farm animals
and plants has endangered the environment and reduce bio diversity as well as the health of consumers.
We become too dependent like addicted people as the soil becomes poorer and insect pest become
resistant to chemicals used.

    The world that we have created is dominated by a disregard for Nature and a greed that destroys for
profit the environment, the ecosystem and the capacity of the land to produce without artificial human
interventions.

    Useful insects and predators of pests are killed together with the insect pests with the wide and
intensive use of toxic agricultural chemicals. The surviving pest finds no natural enemies, thus they
increase rapidly resulting in more destructive infestation with more resistant pest to chemical control. We
have to recognize the natural laws, governing and balance of nature, its biodiversity and life itself.

    These simplified guides can help farmers reduce their production cost and become self reliant with
renewable crop protection products they can grow and formulate in their own farms, together with their
commercial crops and livestock. They can also make their own fertilizers and soil amendments that will
turn their land into productive farms. This can make farmers self reliant and self sustaining

   Through Natural Farming, we can feed the increasing population of the world with healthful food free
from toxic chemical residue.

                                          NATURAL FARMING

    To understand natural farming we need to know the cycle of life and matter. Natural farming as we
envision is learning nature’s laws, and using them with care. Take note: Natural Laws are the laws of
God who created Nature.
    Natural farming is a culture where plants are grown in 100% natural environment with the least human
interference and no harmful chemicals or synthetic products used. It is practically leaving the crops grow
and produce in their natural environment, and man comes enhances the natural conditions to improve
productivity. Then, harvest or gather its products for man’s use. However, in the context of our discussion,
we will be introducing farming systems that will employ and apply more and more organic and biological
farm practices.

   Dr. Saturnina Halos, an agricultural scientist says: “Strictly speaking, farming interferes with nature.
There are a lot of human interventions in farming.” This is very true, and if we are not careful enough, we
may totally lost natures’ resources and capacity to produce the food that our growing population needs.
We seek to learn natural organic and biological farming to safeguard the environment and sustain its
productive capability.

   While there is a growing demand for organically grown fruits and vegetables, it is difficult and almost
impossible not to use chemical products to increase the production per unit area in a shorter period of
time to meet the growing food demand of the increasing population. Besides plant roots and leaves can
only absorb nutrients in their chemical form. Organic materials have first to be broken down into its basic
chemical component to be utilized by plants. Synthetic chemical products being used in Agriculture were
processed and synthesized from organic and/or mineral materials.

     Before life was created, matter first existed. In the beginning we have water, rocks, gases, light, solar
energy, the earth and atmosphere. There was yet no life. (Read the Holy Scriptures ‘The Holy Bible’
Genesis on Creation). When the environment became ready, life began to appear in many forms from
single cell to the complex form of plants and animals. We learn that evolution is God’s continuing process
of creation.

   Matter on the other hand is never lost, it just change in form and substance from solid to liquid and
gas and back to solid. From its mineral chemical form to organic compound and back to mineral and
chemical. (Remember man that thou art dust and unto dust thou shall return.). Roots absorb nutrient in
simple chemical form decomposed organic compounds have to be converted to chemical form and are
absorbed by plants.

   Evolution as science discovers, life started in the waters in single cell microorganisms in animal and
plant form. In ages and millennium the seed of life developed into higher forms as we see them today.
Together with life or biological progression, weathering of the environment prepared the development of
ecological diversity. So even at our time, we witness the continuing process of creation and evolution of
new varieties and forms of life.

   Man with his God given intellect is an instrument in the development through the science of breeding
and lately genetic engineering and cloning. Man’s technological advances are still following natural laws,
which without that, it will be impossible.

    If we observe the growth and vegetation of natural forests, we will notice the healthy growth of trees,
shrubs, grass and other forest vegetation. The soil is fertile, rich in organic humus and there is very
limited pest and disease damage. Animal life, also abound from microorganisms like bacteria, fungus to
worms, reptiles, birds and mammals.

    The plants and animals have grown in their natural environment without interference of man. They
may not be as productive as we wish them to be, but we can learn from their growth, survival and
production in their natural habitat. Ecological and biological diversity can be observed existing and living
in harmony.

            o    The soil is kept fertile with the leaves, branches and other plant parts that mature and
                 drop to the soil surface are decomposed with the aid of bacteria, fungi and other minute
    organisms that eat and digest them up with moisture (water). This results to the buildup
    of humus and organic fertilizer, which break down into simple chemical form rich in
    readily available plant nutrients for roots to absorb.




o   Beneficial microorganisms abound in the fertile organic rich soil that help both in the
    decomposition of organic materials and suppress or control the spread and multiplication
    of pests and diseases. Probiotics or beneficial microorganisms help suppress and control
    the growth of disease causing microbes (bacteria, fungus and virus) and even soil born
    pests like nematodes and insects.




o   Insect pests are kept down as both destructive and friendly insects are balancing their
    population in their natural habitat. This control the buildup of insect infestation is a
    continued process when left to their natural estate. Example of these are: the use of
    Trichogramma ostriniae against corn corer and Braconidae or Braconid Wasps which
    parasitize other arthropods. Braconid wasps can be endo- or ecto-parasite, solitary or
    living in groups as primary or secondary parasites. Different species may attack every
    stage of an insect development; there are braconids that are egg parasites, larval
    parasites, and parasites of pupae and adult insects. Many parasites are valuable as
    biological control of pests.




o   Big and tall trees protect the soil and other living organisms beneath from too much heat
    and inclement weather conditions. Soil erosion and depletion is minimized or totally
    prevented. Trees serve as umbrella in forest and natural habitat. Tree planting in certain
    sections of the farm is advisable and encouraged. Keep and grow spots of mini forest in
    your farm to preserve and protect the environment and eco system for the habitation of
    bio diversity.




o   The environment is preserved as bio-diversity is protected in natural forest vegetation
    where man has not set its foot on. All of creation and living things have a purpose and
    role. Herbal and medicinal plants have been destroyed and eliminated with the past
    century of clearing and cultivating lands for agriculture and crop production.




o   Zero tillage is propagating plants without the artificial means of cultivation. Plants and
    seeds are spread by growth of rhizomes, vines, carried by wind, water and birds. Modern
    natural farming systems can learn much from nature’s way of propagating and preserving
    its species even without the usual land clearing and land preparation involving digging,
    plowing and harrowing.




o   Following is a farming practice by ancient farmers up to the 50s where the land is made
    to rest for a year or two to allow nature to rejuvenate it and enrich the soil fertility and
    productive capacity. Resting the soil for one year after six years of crop production.
                Today, this is less practiced due to the limited farming areas. Farmlands are chopped
                down by CARP into small lots 3 hectares and smaller. Farmers need to make them
                produce continually without resting, so artificial methods are done to keep it producing
                using chemical and organic fertilizers.




    To adopt natural farming system, we have to understand how the ecosystem responds to man’s
interventions. The moment we clear the land, remove the protective trees and cultivate the soil, we have
destroyed the natural environment and the existing eco-system and bio-diversity. The lesser we destroy
or remove the natural environment; the closer we get into natural farming.

   However, we can gradually return to natural ways by learning the natural laws governing plant and
animal propagation, growth and production.

Some practices now being done and promoted as natural farming practices:

    1. Zero cultivation and following, allowing the soil to rest and rejuvenate.
    2. Integrated Pest Management (IPM).
    3. Insect traps, lure and attractants.
    4. Use of Biological pest control (natural enemies of pest)
    5. Use of Organic Compost fertilizer and bio micro inoculant.
    6. Use of Organic Pest and Disease control materials.
    7. Use of indigenous resistant plant varieties and strain.
    8. Practice crop rotation and following (resting the soil for some time).
    9. Growing and inter-cropping of pest repellant and herbal plants.
    10. Integrated cropping pattern to prevent growth of toxic weeds.
    11. Growing the right crop on the right soil, climate and at the right time.



          While the above practices are good and desirable, they have to be done in combination with
        modern agricultural technology to increase productivity per unit area at shorter possible time. This
        is because the farming and food production areas do not increase, while population continues to
        increase. Feeding the growing world population needs the ingenuity of man, his talent and ability
        to invent and innovate as his Creator endowed in him


    1. Zero cultivation, following and allowing the soil to rest and rejuvenate.



        Zero cultivation has been a long and original practice of man in its first attempt to grow crops.
        Even today, kaingineros, those who clear the forest or trees to grow seasonal crops do not
        cultivate the soil, since it is soft, friable and very fertile.

        They just make small holes with pointed stick and drop seeds of rice, corn, vegetable or any crop
        they wish to grow. After one or two seasons, the soil hardens and hard to work on because of
        exposure to sunlight, necessitating soil cultivation, as the humus and organic content of the soil
        lessens. Then the farmer starts depending on commercial chemical fertilizers to replace nutrient
        loss. Unless organic compost materials are augmented to the soil, it will continue deteriorating.
   To remedy the situation, following, or resting the field for one year, allowing all vegetation
   including weeds to grow, to bring back the natural fertility and bioorganic life into the soil. The use
   of organic fertilizer in combination to commercial chemical fertilizer will help preserve and sustain
   the productivity of the land. This has been the practice of ancient farming in Egypt, Babylon and
   Israel.

   Tilling on the other hand promotes healthy soil in cultivated agricultural lands. It exposes the pest
   and soil born diseases, increases soil aeration and oxygen supply to microorganisms and
   promotes root growth and penetrates better as the soil is loose. This is done after destroying the
   natural soil environment through tillage.

   In orchard farms (fruit tree plantations) where permanent trees are growing, zero tillage can be
   done, by growing low creeping leguminous cover crops like Arakis pintoy or Australian peanut
   weed (mani-mani) around and in between tree rows.


2. Practice clean culture.



   Keeping the field clean will help in preventing the growth and multiplication of pest and diseases.
   All plant waste and droppings should be gathered in one place to be composted and converted
   into organic fertilizer. Before using the composted organic materials for fertilizer, sanitize them
   first by exposing them to direct sunlight and dried to eliminate any diseases and eggs of insect
   pests. Defoliate over mature and diseased and infested leaves. Allow sunlight and aeration to
   penetrate between plants and within the foliage of trees. It will promote the growth of normal and
   healthy branches and eliminate abnormalities.

   Cultivation and weed control will also help not only in soil aeration and softening of soil mass but
   will also reduce or disturb the breeding place of insect pests and fungal diseases.

   To bring back the natural organic matter, these materials have to be incorporated with the soil as
   organic fertilizer and manure.




3. Integrated Pest Management (IPM).



   Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a pest control program using combination of all practices to
   reduce or eliminate pest damage. This includes natural, biological and mechanical practices as
   well as bio and chemical pesticide application.

   Among these practices include the following:

       a. Planting resistant or tolerant plant varieties. Growing indigenous crop varieties with
            reasonably high productivity should be encouraged. New breeds and genetically modified
            plants are being developed like Bt Corn which are resistant to corn borer infestation. New
            pest and disease resistant with high nutrient food value varieties are being bred and
            produced through genetic engineering (GM) and natural cross breeding.
       b.   Timing planting so as the growing and fruiting stages does not coincide with inclement
            weather conditions and high incidence of pest population.
    c. Growing boarder or inter-crops that are repellant to insect pests.
    d. Practice clean culture, proper pruning and removal of diseases or infested plant parts
         especially with fruit trees. Remove all breeding places of insect pests and infected debris
         rotting near plants and field.
    e.   Use organic fertilizer in combination with chemical fertilizer and supplement the field with
         compost and pro-biotic (bacteria, yeast & fungus). Sanitize compost and organic
         materials by exposing them to direct sunlight before applying it as fertilizer.
    f.   Learn to prepare and use bioorganic pesticides and fungicides as substitute for toxic
         chemicals.




IPM may also include the following:

    a. Keep the garden small and the plants varied to prevent insect pests infestation. Solo or
         mono cropping tends to encourage the multiplication and outbreak of insect pest that
         feed on the particular plant grown. Multiple cropping or maintaining a green belt in the
         farm where vegetation is allowed to grow naturally will be a shelter and home to
         beneficial organisms, plants and animals including variety of insects that will check and
         control any outbreak of pests. This will be a natural check and balance.




    b. A basic principle in pest management: Plant the right crop on the right soil at the right
         time. Plant crops at a time when its particular pest is inactive.




    c. Plant indigenous cultivars or plant varieties native to the place. They are resistant to the
         pests and adapt very well to the local environment. The introduction of hi-breeds and high
         yielding commercial seeds have the tendency of eliminating indigenous varieties that are
         adopted to the environment as they have survive decades and century of adjustments.




    d. Healthy organic soil, grow healthy plants that resist pests and diseases. In soils applied
         with organic matter or humus, animal manure and compost, the soil host a wide variety of
         micro organisms that are harmful to nematodes and cause diseases to some insect pests
         thereby allowing the increase in population of beneficial organisms and insects.




    e. Crop rotation dissociates microorganism buildup around the plant roots as each crop has
         a characteristic microbial association. (Example is pro biotic and nitrogen fixing bacteria
         for legumes). New microbes are being developed to inoculate the seeds just before
         planting to introduce them into the soil and help in nitrogen fixation that enriches the soil.




    f. Aromatic herbs like mint, garlic, marigold, oregano, onion, control nematodes and repel
         insects, and should thus be grown as companion crop to your garden or farm.
       g. Tilling promotes healthy soil as it allows aeration bringing supply of oxygen promoting
           root growth and permit better root penetration breaking soil compaction. It exposes pest
           and soil born diseases to sunlight and disturbs their growth and multiplication. Sunlight is
           a very good and free sanitizer.




       h. Crop combination such as legumes and potatoes, control nematodes. Learn and find out
           the best crop partners and combinations. Planting tomatoes in between rows of eggplant
           will reduce fruit fly infestation on eggplant fruits. Growing marigold at the border of
           vegetable plots will also help repel some insect pests.




4. Insect traps, lure and attractants.



   There are many practical and inexpensive ways of controling and managing the population of
   insects pests in your garden and fields. Here are some of them that you may adopt:

       a. Light Traps - This practice have been found effective in unlighted areas. Light is
           provided with a basin of water. As the nocturnal insects are attracted to the light, they fly
           and dip into the water, or their wings are singed by the flame of the fire light.




       b. Lure with attractants – The lures derived from molasses and flower scent (odor),
           tantalize both male and female moths (the caterpillar adult stage) with the promise of
           nectar. The insects fly into the opening of a lure-dispensing trap, never to return.




       c. Chemical sex attractant – The use of PHEROMONE a chemical with female insect odor
           that confuses the male and attracts them to a bait treated with toxic insecticide or they fail
           to mate with the female insects.




       d. Blue electric lamp surrounded with electrically charged mess wire that electrocutes
           insects upon contact.




       e. Yellow pads – Most insect pests are attracted to bright yellow color. Yellow pad with
           grease or paste, attract insects during the day and sticks to the pad as they come in
           contact. The pad may also be treated with molasses and pesticide to give added
           attractant and killing potential.
5. Use of Biological Pest and Disease Control.



   The use of living plant and animals or living organisms to control pest and diseases are called
   Biological Control. They may be microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, virus or bigger life forms
   like insects, worms, reptiles, mammal and birds. You can learn to increase the beneficial insects,
   microorganisms and other animal and plant life in your farms to counter pests and diseases
   harming your crops. Let us protect and increase these beneficial enemies of pests.

6. Use of Organic Fertilizer



   Fertilizers coming from fermented and decomposed organic materials are very nutritious safe
   fertilizer materials. They both enrich the soil plant food nutrients, improves the texture for easier
   root growth and preserve the soil life such as beneficial bacteria and fungi. We have several
   recommended formula in preparing organic fertilizer both liquid and solid form in this handbook.

7. Used of Organic Pest and Disease Control



   Herbal preparations to control pest and diseases can easily be made by farmers themselves
   since we have abundant plants in the Philippines that are suitable ingredient.

   We offer you several formulations and methods of preparing Botanical or Herbal pest and
   diseases concoctions in this handbook to guide you make your own.

8. Use of indigenous resistant plant varieties and strain.



   There are several plant varieties and species that are found resistant or tolerant to certain
   prevalent pest and diseases. It will be wise for farmers to know them and grow these type of
   plants specially during months or season that certain pest and diseases are abundant.

9. Practice crop rotation and following (resting the soil for some time).



   Crop rotation or changing crops grown in certain areas to avoid the buildup of certain pest or
   disease affecting certain crops. Example, rotating onions with pepper or cassava. Resting the soil
   for one to two years to allow natural vegetation and the growth of natural enemies to introduce
   balance of nature, while enriching your soil environment for future crop production.

10. Growing and inter-cropping of pest repellant and herbal plants.
    There are crops that repel certain insect pests. Intercropping tomato with cabbages and
    cauliflower will help reduce the diamondback moth attacking cabbages. Learn what these crop
    combinations. You will not only reduce your cost of pest and disease control but may even
    increase your income per unit area with the crop combination.

11. Integrated cropping pattern to prevent growth of toxic weeds.



    Certain weeds are difficult to remove or control, like grasses. Planting vines and crawling crops
    like sweet potato and cover crops will help suppress weeds. Replacing the weeds with other
    beneficial creeping plants like Arakis pintoy (mani-mani) that covers the spaces between fruit
    trees and help supply nitrogen to the soil.

12. Growing the right crop on the right soil, climate and at the right time.



    There are suitable crops that are ideal for certain season of the year and suitable soils for their
    healthy and productive growth. Learn the nature of the plants and their preferences before
    deciding what to grow in your farm. The Philippines is a located in the tropical zone, so ideal for
    tropical crops and not much for temperate crops. Let us learn the advantages we have by
    growing the right crops best suited to our land with good market demand.




                         COMMON INSECT PESTS AND THEIR CONTROL

1. Whit Flies are aphid-like small insects that look like tiny moth. The nymphs are found in the
    underside of the leaves or covered parts of the plant as they try to avoid direct sunlight. Repeat
    treatment several times




Control measures:

        o   Spray with soap and nicotine solution.
        o   Use tobacco dust.
        o   In every serious case, use kerosene emulsion with soap and water.
        o   Spraying or drenching plants with HOC-4n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate) including the
            soil at the base of plants will reduce and eventually eliminate infestation.




2. Borers hatch inside the stem of plants, eat and grow inside as caterpillars. The branch or stem
    infested wilts and die.




    Control by cutting off the infested stem and burn killing the pest. Periodic spraying plants with
    organic insecticide will help repel pests. Introduction of TRICHOGRAMMA & BRACONIDS are
    very effective and self sustaining borer control. When established in the community, borers no
    longer can multiply and increase into pest population.

    Spraying of HOC-3n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate at weekly interval during flushing, flowering
    and fruit development stage will greatly reduce infestation until totally eliminated.

            .

3. Coffee Berry Borers (CBB) The 1.5 mm bark beetle spends its entire larval life inside the coffee
    berry, encases the coffee bean. Male mates inside the berry with females, but never emerge.
    Only the mated female emerge to fly to a new berry and bore into it to lay eggs and start the cycle
    anew. Only when the female fly out is it vulnerable to predators or chemical control.




    Control is difficult with traditional and biological means.

    A Fungus, Beauveria bassiana, attacks a wide range of insects, including CBB. The technique is
    to get the fungus in contact with the insect pest. The fungus can become ENDOPHYTIC –
    meaning, once introduced to the plant, it integrates with plant tissues. Four methods are
    employed. 1. Injecting it into the stem, 2. Spraying it on the leaves and other parts of the plant, 3.
    Soaking the seeds in it and 4. Drenching soil with it. The purpose is to make the fungus thrive in
    the plant so that the coffee berry borer can become exposed to it and be infected and die.

    Spraying the coffee trees with HOC-3n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate) once in 15 days will help
    reduce and eventually eliminate infestation.

4. Caterpillars feed on leaves and tender parts of the plant. Butterfly and moth underneath the
    leaves usually lay eggs.

Control measures:

        o   Spray kerosene emulsion and wet the egg clusters to destroy them.
        o   Handpick the caterpillar and destroy them.
        o   Pick leaves with cluster of eggs and burn them.
        o   Introduce natural enemies in the environment like Braconids and other beneficial insects
            and predators.
        o   Spray and drench the plant with HOC-4n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate) when pest are
            observed.




5. Cutworms attack newly transplanted vegetable seedlings or chew leaves and tender parts.

Control measures:

        o   Check at night with flashlight and gather pest and mechanically destroy them.
        o   Cultivate and expose the soil of seedlings attacked by cutworm, locate them and destroy.
        o   Placing a stick or toothpick/matchstick at the side of the seedling stem buried will prevent
            cutworms from encircling cutting the stem.
        o   Spray or drench the plant with HOC-4n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate) including the soil
            at the base of the plant.
6. Leaf miners are grub inside the leaf. It develops into pupa and drops into the ground. It causes
    minor damage to leaves

Control measures:

        o   Herbs with strong smell repel adult’s flies and other insect pest. Intercropping or planting
            strong smelling herbs in your garden will lessen infestation.
        o   Chickens and birds feed on pupa in the ground. Making your garden and farm a haven
            for birds will help reduce insect infestation.
        o   If possible, plant trees bearing fruits and berries edible to birds in your farm. Maintain a
            watershed or mini forest for haven of wild life.
        o   Dusting wood ash and HOP-3n1 (Herbal Organic Powder) on leaves will repel leaf miner
            fly.




7. Mealy bugs are scale insects covering stems and branches of plants, sucking its sap. This pest if
    not controlled early can destroy entire orchard.




Control measures:

        o   Spray alcohol on the mealy bugs. It penetrates the waxy shell like protective cover, killing
            the insect.
        o   Spraying kerosene with tobacco and soap plus Malathion is effective for field control of
            orchard fruit trees like mango.
        o   Repeat spraying every week until the pest is totally under control.
        o   Weekly spray of HOC-3n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate) for insect pests.




8. Fruit Flies are common and serious pest on fruits like mango, guava, jack fruit and other fruits
    and vegetables. The fly lays eggs into the fruit and hatch into maggot that burrow inside fruits.
    They eat up portion of the fruit and open it to secondary rot infection.




Control measures:

        o   Gather all infested fruits and bury or burn them to destroy the pest.
        o   Use bait like methyl eugenol or hydrolicate with insecticide.
        o   Dip ripe fruits like aromatic guava, jack fruit in Malathion of other insecticides, and place
            them on branches of trees every 20 meters apart.
        o   Mix two teaspoon of household ammonia and ¼ teaspoon soap powder in a quart of
            water. Fill a jar with mixture and put the jar right nest to the sunny side of the plant.
            Change the bait once a week or if it is diluted by rainwater.
        o   Plant strong smelling herbal plants within your garden and farm.
9. Squash bugs lay eggs on squash. They develop into gray nymphs with fat bodies and black
    legs. They suck the sap of squash and other plants with tender shoots and flowers like mango.




Control measures:

        o   Sprinkle the plant with hydrated lime or wood ash.
        o   Find the eggs and crush them.
        o   Trap them with a thin flat board place slightly tilted in the garden. The bugs assemble
            beneath the board where they can be gathered and destroyed.
        o   Spraying kerosene with tobacco and soap plus Malathion is effective for field control of
            orchard fruit trees like mango.
        o   Repeat spraying every week until the pest is totally under control.
        o   Spray HOC-3n1 on weekly interval.




10. Root maggot of flies laid its eggs near roots of plants like corn, vegetables. The hatched
    maggots feed on the roots, and weaken the plant. When in heavy population, they wilt and kill the
    plants.




Control measures:

        o   Sprinkle wood ash around the stem of newly transplanted seedlings.
        o   Incorporate chopped marigold into the soil.
        o   Use organic fertilizers.
        o   Sprinkle HOP-3n1 (Herbal Organic Powder) for insect pests.




11. Aphids / Green / Black fly makes your plant looks spindly and pale. They attack the leaves and
    stem. Aphids can change color to match plant color. It Metamorphose from nymphs to adult, with
    or without wings. When they are over crowded, they develop wings and fly to neighboring plants
    of the same family. They have 12 days cycle to maturity.




Control measures:

        o   Makabuhay (Tinospora rumphi) – Roots, stem and leaves liquid extract mix with water
            and soap is a good spray against flies, aphids, moth, worm and other insects.
        o   Atis (Anona squamos) seeds are grind into powder and mixed with water and soap. Use
            as spray on aphids.
        o   Spray HOC-3n1 on weekly interval until pest are controlled.




              USE OF ORGANIC PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL MATERIALS
We have a long list of biological pest and disease control and prevention materials at the later part of this
paper for your guide, in case you decide to make your own botanical organic pesticides and fungicides.

Research found Marigold to repel or eliminate nematodes within a meter radius from the plant. The roots
give off chemical diffusate that is toxic to nematodes. Many other plants and herbs have been found to
have insecticide and fungicidal properties. You may follow theses simple steps in preparing organic pest
and disease extracts for your garden use:

                                  PREPARING YOUR OWN PESTICIDE

While so many farmers are complaining of the high and even increasing cost of commercial agricultural
chemicals, they can make and prepare their own with cheaper and available materials they can secure in
their community or even grow in their own farm. Among these are the following:

                             1. Lime sulfur powder as natural fungicide



a. Secure 1-kilo very fine lime and 1-kilo sulfur powder.

    b.   Mix at 1:1 ratio.
    c.   Add 1-gallon water.
    d.   Bottle and seal tightly.
    e.   Spray to plants for the control of fungal diseases of both garden and farm crops.




    2. Water is a universal solvent and cleaning agent. Home gardens with good water supply, while
         watering their plants can wash them with pressure hose to remove insect pests, fungus and
         bacterial infections. This practice is even done to big trees with power sprayers. Spraying clean
         water can wash off mites, ants, spider mites, and even fungal infections and other insect pests.
         With this practice many home gardens never use toxic chemicals to spray their plants against
         pests and diseases.




    3. Sea Water is one source of good fungicide and insect repellant as well as providing the plant with
         added trace mineral elements. However it may need dilution with fresh water to reduce its toxicity
         to plants specially those with thin leaves and sensitive tissues.




    4. Soap or Detergent and water



             o   Dissolve two (2) ounces soap flake to thee (3) gallons of water.
             o   Bottle the stock solution, ready for spraying. Soap washings may be used.
             o   Dissolve three- (3) tbs. of soap flake/powder in one (1) gallon of water. Soap washing
                 may also be used.
      o    Spray the plants with the stock solution against insect pest attacking your garden plants.
           The soap solution is effective control against mites, aphids, ants and other garden insect
           pest. It can also control fungal infection.




5. Soap and Kerosene



      a. Buy soap and kerosene from your local store.
      b. Mix ¼ cup soap water + ¼ tbs. of kerosene + one liter water. Stir the mixture to form
           stock solution.

      o    Place stock solution in bottle ready for use. Use this solution when infestation is serious.
           Adding Malathion insecticide will help increase killing potency.

      o    Spray plants for the control of garden pests such as aphids, ants, mealy bugs, mites and
           spider mites, etc.




6. Soap and Aromatic Herbs



      a.   Collect / gather / wash and clean 1 Onion, 1 Garlic, 1 tbs. Hot Pepper.
      b.   Chop / cut materials into small pieces. Use grinder.
      c.   Pound / grind the different materials to extract juice.
      d.   Filter the different materials separately.
      e.   To the filtered juice of different materials, add 1-quart water. Let it stand for one hour and
           add 1-tbs. liquid soap detergent. Place the mixture in tightly covered jars and store in a
           cool dark place for a week as stock solution.
      f.   Bottles stock solution ready for botanical pesticide. Spraying garden plants with botanical
           pesticide. This spray makes use of the repellant quality of onion, garlic and pepper. The
           soap serves as sticker and spreader.




7. Vinegar



      a. Buy vinegar from your local dealer. Bottle the vinegar as stock solution.
      b. Spray plants with vinegar (stock solution) for the control of powdery mildew and other
           fungal diseases. Vinegar and other acids is good material for fungus eradication.




8. Vinegar + Fermented Sugar
            a.   Buy vinegar and sugar (brown or moscovado) from your local dealer
            b.   Mix the fermented sugar and vinegar at 1:1 ratio and place in bottle as tock solution.
            c.   Spray to plants stock solution for control of pest and fungal diseases.
            d.   Adding water and soap can help spread the stock solution but could dilute the material to
                 be less effective.




   9. Vegetable oil



            a. Buy vegetable oil from your local dealer. This serves as stock solution.
            b. Add water and soap (1 part oil + 5 parts water + ½ part soap) and spray to plant to
                 control spider mites and scale insects.




   10. Wood Ash



   a. We can control root maggots in radish, cabbage, onion and other brassicas by spreading fresh
        wood ash around the plant roots. Ashes are then covered lightly with soil.
   b.   Wood ash can also control snails, slugs and cutworms by encircling plants with 3-4 inches wide
        trench, 1-2 inches deep and fill the trench with ash.
   c.   Spraying cucumber beetle with a mixture of equal parts of wood ash, powdered line and soap is
        an effective control.
   d.   Spray wood ash with water and soap can control flea beetle of tomatoes.




   11. Vinegar and vinegar with fermented oil



Vinegar

            a. Buy vinegar from your local dealer. Bottle the vinegar as stock solution.
            b. Spray plants with vinegar (stock solution) for the control of powdery mildew and other
                 fungal diseases. Vinegar and other acids are good material for fungus eradication.




   12. Vinegar + Fermented Sugar
            a. Vinegar and sugar (brown or moscovado) from your local dealer
            b. Mix the fermented sugar and vinegar at 1:1 ratio and place in bottle as tock solution.
            c. Adding water and soap can help spread the stock solution but could dilute the material to
                be less effective.
            d. Spray to plants stock solution for control of pest and fungal diseases.



    12. Crude oil



            a. Buy crude oil from your local gas station dealer.
            b. Mix soap and water to form your stock solution. (100 grams powder soap + 1 liter crud oil
                + 1 liter water).
            c. Mix to stock solution to 16 liters of water and spray to plants against scale insects, mite,
                aphids and other insect pest and fungus.


================================================================================
==========


                                     KNOW ABOUT HERBAL PLANTS

Aloe – [M.E.<Gr.aloe, dried juice of aloe leaves] Any plant of the liliaceous genus Aloe, chiefly African,
various species of which yield a purgative drug, aloin, and fiber; also, the century plant, American aloe.

Aloe vera, one of the species contain manapol which contain vitamin, amino acid, macro and
micronutrients and polysaccharides. It has an immunostimulant property. It contain a rich source of
saponins which is toxic on herbivores, detergent, and destroy pathogen membranes. It has insect
repellant, anti fungal, anti viral and anti bacterial property. The new compounds were found in the sterol
fraction of the leaf. The presence of these agents in Aloe are very important. Campesterol, cholesterol,
and B-sitosterol are plant sterols which possess chemical structures which are anti-inflammatory. Lupeol,
a hydrochloride, is also an antiseptic and analgesic agent.

    In 1982, a University of Chicago Burn Center Report which will be examined in more detail later in this
text recommended the presence of Salicylic Acid but adds that this aspirin-like compound is a breakdown
product from aloin (barbaloin) found in the sap. Other researchers have identified the presence of small
amountof Urea Nitrogen, another anti-microbial agent, in the sap.

    From the evidence obtain from research, one can postulate that Aloe vera works without toxic or
allergic effects because of its nutrient and water content acts as a buffers. The nutrients also are
essential to tissue growth and function. The plant controls (or eliminates) infection because of natural
antiseptic agents – Sulfur, Phenols, Lupeol, Salicylic Acid, Cinnamonic Acid, and Urea Nitrogen. It
controls inflammation due to its anti-inflammatory fatty acids, Cholesterol, Campesterol and B-sitosterol,
and it limits or stop pain because of its content of Lupeol, Salicylic Acid and Magnesium. Acting together,
these agents and the leaves, other agents constitute the synergestic relationship. Thus, we see a rational
explanation for the numerous reports that Aloe Vera eliminates many internal and external infections, limit
or eliminates inflammation, and is highly effective pain killer.
    Chemistry explains Aloe’s ability to work as an effective treatment for burns, cuts, scrapes, and
abrasions as well as for the treatment of many inflammatory conditions such as rheumatic fever, arthritis
of all kinds, disorder of the skin, mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, and other internal
organs such as the kidney, spleen, pancreas, and liver.

    It is important to remember that an anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial agents are found in the sap
and the rind of the plant, not in gel. At the same time one must not forget that the basic nutrient and other
agents are widely dispersed throughout the plant – meaning the sap, the gel, and the rind. – and about
98% of the water is confined to the gel. This knowledge should help put pseudo-scientific fallacies to rest,
especially the wide held myth that the gel of the plant is totally responsible for the healing ability of Aloe
Vera. At the same time, we need not avoid an overreaction, which dismisses the gel as worthless. The
gel is important as a buffering agent. Therefore, the theory of a synergistic relationship is the one, which
is supportable with both history and science.

    At this point in our research for the truth, we have a chemical explanation of Aloe vera’s ability to heal
through its capability to control or kill a number of disease causing microbes, to alleviate (or eliminate)
pain, and to counteract inflammation.

    We know that it has been repeatedly stated that the plant has all these abilities, and more. As yet we
have not even mention Aloe vera’s reported ability to eliminate excessive water from tissue, to aid
digestion, to balance body acidity, to eliminate or greatly reduce scarring. To regenerate hair follicles, to
return injured or damaged skin to its normal health color, or any other benefits that will be explored as we
move from the theoretical back to the practical.


================================================================================
=========

Neem Tree (Azadiracta indica)

Neem originated in the regions of Asia, India, Burma and Thailand. Now the tree grows in the tropical and
arid regions in other parts of the globe. It is a fast growing tree adapts to semi-arid areas with 250 – 2000
mm rainfall per year. It can grow in poor soils but will not tolerate in high moisture soils and constant
humidity.

Neem tree flowers are small and white. Fruit is oblong small in size about 2 cm long grows in bundles.
Light green and turns yellow when ripe. Many parts of the tree, from roots to fruits contain natural organic
insecticide properties, which can be extracted and used by farmers and gardeners.

Preparing neem spray. Pound the leaves, bark or seeds at 1:2 ratio. Soak in water overnight and use
extract as spray for lepidopterous pests, bacterial wilt, nematodes, fruit flies, beetles, aphids and leaf
hoppers. Cake can be used as mulch or mixed with soil to control bacteria, fungi and nematodes.

Uses of Neem:

    a. As an insecticide, neem extracts from roots, bark, leaves and seeds have strong anti-feeding
        insecticide properties. Insects affected and sensitive to neem extracts are the following:




                     1. Coleoptera beetles about 20 species.
                     2. Diptera flies – 5 species.
                     3. Hemiptera bugs – 14 species.
                 4. Isoptera termites – 2 species.
                 5. Lepidoptera butterflies and moth – 25 species.
                 6. Orthoptera locust and grasshoppers – 5 species.



    Insects that show resistance to neem extracts are scale insects, mealy bugs, bark eating
    caterpillars, and some pests infesting stored grains and seeds.

    Neem extracts from leaves, fruits and bark have a strong repellant, anti-feedant and insecticide
    property. The Neem seed oil extract is a repellant to termites and nematodes. Extracts affect the
    food intake of insects, its digestion and physiological control mechanism (hormones) of insect
    growth that results in abnormalities in its molting process. Insect fertility is also affected, reducing
    greatly its fertile eggs.

b. The wood can be bused for lumber – construction. It is resistant to termites and woodworms.
    Wood chips can be used as paperboard, and excellent mulching material.




c. Use for greening urban communities, along roadsides and parks, provide shed, clean the air
    pollution, acting as wind breaker, serves as water shed and prevents soil erosion, green barrier
    against spread of forest fires.




d. Use as fodder for goats and sheep. It contains 15% protein and low in cellulose content.



e. It is also very good soil conditioner and organic fertilizer. Neem cake or fruit pulp mixed with urea
    or other commercial chemical fertilizers will help restrict the growth of denitrifying bacteria. This
    reduces the breakdown of nitrogen in fertilizers and optimizes the efficiency of fertilizers applied
    to the soil. Blending urea with Neem cake saves 20% of nitrogen fertilizer and increases yield by
    up to 15% in India. Neem cake significantly increases growth of azola and reduces insect (Pyralis
    sp.) infestation also in India.




f. The extracted juice is used as medicine. Effective treatment for septic wounds, ulcer, skin
    diseases, stomach worms and malaria. Pharmaceutical preparations as nimbidin, based
    ointment, soap, toothpaste, cosmetics, denaturant and edible fats.




g. The crude oil from seeds is used as lubricant. Neem seed oil mixed with soap and water is very
    effective spray against a wide range of insect pests. It is safe for bathing pets like dogs, cats and
    birds to dispel lice.
TOBACCO (BAR Chronicle July 2003)

   Tobacco has been used by man for various reasons. Today it is used more for smoking because of its
addicting pleasure. Tit is also used as food and feed, insect pest and disease medication for animals,
pets and poultry.

   “This is an herb of marvelous virtue against wounds, ulcers, herpes and all other things” says Jean
Nicot in the 15th century, French ambassador to Portugal who introduced the tobacco plant to France.
Today, our scientist continue research on tobacco. They confirmed that it has medicinal properties as
antibacterial, antifungal, and topical analgesics. National Tobacco Administration (NTA) are formulating
tobacco seed oil and leaf extract for medication.

    It has been reported in the DA-BAR Chronicle, that tobacco dust, if sprayed in liquid form, can be used
in vegetable crops to kill insect pests such as golden snails, corm weevils, rain moths, and red flour
beetle. Staunch advocates of organic farming are delighted with the beneficial uses of tobacco to control
plant pests and diseases.

Other herbal plants

  The Philippine is very rich in different herbal plants that are suitable for pest and disease control.
Some of them are discussed in this handbook.

                                            ORGANIC FARMING

Organic farming is a form of agriculture which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers
and pesticides, plant growth regulators, and livestock feed additives. As far as possible, organic farmers
rely on crop rotation, crop residues, animal manures and mechanical cultivation to maintain soil
productivity and tilth (soil texture) to supply plant nutrients, and to control weeds, insects and other pests
and diseases (pathogens).

According to the International Organic Farming Organization IFOAM, "The role of organic agriculture,
whether in farming, processing, distribution, or consumption, is to sustain and enhance the health of
ecosystems and organisms from the smallest in the soil to human beings."

Many of the above discussions on Natural Farming practices including most items on Integrated Pest
Management are part of Organic Farming practices. In these following discussions, we will be introducing
farming practices that will be focused on the use of organic materials instead of synthetic chemical
products.




                  HOW TO PREPARE OWN ORGANIC PESTICIDE AND FUNGICIDE

Gather plants with strong repelling odor and taste, like pungent (hot) pepper, black pepper, tobacco,
onion, ginger, garlic, marigold, oregano, bitter vine, derris, neem, aloe vera, marigold, kamantigui, guava
leaves, curry leaves, ipil-ipil leaves and seeds, madre de cacao leaves, castor bean seed, tuba-tuba
leaves and seeds, adelfa and other plants that repel or kill insects and have fungicidal property.

                                      a. Chop and place them in a blender with equal amount of water
                                          and blend or Pound and extract the juice or sap (fluid/liquid). For
                                          brew, boil the material, cool and separate the liquid tea.
                                          b. Strain the liquid and mix one (1) teaspoon powdered detergent
                                             per litter and place in bottle as stock solution.




                                          c. Upon spraying mix one (1) tablespoon of stock solution for every
                                             litter of water. (1 tbsp. per 10 ml. water) Dosage may be
                                             increased or decreased as you find its effectiveness to your crop.




                         HERBAL TEA PREPARATIONS FOR PLANT PROTECTION

                                  Prepared by: REX A. RIVERA, Agronomist

HERBAL TEA preparation for plant protection can be made by the farmers right in their own farm without
depending too much on commercial chemical pesticides and fungicides. The following procedure are simple
and low cost that can be done by the farmers themselves.




        MATERIALS NEEDED:

        200 liters capacity plastic drum.

        Grinder / chopper and mortar & pestle (lusong pambayo)

        Strainer/screen/cloth (salaan)

        Dipper (tabo).

        Wooden ladle / paddle (Kahoy na panghalo)

        Fresh clean water (tubig na malinis)

        Herbal materials ( Halamang panghalo)

           10 kilos Ginger (Luya)

             5 kilos Garlic (Bawang)

             5 kilos Aloe vera (Sabila)

           10 kilos Hot pepper ( Siling labuyo)
          30 kilos Neem tree leaves (Dahon ng Neem Tree)

          30 kilos Madre de Cacao leaves (Dahon ng Kakawati)

            5 kilos Derris (Tubli)

            5 kilos Bitter vine (Panyawan//Makabuhay)

       Other herbs with insecticide, fungicide and pest repellant properties.

       PROCEDURE:

       1. Prepare the above materials.

                I-handa and mga gamit.

           2. Grind or pond the herbs separately.

                Durugin at bayuhin and mga halaman na magkakahiwalay.

           3. Place all ground and pounded herbs in the plastic drum.

                Ilagay ang lahat ng dinurog at binayong halaman sa dram na plastik.

           4. Fill the drum with fresh clean water.

                Punuin ng malinis na tubig ang dram.

           5. Mix the materials with a wooden ladle

                Haluin ang tubig at dinurog na halaman gamit ang kahoy na panghalo.

           6. Stay overnight or one day to allow the herb juice to mix with water. Herbal tea..

        Pabayaan ng magdamag o maghapon upang ang katas ng mga halaman ay mahalo sa
tubig na magiging tsaa.

           7. Get herbal tea from drum pass through screen strainer

       Kunin anf tubig o tsaa sa dram paraanin sa screen na salaan.

           8. Add equal amount of fresh clean water to the herbal tea.

      Dagdagan ng preskong tubig ang tsaa na kasing dami.

           9. Place in sprayer or sprinkler.

      Ilagay sa sprayer o sa rigadera.
             10. Spray on plants, drench from base, trunk, branches and leaves.

       Spray o diligin ang halama, basain mula lupa, puno, sanga at dahon.

             11. Repeat spraying 3 or 7 days interval as the need arises.

                  Ulitin ang pag spray o pagbibisbis tuwing ikatlo o isang lingo ayon sa pangangailangan.




                                      HERBAL ORGANIC CONCENTRATE




     Herbal Organic Concentrate (HOC) preparation is done in a strict laboratory procedure by chemist to insure
its standard quality and stability for a long self-life and efficacy upon application on plants.

Materials:

             1.   Grinding and pounding equipment.
             2.   Blender
             3.   Juice extractor, presser with strainer.
             4.   Fresh herbs.
             5.   Stainless, plastic or bottled containers.




Procedure:

             1. Gather fresh herbs and cut into small pieces.
             2. Grind, pound and extract juice.
             3. Dehydrate to reduce moisture.
             4. Add preservative
             5. Bottle or place in dark colored containers.
             6. Label or stick marker with appropriate instruction of use.
             7. Store in clean, cool, dry, dry and dark place.
             8. Check cover from time to time, and loosen to release gas buildup.
             9. Seal tightly when transporting.
             10. Follow instruction on label when using.

                                                          PREPARING

                                        FOLIAR ORGANIC FERTILIZER

Materials:

             1. Chopper and grinder
             2. Plastic, earthen, glass or enameled container.
              3. Wooden paddle mixer.
              4. Organic and herbal materials.
              5. Brown sugar (moscovado / kinugay) or molasses.



Procedure:

              1.   Gather organic materials (Fish, meat, sea weeds, fruits, herbs)
              2.   Chop and grind.
              3.   Place in non-metal container (glass, plastic, enamel or earthen jar..
              4.   Add equal amount of brown sugar or molasses and effective microorganism.
              5.   Cover with cloth and ferment for 2 to 4 weeks.
              6.   Get juice and place in dark colored container (Plastic of glass) and cover.

Label the organic foliar fertilizer with instruction of storage and use.

                                           BOTANICAL PEST CONTROL




  The Philippines is rich in various varieties and species of plants that can be used to regulate and control
pests and diseases. Theses plant species are endangered because they are not known, or the local
farmers do not know their uses. Farmers by clearing and burning continually destroy them, as they are
considered weeds and a hindrance to their crop production.

  Here is a short list of plants that can be effective against a wide range of insect pest including those
attacking the mango.

    1. GOAT WEED (Aegaratum conisoides) Leaves- Extract juice and spray against diamond black
         moth and cotton Steiner.




    2. DAMONG MARIA (Artemesia vulgaris) Leaves – Pound, extract juice and spray at the rate of 2
         to 4 tbs. per 16 litters of water wit detergent or AZ41 and spray against cotton borer and mango
         tip borer.




    3. LANTANA (Lantana camara) Flowers – Pound and store around the grains to serve as
         repellant against weevils.




    4. DITA (Derris philippinensis) Roots – Pound and extract juice. Spray at the rate of 1 cup per
         gallon of water or powder, mix with detergent or AZ41 and spray at the rate of 120 grams powder
         + 250 to 300 grams detergent per 4 gallons of water against diamond black moth and other insect
         pests.
5. WILD SUNFLOWER (Tethornia diversifolia) Leaves – Pound and extract juice and use as
   spray at the rate of 1 to 2 kg. Fruit per litter of water against cotton Steiner, black armyworm and
   diamond black moth.




6. MARIGOLD (Targetes erecta) Roots – A mixture from the pounded leaves, flowers and roots
   soaked in water at a proportion of 500 grams/liter of water has been found to be effective against
   lipidopterous pests, leafhoppers, beetles and house flies. The remaining cake can be used as a
   mulch or mixed with the soil to control nematodes and other soil pests. Marigold inter-cropped
   with vegetables like eggplants are said to repel insects from the plantation. Extract juice and
   spray at the rate of 2 to 4 teaspoon juice per litter of water mix detergent or FAA (Fish Amino
   Acid) against green leafhopper, brown plant hopper, diamond black moth and aphids.




7. FRENCH MARIGOLD (Targetes patula) Roots – Pound and extract juice at one-kilogram roots
   mix with one litter of water and detergent or AZ41 then spray directly into the soil against green
   aphids and grain borer.




8. BLACK PEPPER (Piper nigrum) Fruits – Pulverize seeds and mix with water and spray. Spread
   powder around stored grains against cotton Steiner, diamond black moth, common cutworms and
   corn weevil.




9. MAKABUHAY (Tinospora rumpii) Vines – Pound leaves and stem to extract juice. Mix the juice
   with water and stir thoroughly. The mixture can be used as spray for black bugs, steam borer,
   diamond back moth and leafhoppers. Extract juice and spray at the rate of 15 to 20 tbsp. juice
   per 5 gallons water against diamond black moth and green leafhoppers.




10. HOT PEPPER (Capscium frutesens) Fruit – This can be effective for the controlling of
   lepidopterous persts, other chewing insects and pest for stored products. Mash mature fruits, add
   water, strain and use the mixture as spray. For stored product pests, pulverize the fruits and
   spread in storage area. Pound and extract juice and spray at the rate of 2 to 3 cups fruit per
   litter of water against rice moth. HOT PEPPER - Researches from the University of the
   Philippines at Los Banos, Laguna have found that Siling Labuyo (Hot Pepper) fruit, skin and
   seeds are all effective against ants, aphids, caterpillars, Colorado beetle, cabbage worms,
   warehouse and storage pests, cucumber mosaic, ring spot virus, tobacco virus and other crop
   diseases. Briefly, siling labuyo serves as an insecticide, repellant, anti-feedant, fumigant and anti-
   viroid.




11. CUSTARD (Annona aquamosa) Seeds – Powder and disperse in water, then strain and use as
   spray against rice pest.
    12. NEEM (Azadiracta indica) Seeds – Remove husk of two to three handful of mature seeds,
         winnow or put in water to float away the husk, Grind seeds into fine particles. Soak ground seeds
         in 3 to 5 litters of water for at least 12 hours. Filter the solution, add detergent or AZ41, then use
         the spray against rice pest, diamond black moth and mango leafhoppers.




    13. TOBACCO – Chop or grind tobacco leaves, stalk and root. Soak in water for 13 to 36 hours.
         Strain tea solution; mix detergent, AZ41 or Aloe vera extract and spray against a wide species of
         insects including hoppers and worms.




    14. MADRE DE CACAO. Pound the roots, leaves and bark and soak in water at a proportion of
         500g/liter of water. Let it stand overnight. Use the concoction as spray for lepidopterous pests
         and fleas. Example of lepidopterous pests are the larvae of moths, and butterflies that are usually
         seen as worms eating the leaves and fruits of many vegetables.




    In a particular research, entomologists at UPLB have found that wild (labuyo) pepper is effective as
protectant for storing corn and rice grains against weevils and red flour beetles. To protect the grains from
the insects, the researchers soaked the sacks for 24 hours in the fresh (siling labuyo) extract. Later they
noted that the rice and corn were undamaged for over a month. Similarly they also found out that mixing
the air-dried hot pepper powder with rice effectively protected the grains for over 2 months without
affecting the flavor. Hot pepper extract mixed with paint, caulks, glue and rubber coating materials have
been found effective repellant against a wide range of pests.

    Antidote for accidental contamination or contact with hot pepper preparation includes cold sweet, salty, and sour
foods. Fatty foods seem to cool down burn due to the solubility of capsaicin to oil. The better cool downs include
fruity ice cream (cold, sweet, sour and fatty) or best frozen yogurt. In case of skin contamination, wash or take a
bath with soap and cold water.


                                                Fungicidal herbs

   The following plants with their simple preparations can substitute or replace the chemical fungicides.
This is ideal for growing organic fruit free from toxic chemicals. Organically grown fruits and vegetables
have a fast growing market demand with the quickly spreading belief about hazards of toxic chemicals in
food crops.

    1. GARLIC (Allium sativum) Cloves – Chop finely, soak in two teaspoon of oil for one day. Mix
         with half litter of soapy water and filter. Mix one part solution with 20 parts water, then spray.




         Disease organisms controlled: Alternaria, Cercospora, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Diplodia,
         Fusarium, Helmitosporium, and Pestalotia (fruit rot, early blight, purple blotch, leaf spot, leaf mold,
         frog eye, anthracnose, fruit rot, smudge, leaf blight, and fruit and stem rot, damping off, stem and
         root rot, wilt, and curly top.)
2. ACAPULCO (Cassia alata) Leaves – Extract juice and spray at the rate of 1-cup juice per litter
   of water. Spray on plants infected with Altenaria, Cercospora, Colletetrichum, Diplodia, Fusarium,
   Helminthusporium and Pestalotia.




3. AMARANTH (Amaranthus gracilis) Leaves – Extract juice of one-kilogram leaves, them mix in
   three litters of water and spray against Altenaria, Cercospora, Colletotrichum, Curvularia,
   Helminthusporium, and Pestalotia.




4. PAPAYA (Carica papaya) Leaves – Pound, soak in water and use infusion as spray. This is
   effective against Cercospora and Diplodia.




5. SENSITIVE PLANT / MAKAHIYA (Mimosa pudica) Whole plant – Pound and soak in water
   and use infusion as spray against Diplodia and Pestalotia (fruit and leaf spot.)




6. DAMONG MARIA (Artemisia vulgaria) Leaves – Extract juice and use as spray at the rate of
   two to five table spoon full juice per liter of water against Altenaria, fruit rot, early blight, purple
   blotch and leaf spot.




7. GINGER (Zingiber officianale) Rhizome – Extract juice and use as spray against Cercospora
   leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight and frogeye disease.




8. KAKAWATI / MADRE DE CACAO (Gliricida sepium) Leaves – Extract juice of one kilo leaves,
   then mix juice with three litters of water and use as spray against Cercospora leaf mold, leaf spot,
   early leaf blight and frogeye disease.




9. MAYANA (Coleus scutellarioides) Leaves – Extract juice of one-kilogram leaves, mix with
   three litters of water and use as spray against Cercospora.




10. LAGUNDI (Vitex negundo) Leaves – Extract juice of one kilogram leaves and mixes with three
   litters of water and spray against Cercospora.
11. SAMBONG (Blumea balsamifera) Leaves – Extract juice and mix with water at 1:1 ratio and
    spray against Cercospora.




12. IPIL-IPIL (Leucaena leucocephala) Leaves – Pound and soak in small amount of water. Use
    the infusion as spray against Soltinaria (fruit rot, early blight, purple blotch, leaf spot); Cercospora
    (leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frogeye disease); Colletotrichum (leaf blight, Anthracnose, fruit
    rot); Curvularia (leaf blight); Helminthusporium (leaf spot, leaf blight); Pestalotia (leaf spot).




13. RED ONION (Allium sepa) Bulb – Chop finely and soak in two teaspoon of oil for one day. Mix
    with half litter of soapy water and filter. Mix one part of the solution to 20 parts of water then spray
    to control: Cercospora (leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frogeye disease); Colletotrichum (leaf
    spot, anthracnose, fruit rot); Curvularia Fusarium (leaf spot, leaf blight); Helminthusporium (leaf
    spot, leaf blight); Pestalotia (wilt, curly top, leaf blight and leaf spot).




14. DRUMSTICK / HORSEHEAD DISH (Moringa oleifera) Leaves – Extract juice of one kilo and
    mix with three litters of water and use as spray against Altenaria, Colletotrichum, Diplodia and
    Pestalotia.




15. KAMANTIGUI (Impatiens balsa mina) Leaves – Extract juice of one kilogram leaves and mix with
    three litters of water then use as spray against Fusarium (damping off, stem root rot, blight);
    Helminthusporium (wilt, curly top leaf blight).




16. MANA (Jatropha multipida) Leaves – Extract juice of one kilogram leaves and mix in three litters
    of water and use as spray against Diplodia (fruit and stem rot) and Fusarium (damping off, stem
    and root rot, early blight, wilt and curly top).




      There are many more herbal plants that are effective in controlling fungus and bacterial
    infections. Every farmer mango grower should have processing equipment such as grinder,
    hammer mill and juicers to extract substances from plants and use as spray solution.

     Another way of extracting plant substances is soaking the plant material in drums of water for
    several days until water turns yellow brown as tea, mix with detergent and spray water on pants.
    For faster way, organic plant materials are boiled, and the resulting tea is cooled ready for use.

      Plants found to be effective tea control for pest and diseases are Wild tea, tobacco, neem tree,
    legumes and beans, guava leaves and many others).
                         PREPARATIONS AND USE ORGANIC PESTICIDES

Adelfa bark and leaves:

a. Collect / gather / wash and clean adelfa bark and leaves.
b. Chop / cut the materials into small pieces. (Use mechanical chopper or hammer mill if dealing in
     big volume.)
c.   Pound and extract juice. (Use grinder if dealing in big volume.)
d.   Soak in water (1kilo pounded material + 1 liter water).
e.   Filter through No. D screen.
f.   Filter through No. E screen
g.   Place the juice in bottles and seal tightly as stock solution.
h.   Spray plants for the control of ants, flies, bugs and other insect pests.




Atis seeds

a.   Collect / gather and clean atis seeds.
b.   Chop / cut into small pieces atis seeds.
c.   Pound seeds or grind.
d.   Mix pounded atis seeds with coconut oil (1/2 kilo pounded seeds + 100 ml coconut oil).
e.   Filter / screen mixture.
f.   Bottle the stock solution ready as botanical (organic) pesticide.
g.   Spray plants for the control of garden and vegetable pests such as ants, mites, and other insects
     attacking the plants.




Citronella + Neem leaves + Galangal

a.   Collect / gather / wash and clean leaves.
b.   Chop / cut the materials. Use hammer mill for big volume.
c.   Pound the different materials making it fine. Use grinder for big volume.
d.   Mix materials with 40 liters water.
e.   Soak the mixture for 1 day.
f.   Filter / screen the solution.
g.   Diluter the solution with water at the ratio 1:60.
h.   Place the stock solution in bottles and seal tightly. (Ready for spray).
i.   Spray plants with prepared botanical pesticide for control of garden pests such as
     cabbageworms, mites, and leaf miners. Effective against worms attacking leafy vegetables.




Coconut oil + Nicotine extract (tobacco leaves).
a.   Collect / gather / wash and clean tobacco leaves (10 leaves)
b.   Chop into small pieces.
c.   Pound leaves to extract nicotine (juice). Use grinder if available.
d.   Mix pounded leaves with 1 liter water.
e.   Filter / screen stock solution. Press the material during filtering.
f.   Mix coconut oil 250 ml to 1-liter nicotine extract.
g.   Place in bottle and seal tightly.
h.   Spray plants to control garden pests and farm crops.




Derris tubers and roots

a.   Collect / gather and clean derris tubers and roots.
b.   Chop into small pieces and pound to extract liquid or juice. Use grinder and presser if available.
c.   Filter to separate liquid or juice.
d.   Bottle the pure juice, close tightly and store in cold dark place.
e.   Mix 1 tbs. liquid derris to 1 gallon water. Solution is ready for use.
f.   Bottle the mixture of botanical pesticide ready for use.
g.   Spray plants for the control of aphids, leafhopper, spittlebug, beetles, thrips, white flies, leaf
     miners and caterpillars.




Derris roots + powdered soap

a.   Collect / gather and clean derris roots.
b.   Chop into small pieces and dry derris under direct sunlight.
c.   Pound the roots into powder form. Preferably use grinder.
d.   Boil about 120 grams of derris powder in 5 cups of rainwater or distilled water.
e.   Add 300 grams of powdered detergent soap and dissolve thoroughly.
f.   Add 4 gallons of water.
g.   Filter / screen solution then bottle the stock solution for ready use.
h.   Spray plants to control rind borer of citrus, oranges, pomelo and grapefruits. Spray also grasses
     and weeds around the trunk of fruit trees as they serve as shelter and breeding place of insects
     during the daytime.




Garlic

a. Collect / gather / wash and clean garlic cloves.
b. Chop / cut / pound garlic cloves to extract liquid or juice. Use grinder and presser if available.
c. Filter the juice and mix water. For mild preparation: I part garlic juice to 100 parts water (1:100)
     this is the stock solution.
d. Store in bottles and seal tightly.
e. Spray to plants. It is effective fungicide to control blight, mildew and rot of a wide variety of plants.
     It is effective spray against mildew of solanaceous plants and other fungal diseases.
Green – Shallot onions

a. Collect / gather /wash and clean green shallot onions.
b. Chop and cut materials into small pieces and pound material to extract juice or liquid. Use grinder
     and presser for big volume.
c.   Mix water at one part juice to one part water (1:1)
d.   Filter / screen the juice (stock solution)
e.   Add one teaspoon powdered soap to make the stuff adhesive.
f.   Mix 1 tbs. to 1 liter water and spray to plants against fungus and repellant to insect pests.




Hot Pepper (sili)

a. Collect / gather / wash and clean hot pepper fruits.
b. Cut into small pieces then pound fruits to extract liquid or juice. Use grinder and presser for big
     volume.
c.   Mix at the rate of 2 tbs. pounded sili with 1-gallon water.
d.   Filter / screen and place stock solution in bottles for storage or ready use.
e.   Spray to plants to control mites, aphids and other insect pests.




Hot Pepper + Soap

a. Follow the previous Hot Pepper preparation.
b. Add soap to solution. Good for control of rice bugs, budworms, ants, mites, cabbage worms and
     maggots.




HOT Pepper + Soap + Tobacco leaves

a. Collect / gather / wash and clean sili fruits and tobacco leaves.
b. Chop / cut and pound sili fruit and tobacco leaves separately
c. Mix tobacco leaves and sili fruits with water. (To 1 kilo chopped and pounded tobacco leaves, add
     5 liters water. To 1 tbs. pounded sili add 1 gallon water)
d.   Soak separately overnight.
e.   Filter / screen both solutions separately.
f.   Mix the two materials
g.   Mix 2 ounces powder soap. Stir to dissolve the soap. This mixture becomes the stock solution.
h.   Bottle for storage and ready use. Store in cool dark place.
i.   Spray plants at 3 days interval against eggplant fruit fly and other insect pests.




Kamarya twigs as repellant for mosquitoes and other flying insects.
a. Collect / gather kamarya twigs.
b. Dry kamarya twigs under direct sunlight.
c. Burn dried kamarya to drive mosquitoes and other flying insects.



     Lanson (Lanzones fruit peelings as repellant for mosquitoes & flying insects).

a. Gather / collect lanzones fruit peelings and dry it under direct sunlight.
b. Burn dried lanzones peelings to drive mosquitoes and other flying insects.
c. Note: same procedures with other leaves like neem tree, madre de cacao, ipil-ipil, etc.



Lime sulfur powder as natural fungicide

f.   Buy 1-kilo very fine lime and 1-kilo sulfur powder.
g.   Mix at 1:1 ratio.
h.   Add 1-gallon water.
i.   Bottle and seal tightly.
j.   Spray to plants for the control of fungal diseases of both garden and farm crops.




Linga (sesame) plants

a. Collect / gather / wash and clean linga plants.
b. Chop / cut into small pieces then pound to extract liquid or juice. Use hammer mill and grinder for
     big volume.
c. Filter the juice as stock solution. Place in bottles. Use mechanical presser for juice extraction for
     big volume.
d. Before spraying, mix 6 tbs stock solution to 1 liter of water. Add soap.
e. Spray to control aphids, ants, flies, mites and other insect pests.



Luya-luya-an root brew (Ginger ail)

a. Collect / gather / wash and clean ginger roots.
b. Chop / cut into small pieces 1 kilo of ginger then pound to extract the juice. Use grinder and
     presser for big volume.
c. Dilute the extract in 1-gallon water.
d. Filter / screen pounded ginger and bottle the stock solution for storage and ready for use.
e. Add soap and spray on insects attacking plants. Good for rice, vegetable and fruit trees.



Madre de Cacao or Kakawate
   a. Collect leaves of Madre de cacao. Chop cut and pound to produce extract liquid juice. Use
        hammer mill and presser for big volume.
   b.   Dilute wit water 1 part pounded materials with 5 parts water (1:5).
   c.   Keep it soaked and stay overnight.
   d.   Filter the stock material and place in plastic container or drum.
   e.   Add soap to the stock solution and use as spray to plants to control mites, aphids, ants, etc.




Mannungal + coconut oil

   a.   Collect / gather / wash and clean mannungal plant.
   b.   Chop / cut plant into small pieces and pound plant to extract juice.
   c.   Filter / screen liquid juice.
   d.   Mix oil to the extract at 1:1 ratio and bottle the stock solution.
   e.   Add soap and water then spray to control farm and garden pests.




   Makabuhay plant

   a. Collect / gather / wash and clean makabuhay plant.
   b. Chop / cut plant into small pieces and pound plants to extract liquid and juice. Use grinder and
        presser for more efficient juice extraction.
   c.   Add 126 milliliters water to 5 grams pounded makabuhay.
   d.   Filter / screen the liquid stock solution and place in bottles.
   e.   Add soap, dilute with water and spray to plants to control leafhoppers, aphids, mites’ ants and
        other insect pests.




Makabuhay + Sili (Hot Pepper)

   a.   Collect / gather / wash and clean makebuhay and sili fruits.
   b.   Chop / cut separately makabuhay and sili fruits into small pieces.
   c.   Pound materials separately to extract juice. Use grinder and presser.
   d.   Mix: 50 grams pounded makabuhay to 126 milliliters water.

         1 cup pounded sili to 18.9 litters water

   e.   Filter and mix the two materials and bottle as stock solution.
   f.   Add soap and dilute with water before spraying to plants to control hoppers.
   g.   Bottles of prepared stock solution ready as organic pesticide.
   h.   Spraying plants for the control of garden pests and other farm crops such as rice green
        leafhoppers, etc.




        Marigold plant
a. Collect / gather / wash and clean marigold plant.
b. Pound marigold plant to extract liquid or juice. Use grinder and presser for big volume and more
     efficient juice extraction.
c.   Filter / screen the liquid portion.
d.   Add equal amount of water to the marigold juice.
e.   Dilute the stock solution (1Tbs stock solution to 1-pint water.
f.   Bottle solution for ready use.
g.   Add soap and spray to control mites, aphids, ants and worms.




Neem seeds

a.   Collect Neem seeds.
b.   Wash and remove the fleshy pulp and skin of the seeds.
c.   Dry the seeds under the sun for two to three days.
d.   Store the seed in airy containers (jute sacks or basket. Do not use plastic bags or containers with
     no aeration).
e.   Remove rotten kernels and pound slightly to remove covering shell.
f.   Pound or grind neem seeds to extract oil Use grinder.
g.   Soak the grounded kernels (20 – 50 gm per litter of water) and Filter the stock solution.
h.   Kneading of pounded kernel wet in little water to extract oil.




Red Pepper + Lemon grass leaves (tanglad) + Agdao Leaves

a. Collect / gather / wash and clean red pepper and lemongrass leaves.
b. Chop / cut to small pieces separately then pound to extract juice. Use hammer mill and grinder for
     big volume.
c. Filter / screen the materials separately.
d. Mix solution 1:1:1 ratio, 5 cc each and add 4 liters water for every 15 cc of stock solution.
e. Add soap and spray to plants. According to farmers experience it is 87% effective.



Pepper + Mannungal + Langkawas or Kalawag

Materials:

Hot pepper, Mannungal, Hagunoy, Langkawas or Kalawag, mortar and pestle

Water, containers for liquid, sharp knife, screen wire or filter clothe.

a. Collect / gather / wash and clean the different materials.
b. Cut the materials into small pieces then pound the materials separately. Use hammer mill and
     grinder.
c. Add and mix water as follows:
                      1 part pepper       + 5 parts water

         1 part mannungal + 1 part water

            1 part kalawag      + 1 part water

    d. Filter or screen the materials, mix them together as stock solution.
    e. Spray 1 liter stock solution to 16 liters spray load.
    f. Use to control whorl maggots, caseworm, etc.



   Sili (hot pepper) fruits as repellant

                      a.   Collect / gather / wash and clean sili fruits.
                      b.   Dry sili fruits under direct sunlight.
                      c.   Grind dried sili fruits into powder.
                      d.   Mix dried sili fruits powder with the seeds or grain before storing.




   Sili (Hot Pepper) + insecticides (chemical insecticide)

    a.    Collect / gather / wash and clean sili fruits (hot pepper).
    b.    Chop/ cut sili fruits into small pieces.
    c.    Pound the fruits to produce liquid or juice. Use grinder.
    d.    .Mix with water. I cup pounded sili to ½ cup water.
    e.    Filter / screen the material.
    f.    Add 6 tbs. insecticide and place stock solution in bottle.
    g.    For spraying, mix 3 tbs. of stock solution to 1 spray load (16 liters)




   Sili (Hot Pepper) + Makabuhay + Yellow Ginger + Onion

    a.    Collect / gather / wash and clean sili fruits, makabuhay, yellow ginger and onion.
    b.    Chop / cut the different materials into small pieces.
    c.    Pound to extract juice separately. Use grinder.
    d.    Mix the materials separately:

                 50 grams makabuhay + 126 milliliter water

. 1 cup ginger + 1 liter water

            1 cup onion      + 1 liter water

            1 handful sili + 18.9 liters water

    e. Mix all materials together, add 100 grams powdered soap and store.
f. Spray solution to control plant pests.




Tobacco leaves extract

a.   Collect / gather / wash and clean 5 pieces tobacco leaves.
b.   Chop / cut tobacco leaves into small pieces.
c.   Pound the leaves. Use grinder.
d.   Soak tobacco leaves in 5 liters water overnight.
e.   Filter / screen the stock solution.
f.   Bottle the stock solution ready for use.
g.   Spray plants to control pests attacking vegetables such as eggplant, tomatoes, sweet pepper and
     others.




Tobacco water brew from tobacco stems

a.   Collect / gather / wash and clean tobacco stems.
b.   Chop / cut tobacco stems into small pieces.
c.   Place the chopped tobacco stems in boiling water. Submerge the stems.
d.   Let it stand for several hours to cool.
e.   Mix 1 part tobacco brew to 4 parts plain water.
f.   Filter / screen the mixture and bottle.
g.   Spray to plants to control various insect pest and fungus.




Tubli roots

a.   Collect / gather / wash and clean tubli roots.
b.   Twist tubli roots until arm size and foot long. Burry the roots in moist soil for a week.
c.   Get tubli roots and pound. For every 1 part pounded roots add 3 parts water. Use grinder.
d.   Filter / screen the material. The liquid forms the stock solution.
e.   Place the stock solution in bottles as ready botanical pesticide.
f.   Spray the botanical pesticide against aphids, mites, ants and other insect pests.




Tubli Roots + Sili (Hot Pepper) Fruits, + Tobacco Leaves

a.   Collect / gather the different materials, wash and clean.
b.   Twist tubli roots until arm size and a foot long. Bury in moist soil for a week.
c.   Chop and cut the materials and pound them separately. Use grinder.
d.   Add water to the materials separately as follows:
          10 tobacco leaves     + 1 liter water

        1 part tubli roots   + 3 parts water

        1 handful sili fruits + 18.9 liters water

   e. Filter and mix the three materials in one container.
   f. Bottle the stock solution ready for use as botanical pesticide.
   g. Spray to plants to control a wide range of insect pests.

           Use same preparation as above. It is recommended to add soap as sticker and spreading
        agent.

   Chrysanthemum

   a.   Collect/gather Chrysanthemum flowers.
   b.   Dry the flowers under direct sunlight.
   c.   Grind/pound the dried material. Use grinder and presser.
   d.   Mix the grinded Chrysanthemum flower with fine clay loam soil. (9 parts Chrysanthemum + 1 part
        soil)
   e.   Mix 7 tbs. stock material with one-gallon water. Stock solution is now ready for spraying against
        wide range of insect pests.




   Lantana Camara

   a.   Collect / gather / wash and clean lantana camara branches.
   b.   Chop / cut materials into small pieces.
   c.   Dry lantana camara and burn the chopped branches.
   d.   Apply lantana camara ashes on the leaves of garden plants to control various beetles and leaf
        miners.




Mint, Oregano and other aromatic herbs

Plant these herbs all around the garden or farm perimeter fences. The strong odor, repel insects. They
are also use as medicine and spices. For every 100 square meters bed, plant 10 marigolds in the border
and intercrop 25 garlic or onion bulbs.


Onion Brew

            a. Collect / gather / wash and clean onion roots, stem and leaves with other aromatic herbs
                such as garlic, horseradish, red hot pepper, ginger, mustard and mint.
            b. Chop / cut the different materials into small pieces
            c. Pound or grind the different materials to extract the juice. Mix 50 parts juice of different
                materials with 50 parts water.
            d. Filter / screen the solution. Let it stay and allow it to ferment.
             e. Drench the plants with the stock solution to repel insects.



         Tomato stems and leaves.

    a.   Collect / gather / wash and clean tomato stem and leaves.
    b.   Chop/cut material into small pieces. Pound or grind materials.
    c.   Boil the material then cool. Mix 50 parts material 50 parts water.
    d.   Filter / screen the stock solution and bottle.
    e.   Spray the plants against caterpillar and black or green flies. This will serve as insect repellant.




                                                      HOC

                                         Herbal Organic Concentrate

                                    Pride product of Mindanao, Philippines

                                         For Natural Organic Farming

HOC (Herbal Organic Concentrate) is prepared from 100% herbal organic extracts and marine products
for Total Plant Care. It is use for Natural Organic and Biological Farming and improves crop
production. We have several formulations to meet specific requirements and need of plants. These are:
(HOC – GO, - ST, - 3n1 and 4n1)

The solution contains the essential plant food nutrients both macro and micro elements.

HOC is basically a foliar fertilizer with added properties as pest repellent, insecticide and fungicide. It
can also be applied as drench on soil at the base of plants and root zone. It helps control nematodes and
other soil borne pests and diseases.

Another added feature of HOC is it also contains amino acid that enhances plant growth and beneficial
microorganism that helps enrich the soil and fight pests and diseases. HOC - can replace many toxic chemicals
used in conventional farming. It is environment friendly.

CROPS: Plants found to respond well with HOC are rice, corn, vegetables, banana, papaya, fruit trees,
mango, durian, orchids, ornamental flowering plants and seedlings.

DOSAGE: Mix 1-2 tablespoon per gallon of clean water or 4-8 tablespoon per 16 liters knapsack sprayer,
or 1 liter per 200 liter dram. One liter is enough to cover one hectare of rice, corn, vegetables and short
row crops.

SPRAY FREQUENCY: Intervals of 3-7 days during critical stage of growth (flushing, flowering, fruiting),
15-30 days for maintenance, vegetative growth and rejuvenation.

BEST SPRAYING: Shake well HOC before mixing with water. Adjust your spray nuzzle to fine mist for
leaves, flower and fruits and fine for trunk, branches and the soil surrounding the base or root zone.. It is
advisable to spray the soil, trunk, branches and foliage of the crop for total coverage and maximum
efficacy.

STORAGE AND HANDLING: HOC is an organic compound with live beneficial microorganism. It is best
to store it in clean, dry, dark and cool place away form exposure to heat and light. Keep cap loose in
storage and tighten in handling and transport. Keep away from reach of children.

REX A. RIVERA

AGRONOMIST

11 Magsaysay Avenue, General Santos City

Email: rarivera8@yahoo.com

Tel. No. 083-301-0117

Mobile: 0905-242-2691




                                          Schedule of HOC Spraying


        RICE                                                     FRUIT TREES

            1.   Seedling stage in seedbed                         21. Spray at 15 days after planting
            2.   15-30-60 days after planting or broadcasting.     22. 15-30 days interval for maintenance
            3.   During booting (flowering) stage                  23. During flowering and fruit dev.
            4.   During grain formation period.                    24. Drench trunk and soil every 60 days



        CORN                                                     BANANA

            5.   Soak seeds in HOC (1% solution)                   25. Spray 15 days after planting
            6.   15-30 days after planting                         26. 15-30 days interval for maintenance
            7.   During tussling (flowering) stage                 27. Flower bud injection
            8.   During grain formation period.                    28. Drench stem and soil every 60 days



        VEGETABLES                                               DURIAN – MANGOSTEEN – LANZONES -
                                                                 RAMBUTAN
            9. 5-7 days after planting
            10. Weekly spray during growth, flowering and          29. Spray 15 days after planting
                 fruit development.                                30. 15-30 days interval for maintenance
                                                                   31. During flowering and fruit dev.
    11. Drench the soil once a month.                 32. Drench stem and soil every 60 days



ASPARAGUS                                           MANGO

    12. Spray at 7-15 days interval                   33. Spray at 15 days after planting
    13. Drench whole plant and soil after pruning     34. 30 days interval.for maintenance
        and every 30 days.                            35. During Flower induction
                                                      36. Spray at 7-14-20-DAFI - Flowering
                                                      37. 40-60-90 DAFI.- Fruit development


ORNAMENTAL GARDEN PLANTS
                                                    PAPAYA

    14. Spray once a week                             38. At seedling stage
    15. Drench plant and soil once a month.           39. 15-30 days interval during growth and
                                                            fruiting period.
                                                      40.   Drench stem and soil every 60 days

ROOT CROPS – PEANUTES, POTATO

    16. Spray at 15-30 days interval                POMELO – CALAMANSI
    17. Drench soil every 60 days.
                                                      41. Spray at seedling stage
                                                      42. 15 days after planting
                                                      43. 30 days interval at maintenance period
COFFEE - CACAO
                                                      44. During Flowering and fruit dev.
                                                      45. Drench trees and soil every 60 days
    18. Spray 15 -30 days interval during
        maintenance (vegetative growth).
    19. During flowering and fruit dev.
    20. Drench plant and soil every 60 days




                  USE OF INDIGENOUS RESISTANT OR TOLERANT

                             PLANT VARIETIES AND STRAIN

  Native or indigenous plants have adopted resistance to prevailing pests and diseases existing
in the local environment. They have survived decades if not century of adjustments.

  The introduction of hi-breeds and high yielding commercial seeds, have the tendency of
eliminating indigenous varieties because of farmers’ preference for the higher yielding potentials

 Seed breeding institutions like IRRI, IPB-UPLB and PHILRICE are keeping and maintaining
SEED BANKS to preserve the genes of indigenous crops or native varieties and strains. The Holy
    Father, Pope John Paul II during the visit of Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Aroyo
    September 29, 2003 at he Vatican, said the Church approves the use of GMO (Genetically
    Modified Organism) for Agriculture food production but not for human breeding which should be
    left to the natural laws of reproduction.

                       PRACTICE CROP ROTATION AND FOLLOWING

                                (Resting the soil for some time)

      Resting the soil by following or keeping the land uncultivated for one season or one year to
    bring back life and rejuvenate to restore the natural fertility and nutrients.

      Rotating crops is also one way of keeping the soil healthy as different crops have different root
    systems and level of absorption. Legumes like beans when inoculated with nitrogen fixing
    bacteria makes the soil more fertile when followed by grain crops like rice and corn.

      Crop rotation dissociates microorganism buildup around the plant roots as each crop has a
    characteristic microbial association. (Example is pro biotic and nitrogen fixing bacteria for
    legumes). New microbes are being developed to inoculate the seeds just before planting to
    introduce them into the soil and help in nitrogen fixation that enriches the soil in a natural
    process.

                            INTERCROPPING OF PEST REPELLANT HERBS

     There are a wide variety of plants that repel pests. Most of them have strong odor like marigold,
    mint, onion, tobacco, tomato, and others. Planting them on farm boarders or intercropping them
    with row crops can greatly reduce insect infestation.

                              INTEGRATED CROPPING PATTERN

                            TO CONTROL UNDESIRABLE WEEDS

      Toxic weeds can kill or reduce productivity of your crops. Weeding is very expensive especially
    in large farms. Growing low creeping grass like carabao grass and Arakis pintoy in orchard can
    save the farmer from expensive weeding and cultivation. Growing low creeping cover crops like
    kudzu and centrocema puvisence will both increase soil fertility being legumes and protect the
    soil from erosion and compaction due to rain and sun backing.

     Crop combination such as legumes and potatoes, control nematodes. Learn and find out the
    best crop partners and combinations. Marigold is repellant to nematodes

Growing the right crop on the right soil, climate and at the right time.

      Farmers have learned that seasonal crops have seasonal infestation. Planting earlier or later
    than the period the pest appear will both save the crop and avoid costly spraying and control
    measures.

     Planting during full moon was observed to be good for the crop as the magnetic force of the
    moon induces humidity even during dray months as it pulls up the soil surface underground
    water. The same force has an effect on the growing tissue of the plant.

                                      BIOLOGICAL FARMING
   The objectives of Biological Farming as part of Natural Farming is to produce food crops without the
use and traces of toxic synthetic chemical product. In this case, we will be using living organisms from the
microscopic beneficial fungus and bacteria to insects and animals and other life forms.


                                       BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL

                                    (The use of natural enemies of pest)

   There are many beneficial insects, birds; animals that help suppress the population of insect pest.
Providing them home and habitat within your farm will greatly lessen incidents of serious infestation.
Bacteria, yeast and fungus (BYM) Pro-biotic that fight bad bacteria and fungus; and damage the egg as
well as adult insect pests can be very helpful at low cost while renewable as they live and grow. We
encourage green belting and preserving a natural forest within your farm to host and preserve wild
animals, birds, insects and beneficial microorganisms.

    There are some insects that fight and eat other insects. Example is Trichogramma wasp, which is an
effective predator against most lepidopterous insects parasitize and feed on the eggs of corn borer, fruits
and sugarcane. It can help control durian and other fruit borer, tip and twig borer, eggplant and other
vegetable borers that infest seasonal and permanent crops. Except incomplete insects cycle like fruit fly,
aphids, leafhoppers, white fly and trips.

   The Department of Agriculture have trained farmers nationwide to prepare and use Trichogramma, but
few are still actively using the technology. One of them is Boy Bacus of Gen. Santos City who supplies
orders through RARE, 11 Magsaysay Avenue, Gen. Santos City, Tel. (083) 301-0117 or contact Cell No.
0917-746-2029.

    To preserve these beneficial insects and birds, maintain a green forest belt within your farm or garden.
Provide drinking water and birdbath. Keep the green belt from bird hunters and avoid disturbing them.
Attract wild life by planting shrubs, trees that bear berries and fruits. Encourage frogs and toads to stay in
the farm as they are very good predators of insect pests.

    Raise domestic fowls like chicken and ducks and allow them to feed on the range, or field where they
will not destroy young plants. Goose and Muscovy ducks can also help in weeding your field. The fowls
are early morning and late afternoon feeders, so you can release them to the field during these times.

                                       HOW BIOCONTROL WORKS




            The method of biological control or biocontrol makes use of natural agents such as
        friendly beneficial insects in controlling pests. The natural agents control the pest
        through:


            *PREDATION *PARASITIZATION *INFECTION

            The biological agents may be grouped as follows:

            o   Predators such as ladybird beetle, spiders, dragonflies and mites.
            o   Parasites such as Trichogramma, Braconids
            o   Pathogens such as bacteria and fungi which cause diseases.
        Advantages of biological, particularly the Trichogramma method:

    o   Safe to man, animals, fishes and birds.
    o   Safe to the environment with very high level (88-94%) of control
    o   Require less labor than the chemical control.
    o   Requires minimal expenses. Cheap compared to chemicals.




        Disadvantages:

    o   Very hard to rear commercially. It will need laboratory facilities secure, sanitized and
        away from other biological rearing facility.
    o   It will need constant attention and monitoring by expert workers.
    o   Due to complex parasites that will attack the host and feed competitors during rearing
        and field placement.
    o   Will need correct timing in rearing and field release that farmers should well understand
        and follow right application procedures.

                         TRICHOGRAMMA CONTROL METHOD




    The Trichogramma as a biological control of insect pest like Asian corn borer and other
borers is now the focus of interest of farmers avoiding the too much use of poisonous synthetic
chemicals that endangers the environment and health.

    Borers that infest rice, corn, fruits and vegetables and are among the most destructive pests
that reduces the yield and income of the farmers. To control insect borers, many farmers use
toxic chemical insecticides. An alternative control is the use of biological control method using the


   PARASITOID WASP TROCHOGRAMMA.

   Trichogramma species are tiny wasps less than 1 mm in size which parasitize the egg of over
200 variety of insect pests, among which is the corn borer, rice borer and fruit borers, bollworms,
diamond back moth and other insects with soft and hairless eggs.

   Trichogramma are produced in laboratories, following mass rearing techniques. About 1,500 –
2000 Trichogramma are glues onto cards about 2”x2” in size. These Trichogramma carrying
cards are the Trichocards, which are placed in the cornfield following a distribution, patterning
about 10 meters apart. The Trichocards are hung on corn plants.

Trichogramma completes is life cycle from egg to egg in 7-8 days following the stages:

                       EGG  LATRVA  PUPA  Wasp  EGG

    The Trichogramma wasp lays eggs on the host, the corn borer eggs. After a day the
Trichogramma egg develop into a larva which feed on the content of the corn borer egg. The corn
borer eggs are destroyed and no corn borer, later develop. This is why the Trichogramma is
called a parasite.
            Some 3-5 days after, the Trichogramma larva have developed, they change into pupae. At
        this stage the whitish corn borer eggs turn black in color indicating that Trichogramma has
        parasitized them.

            The adult Trichogramma wasp emerges from the parasitized egg of the borer 7-8 days after the
        Trichogramma oviposition. Newly hatched Trichogramma Wasp mate and then reach for fresh corn borer
        eggs to parasitize.

                                      CONTROLING CORN BORER




    A CORN BORER EGG MASS CONTAINS ABOUT 30-40 EGGS. A Trichogramma wasp is capable of
parasitizing 60-70 corn borer eggs. One Trichogramma generation succeeds another as long as
Trichogramma find borer eggs to feed on. Many of the Trichogramma dies after the corn cropping season
due to the absence of corn and corn borer. Some survive by feeding on borer eggs found on grasses and
other crops such as sugarcane, sorghum, and palay and fruit trees.

   In transporting Trichocards, be sure they are not exposed to heat as they easily die in high
temperature. Keep them dry. Place them on plants with the side of the card with eggs facing the plant. It
needs 70-100 Trichocards per hectare.

   Frequency of application:

   Corn. Rice Sorghum 2-3 times at 7 days interval.

   Fruit trees (Durian, etc.) 7-11 times at 2 days and 7 day’s interval.

   Other crops (Cacao, etc.) 2-7 times at 2 days and 7 days interval.

   Day of application: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

    The proper instruction in applying Trichogramma shall be made by the Entomologist providing
Trichocards or strips.

     For corn, Trichocards are placed on the third or fourth leaf from the ground. Place at the fourth and
fifth week after planting. Distance of placement is 12 meter or 17 steps apart.

                                                    BRACONID




   Brac-o-nid (brakanid) Plural: braconids, Family: Braconidae

   Parasitic fly: A fly whose larvae lives as parasite on other insects.

        Braconid Wasp is a larvae parasites that will attack on larvae of any insect pests that will
        undergo larval stages and later the larvae will die and many braconids will emerge on a single
        dead larvae. It also attacks flies, beetles and aphids. It can be either endo or ecto parasites in
        living hosts.

        How to set up a Braconid field rearing station.
         Unlike trichogramma, were egg cards are placed on plants at interval of 10 meters, Braconids
     are set in the field in shaded boxes where feeds, host larvae and braconids are reared and
     released.

         1. Construct a field shed to house the boxes containers, protected with screen from
              predators and water or oil barriers from ants.
         2.   Rear initial set of braconids in the laboratory for field placement.
         3.   Place the braconids infested larvae in containers with ready feeds (rice or corn grits and
              brand) at the field shed stations.
         4.   When population of braconids reaches to the desired level, stop feeding to make the
              braconids fly out and look for insect pest larvae to parasitize.
         5.   To increase population again, introduce more barconid infested larvae and feeds into the
              rearing containers at the field stations.

                                                  BIO - IPM




     IPM is a kind of management using different strategies and techniques such as cultural, biological
     and chemical in controlling insect pests and diseases in agricultural crops.

     Three (3) kinds of insect control:

1. Cultural control: Land preparation, cultivation, cropping pattern, irrigation and drainage, pruning
     and thinning, etc.
2.   Biologolical : Using predators, parasites and pathogens.
3.   Chemical: The use of chemical or organic biological preparations as insecticides or insect
     repellant.




     Basic biological control procedure:

                  1. Introduction of potential natural enemies.
                  2. Augmentation through periodic release of natural enemies.
                  3. Conservation by maintaining an alternate food for the natural enemies while the
                      pest population is low.




     Biological control agents:

1. Predators such as ants, ladybird beetle, lace wings, spider, preying mantis, hover flies, birds,
     frogs, etc.
2.   Pathogens such as Bacteria and fungus like mf, bt, npv, etc.
3.   Parasites like Trichogramma and Braconids.
     Different kinds of chemical pesticides:

1.   Insecticides for insect pests.
2.   Fungicide for fungus or mold.
3.   Bactericide for bacteria.
4.   Nematocide for nematodes.
5.   Herbicide for weeds or herbs.
6.   Rodenticide for rodents or rats.
7.   Acaricide for trips and mites.




     The above information can help farmers lower their cost of production, protect the environment
     from degradation, preserve the ecosystem and bio-diversity as well as producing healthful food
     crops that are safe and free from toxic chemical residues causing ailments.

                                     MICRO-BIOLOGICAL FARMING




     Bacteria, yeast and molds are now being introduced in Agriculture to help farmers grow crops
     with lesser or no dependence on toxic synthetic chemicals. Some of the products now available in
     the market for mango culture are:

                 a. MYCOMET (Metharizium anisopliae) M.a. is a pure culture of beneficial soil
                     inhabiting fungus that is used for the biological control of more than 300 species
                     of insects and athropods. It is used in controlling aphids, beetles, leaf miner, fruit
                     borers, earworm, crickets, diamond back moth, worms, hoppers, locust,
                     nematodes, black bug, housefly, spittle bug, white grub weevil, wireworm, thrips,
                     ticks, termites, cockroaches, whiteflies and other insect pests.




                 b. MYCOBO (Beuvaria bassiana) discovered by Balsamo Vuillemin, is a pure
                     culture of beneficial fungus that is used as a biological control agent to parasitize
                     insects. This is used in controlling more than 200 species of insects. Among
                     them are anta, aphids, diamond back moth, cockroaches, mealybugs, psyllids,
                     thrips, whitefly, and termites.




             These two products are cultures by Gracia Corporation, 25 Agripino Neri Sr. St. (S of
             NFA) Baloy, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines. Tel. No. (088)-855-2627, cell no. 0920-
             288-1045 Contact person: Mr. Sandy Emperio, brother of Dr. Enrico Emperio who
             introduced this beneficial fungus from Hawaii.


                         KOREAN TECHNOLOGY ON ORGANIC FARMING

1. IMO – Indigenous Microbial Organism
       (For composting inoculant)

       a.   Mix 1 kilo cooked rice with 1 kilo muscovado sugar.
       b.   Place in earthen jar or plastic pail.
       c.   Cover with clean Manila paper and fasten with rubber strip.
       d.   Allow to ferment for 7 to 14 days.
       e.   Separate the juice in clean container and seal, ready for use.
       f.   Dosage and usage: Mix 4 tbsp I 1 liter of water or 1 litter IMO to 100 liters water and
            spray on plants and soil root zone. Spray on hog feeds and animal manure to eliminate
            malodor. Use IMO as inoculants in composting degradable organic matter.




2. OC – Organic Compost formulation and making

      (For composting inoculant)

       a. Materials to be used:

                1.   100 kilos or 2 bags of rice or corn brand.
                2.   100 kilos or 2 bags of top soil.
                3.   0.5 kilo IMO (Indigenous Microbial Organism).
                4.   0.5 kilo FFAA (Fermented Fish Amino Acid).

       b. Mix thoroughly the above materials and cover with plastic sheet.
       c. Ferment the materials for 7 to 14 days.
       d. IMO and FFAA can also be used as inoculants in making compost with the use of
            sawdust or hammer-milled corncobs with chicken dung or other animal manure.




3. FFAA – Fermented Fish Amino Acid formulation

        (For foliar fertilizer and growth activator)

       a.   Mix 1 kilo unwashed fresh trash fish with 1 kilo muscovado sugar or molasses.
       b.   Place in earthen jar or plastic pail.
       c.   Cover with clean Manila paper and fasten with rubber strip.
       d.   Allow the materials to ferment for 7 to 14 days
       e.   Squeeze out the juice and place in a clean container and seal.
       f.   Collect the solid fishbone to be used for making calcium nutrient spray formula for plants.
       g.   Juice is used as foliar fertilizer to induce vegetative growth.
       h.   Dosage: 1 liter FFAA to 1 drum (200 liters) of water or 1 ml FFAA to 1 liter of water.




4. CPN – Calcium for Plant Nutrient formulation

        (For Foliar Fertilizer)
       a.   Crush 1 kilo egg shell and burn.
       b.   Mix with 10 liters of pure coconut vinegar.
       c.   Place in a jar and cover with clean Manila paper. Fasten with rubber strip.
       d.   Let it stay in the jar for 3 weeks, and ad 2 kilos fishbone. (Fishbone from making FFAA
            can be used.)
       e.   After 4 weeks, the liquid can be used as Calcium Nutrient spray on plants.
       f.   Dosage: 1 ml to 1 liter of water or 1 litter to 1 drum (200 liters) water




5. FFJ – Fermented Fruit Juice formulation

       (For foliar Fertilizer and drench fertilizer for seedlings)

       a. Mix 1 kilo chopped banana or other fruits (except citrus), and mix with 1 kilo muscovado
            or molasses.
       b.   Place in an earthen jar or plastic pail.
       c.   Cover with clean Manila paper and tie with rubber strip.
       d.   Allow to ferment for 7 to 14 days and separate the juice in clean container & seal.
       e.   Usage: Animal drink nutrient enhancement.
       f.   Dosage: Mix 1 liter FFJ to 1 drum (200 liters) of water or 1 ml FFJ to 1 liter water




6. FPJ – Fermented Fruit Juice formulation

   (For Foliar Fertilizer or drench fertilizer for seedlings)

       a. Mix 1 kilo chopped banana pseudo stem) 2 feet long on the upper most section to be
            taken at 5 a.m.
       b.   Mix with 1 kilo muscovado or molasses and place in a jar or plastic pail.
       c.   Cover the mouth of the jar with clean Manila paper and fasten with rubber strip.
       d.   Allow to ferment for 7 to 14 days and squeeze out the juice.
       e.   Usage: Hog and livestock drink.
       f.   Dosage: 1 liter of FPJ to 1 drum (200 litters) of water or 1ml FPJ to 1 liter water.




7. LABS – Lactic Acid Bacterial Serum formulation

        (For Foliar Fertilizer or seedling drench)

       a.   Mix 1 kilo uncooked brown rice and or fresh milk with 1.5 liters water inside a jar.
       b.   Cover the jar with clean Manila paper and tie with rubber strip.
       c.   Allow to ferment for 7 to 14 days.
       d.   Usage: The juice can be used as soil conditioner or fertilizer.
       e.   Dosage: Mix 2 ml juice with 1 liter of water. (1 tbs. per gallon water).
    8. OHN – Oriental Herbal Nutrient formulation using GARLIC

             (For Foliar insect repellant and fungicide)

             a. Mix 1 kilo clean ginger, crushed by stone of wood (no metal implement should be used),
                  with 1 kilo muscovado sugar or molasses and place in a jar.
             b.   Pour in a bottle of gin, Ginebra San Miguel 40% proof.
             c.   Cover the mouth of the jar with a clean Manila paper and tie it with a rubber strip.
             d.   Allow to ferment for 7 to 14 days.
             e.   Usage: OHN is used as spray against insects and fungi.
             f.   Dosage: 3 ml OHN (garlic) mix with 1 liter of water. (1.5 tbs per gallon)




    9. OHN – Oriental Herbal Nutrient formulation using GINGER

   (For foliar insect repellant and fungicide)

    a. Mix 1 kilo clean ginger, crushed by stone of wood (no metal implement should be used), with 1
         kilo muscovado sugar or molasses and place in a jar.
    b.   Pour in a bottle of gin, Ginebra San Miguel 40% proof.
    c.   Cover the mouth of the jar with a clean Manila paper and tie it with a rubber strip.
    d.   Allow to ferment for 7 to 14 days.
    e.   Usage: OHN is used as spray against insects and fungi.
    f.   Dosage: 3 ml OHN (ginger) mix with 1 liter of water.(1.5 tbs. per gallon)




    10. ST – Seed Treatment for germination



   Dosage and treatment of liquid formulations

0.2 % FPJ

0.2 % BRV (Brown Rice Vinegar) or Coconut vinegar.

0.2 % OHN (0.1 % OHN Garlic + 0.1 % OHN Ginger)

Mix the above formulations together with water.

How to use: Soak the seeds to be germinated for 4 to 8 hours. For slow germinating seeds, soak the
seeds for a longer time.

    11. SW – Sea Water usage as spray for plants against diseases
Get sea water from the blue colored area or deep portion where water is clear and uncontaminated with
land pollution. Mix 1 liter of seawater with 30 ml fresh water in a plastic container and let it stay for a
duration of 2 days. The mixture can then be used as spray on disease infected plants.

USAGE GUIDE:

IMO – For early vegetative growth.

FFJ – For early vegetative stage.

FPJ – For early vegetative stage.

FFAA – For late growth stage and bearing period.

SW – For late growth stage and bearing period.




                                          HOW TO PREPARE FAA

                                              (Fish Amino Acid)

                                              FOLIAR FERTIZER

                     (Growth hormone with insect and disease control properties)

   Materials:

   Trash fish    5 kilos

   Moscovado / Kinugay or molasses 5 kilos

   Cooked rice or corn grits.   2 kilos

   Herbal mix (garlic, ginger, hot pepper) 3 kilos

   Aloe vera    1 kilo

   Probiotics (beneficial microorganism) 5 ml

   Coconut water (tuba) or natural vinegar 2 gallons

   Plastic container with cover 5 gallon capacity

       Other herbal plants that may be added:

   Hagunoy, Makabyhay or Panyawan. 2 kilos

       Procedure:
Chop, grind or pound solid materials like fish and herbal mix.

Place all the above ingredients in the Plastic container and mix.

Cover the container with cheesecloth or Manila paper and tie securely.

Let it ferment for 15 to 30 days

Mix materials from time to time (every 5 days)

Gather the fermented juice and place in bottles or plastic containers.

Cover tightly and store in dry cool and dark place until needed for use.

Use:

This will serve as foliar fertilizer, insect repellant and fungicide

For foliar spray mix 2 tbs. juice (FAA) to 1 gallon water or

1 liter FFA to 100 liters water.




                                   HOW TO MAKE YOUR OWN SUGAR




Materials:

Sugar cane juice or fresh coconut juice (tuba)

Big cooking stainless steel basin

Wooden mixing ladle

Stove and fuel

Procedure:

Press fresh sugarcane to extract juice - 08.0% sucrose content

Or gather fresh coconut juice (tuba)      - 16.8% sucrose content
   Place in the cooking basin

   Boil to dehydrate

   Mix continuously until totally dry and dehydrated with wooden ladle.

   Place the dehydrated brown sugar (moscovado) in clean dry containers.

   Ready for storage and use.

   Uses:

   May be used for food, food preparation and processing

   Feed additive for poultry and livestock

   For bioorganic preparations and additive.


                                HOW TO MAKE VIRGINE COCONUT OIL

   Processing virgin coconut oil right in your own home and kitchen is

   very easy and simple.

   Grit the meat of freshly opened mature coconut.

   Pour a little water and mush the greeted coconut meat.

   Press to extract the coconut milk.

   Let the milk stay overnight or for 10 to 12 hours.

   The water will settle down the container and the oil will float.

   Drain out the water.

   Heat the oil in stainless steel kettle in 45 to 70 degrees temperature for 15 to 30 minutes to remove
and evaporate remaining water in the oil. Better heat oil in double kettle where the first has water in direct
contact with fire and the other with oil inside the casserole with heated water.

   Place the virgin coconut oil in bottle and seal.

   Store in room temperature away from sunlight.

Another way of preserving virgin oil is by freezing instead of heating.

Virgin coconut oil is used for various purposes. It is used for medication, beauty and body skin ointment,
cooking oil, lubricant, fuel, etc. It does not get rancid when the right procedure is done.
                          TAKING CARE OF YOUR SOIL THE NATURAL WAYS

    Several researches have found that declining crop yield is related to the loss of soil quality. Soils are
threatened by water and wind erosion, salinisation, and nutrient depletion, chemical interference that kills
microbiological soil born organisms and other things.

   Soil depletion is causing sever impact on agriculture like what is now happening in the Philippines. We
are just now waking up to the growing magnitude of soil depletion in most agricultural lands using
conventional farming, heavily dependent on chemical fertilization, herbal, pest and disease control. The
Ecological Society of the Philippines headed by its president Antonio M. Claparols is very much
concerned on the deteriorating soil condition of the country.

   Global warming makes things worse. As the ground heat up, organic matter decompose more rapidly,
reducing soil fertility, releasing carbon dioxide which increase the warming effects. High priority for soil
restoration through carbon sequestration or storing carbon in the soil securely so that it is not easily re-
emitted through soil conservation and incorporation of organic fertilizers.

    Composts are natural fertilizers that supply soils with vital plant nutrients helping to retain water and
air. It restores soil structure, soil carbon anti-biotic activity. Compost or organic fertilizers improves soil
texture, helps to control weeds, pest and diseases.

    The prices of commercial chemical fertilizers price are skyrocketing, beyond the purchasing power of
the marginal farmers. Attention is now focused on teaching and encouraging farmers and entrepreneurs
to invest on the production of organic fertilizers.

    Organic fertilizers can easily be made by farmers from readily available materials such as plant leaves
and residues, animal waste and other biodegradable substances. They do not have to buy or get credit to
make their own fertilizer and soil conditioners. Soil fertility and health can also be restored with resting the
soil for a year or two, green manure, incorporating crop residue with soil during land preparation or
cultivation, and planting of trees along farm boarders and banks of waterways.

    The Philippines is among the 17 most bio-diverse countries in the world. Part of the Philippines
treasure are the large forest trees which are rapidly vanishing. Trees are contributing to the ecological
balance as they help clean the air and conserve water. One hectare of forest is needed to supply the
fresh nitrogen needed by 40 persons.

   Trees and wild vegetation are not only needed in the countryside and farming areas, but more so in
communities and urban areas where population density is high. Urban gardens and soils can be improved
by growing trees and using organic compost fertilizers.




                                USE OF ORGANIC COMPOST FERTILIZER

                                      AND BIO MICRO INOCULANTS

        Organic compost fertilizer is the closest we can return to natural farming. The emerging farming
        system is towards the use of organic fertilizer in combination with chemical fertilizer.
        There are now available in the market several Pro-biotic like BYM and Tricograma that helps
        hasten the breakdown and decomposition of organic cellulous materials to convert them into
        organic fertilizer.

        Simple way of preparing organic compost:

        The old practice is the sandwich type where different organic materials or waste are pilled layer
        after layer like plant residue + animal waste + soil and repeat the process until reaching a meter
        high. Keep it moist and insert a bamboo with ventilated holes to aerate until the material
        decomposes. Then mix the material and keep it moist until totally decomposed. Aerate and
        expose to sunlight before applying as fertilizer.

        The new practice is chopping or hammer-milling the organic materials then spraying pro-biotic to
        the mass, keep it moist and cover with plastic sheet to avoid dehydration. Mix the mass at least
        once a week. With sufficient digester (microorganism or pro-biotic) it will take less than a month to
        convert organic materials into ready to use fertilizer.

        Mixing a combination of different organic materials both plant and animal source will insure a
        more complete nutrient content of the organic fertilizer. Pro-biotic spray or inoculation of the
        compost will present destructive and undesirable microorganisms to grow. The odor becomes
        pleasant.


                                                 COMPOST

    Composting, essentially a rapid self heating process by which organic material is decomposed and
stabilized, was practiced by ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans and is even mentioned in religious
texts. During the past 20 years, this time honored practice has developed into a robust waste-
management technology that generates valuable organic soil amendments.

    Biological treatment technologies may be either aerobic or anaerobic. Aerobic systems use
oxygen, but anaerobic ones don’t. Both may use heat to fuel the reactions that break down organic matter
in manure. In composting, heat is generated by microbes that digest organic matter. After decomposition,
it will be good to sanitize the organic compound by drying or exposing it to sunlight for a day or
two.


   “Nutrient stabilization in composted manure allows soil microbes and plants to use the nutrients in a
slow-release and beneficial manner. Compost may even help reduce demand for nitrogen in certain
crops.” Says Patricia Miller of the Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland

    Composting is one of several technologies used to treat animal manure, sewage sludge, and other
organic residuals, which may contain pathogens or parasites of public health concern. In any manure
slurry system, solid can be composted. Liquids can be further processed to stabilize nitrogen and
phosphorus in soluble forms compatible with current nutrient-management requirements.

    Soil structure is easy to improve with compost. Organic matter is the most important source of plant
nutrients contributing to the fertility of the soil. Compost material sustains healthy plant growth by
providing food for both living microorganisms, speeding up their multiplication and absorption of the roots.
Organic matter ha also dual role that helps water move through the soil and at the same time improve the
soil’s water holding capacity. Unlike depleted soils of organic matter, soils rich in humus retain a good
surface and do not crust or clod after heavy rains. Aeration is good in humus rich soils and this important
factor means root growth is good. Organic matter also acts as storage for nutrients, increases cat ion
exchange capacity and acts as a regulator for nutrients, so they are not all releases at one time.
                          HOW TO PREPARE YOUR OWN LACTO BASILLAI

LACTO BASILLAI is one of the beneficial microorganisms called pro-biotic. It helps in the breaking down
of cellulose fibers and converts organic materials into humus and fertilizer. Producing your own stock of
lacto bacilli can easily by done using the following procedure:

                             1. Use rice wash or finely grounded grain preferably brown rice mix in
                                   water.
                             2. Place in a wide plastic basin and cover loosely to allow ventilation.
                             3. Allow it to ferment for 7 days. Bacteria including lacto bacilli in air will
                                   infect solution.
                             4.    Strain liquid and place in bigger plastic container.
                             5.    Add 10 parts milk (skim, powdered, condensed or fresh) Milk is best feed
                                   for lacto bacilli will multiply rapidly and overgrow other bacteria in
                                   solution. .
                             6.    Cover loosely to allow ventilation and ferment for another one week.
                             7.    The flotsam consisting of fats, carbohydrate and protein contain lacto
                                   bacilli.
                             8.    Scoop the flotsam and mix with food or feed materials. A yellow colored
                                   liquid will form containing a great concentration of lacto bacilli.
                             9.    Store in refrigeration or room temperature.
                             10.   Mix liquid in equal quantity of rough brown sugar, moscovado or
                                   molasses.
                             11.   Mix stock solution in 20 parts water. Use to is with compost materials.
                             12.   Dosage: Use 2-4 tbs. per gallon water and spray to plants.




                                        HOW TO MAKE COMPOST

   The sandwich method:

            a. Organic materials such as animal waste, plant waste and topsoil are placed in layers one
                 on top of the other until they reach a high of 3 feet.
            b.   The material is watered moist and covered with coconut leaves or plastic sheet in order
                 that moisture will be retained.
            c.   Mix the compost pill after two weeks, moist and cover again.
            d.   Repeat mixing once a week, until the compost materials are totally decompose with the
                 appearance of soil.
            e.   Dry in direct sunlight to kill or eliminate unwanted microorganisms such as fungus and
                 bacteria.
            f.   The material is now ready for use or placed in sacks for storage or shipment.
          Biological fast composting:

                                      a. Gather the organic material, chop or hammer mill and mix
                                           thoroughly.
                                      b. Water them moist with pro-biotic microorganism (lactobacilli or
                                           trichoderma) mixed in the water.

                     3. Cover the compost pile with plastic sheet.
                     4. Mix the material every week.
                     5. It will usually take only 4 weeks to totally decompose the material with the aid of
                          the microorganisms that help digest the cellulose materials.
                     6.   Sundry the decomposed organic material (fertilizer) to kill unwanted
                          microorganisms.
                     7.   The material is now ready for use or bagging for storage or shipment.




          Field composting:

                                      a. After harvest and just before plowing and land preparation,
                                           gather the organic materials, chop or hammer mill.
                                      b.   Spread the materials evenly in the field. In case the plant waste
                                           residues are in the field, then step a. will not be necessary.
                                      c.   Spray the organic material in the field with pro-biotic
                                           microorganism.
                                      d.   Plow and disk-harrow the field to mix the organic material with
                                           the soil.
                                      e.   If possible do the above operation just before an expected rain or
                                           irrigate the field after the plowing of cultivation. This will allow the
                                           microorganism to work fast, and multiply. In the process,
                                           digesting the organic material into organic fertilizer or soil
                                           amendment.




   Note that the pro-biotic organisms will continue working in the soil, as long as favorable conditions like
adequate soil moisture and presence of organic materials.



Steps in composting with wild sunflower:

    1.   Look for a suitable area, partly or fully shaded.
    2.   Gather compost materials such as rice straw, animal manure, and other farm waste.
    3.   Collect wild sunflower and chop the young stem and leaves into small pieces.
    4.   Stick a bamboo with holes to serve as ventilator of the compost pile.
    5. Pile crops residue and farm waste in the following sequence: rice straw, sunflower, manure, soil
          and repeat the layering. Proportion: 2-3 parts fresh sunflower, 1 part rice straw, 2 parts manure
          and 1 part soil.
    6.    Water the pile until thoroughly wet.
    7.    Cover pile with leaves, sack or plastic sheet to minimize evaporation.
    8.    Check the moisture every 2 days, and wet in case compost dry up.
    9.    Check also the temperature. If it is warm, then decomposition is taking place.
    10.   After 3 to 4 weeks, check the compose pile and if it has turn into soil humus physical form it is
          most likely ripe.
    11.   In case the compose will not immediately be used, air dry before placing into sacks or in a shady
          dry place.




Farmers are encouraged to implement simple and inexpensive ways of producing organic fertilizers
through the use of indigenous technology. They may adopt other methods of composting by using other
materials and plant waste available in their respective farms.

                                            VEMICOMPOSTING

VERMICOMPOSTING is composting plant materials with worms. The advantage of vermi-composting to
that of the usual conventional compost pile is that the process is faster and the resulting organic soil is
richer in certain nutrients provided by the earthworms themselves. It is rich in Humic acid, which is a
growth promoting.

   African Night Crawler (Eudrilis eugeniae) earthworm are incredible eaters and will eat and expel their
own weight every day when conditions are right. It takes 60 days or less for fresh organic waste to be
converted into compost fertilizer. Our native earthworm may also be employed.

Steps in Vermi-composting:

                                      f. Have a shed for the composting site to protect the worms from
                                           direct sunlight and from torrential rains to be able to do their work
                                           undisturbed. The worms need a good living condition, dimly lit
                                           area to live in with enough moisture.
                                      g.   Construct a storage area for digested compost before it is
                                           screened and bagged.
                                      h.   Construct the compost bed for worms to digest with concrete
                                           hollow blocks three blocks high with a depth of 30-45 cm., 1
                                           meter wide by 2 meters long or longer. Be sure that the soil bed
                                           is well drained under the composting bed. The worms will not
                                           escape into the soil if there is available food to digest.
                                      i.   Use a shredder or hammer mill to crush the organic materials
                                           into small particles easy to decompose and eaten by the
                                           earthworms. Good food: They need 25% nitrogen from legumes
                                           like madre de cacao and ipil-ipil leaves, chicken droppings and
                                           cattle dung, etc. and 75% carbon source like grasses, rice and
                                           corn stalks, cogon and sugarcane tops.
                                      j.   Mixing old animal manure and chicken droppings (2 months old)
                                           with shredded vegetable waste will improve the nutrient content
                                           of the finish product. Do not use fresh manure for the ammonia
                                           produced will give discomfort to the worms.
                                     k. Water the bed from time to time to keep them moist but not
                                          flooded so as not to drown the worms.
                                     l.   Fence off or screen in the beds to keep out chickens, birds,
                                          rodents and other pest that will eat or bother the worms in the
                                          wormery.
                                     m.   Mix a little ordinary soil to the fresh shredded vegetable materials
                                          before introducing the worms.
                                     n.   Place one kilogram of worms per square meter for fast
                                          composting. 10-20 pieces may do to start with but it will take
                                          longer time to compost while the worms breed to increase their
                                          number. A kilo of worms are sold for P500 and they breed fast in
                                          two months.
                                     o.   Inoculating and spraying the compost materials with pro-biotic
                                          bacteria will help fast tract decomposition and the worms to
                                          digest the compost in much shorter time.
                                     p.   When the compost is digested, the worms become less active. It
                                          is time to herd them to another compartment with fresh food
                                          materials. As they leave, the digested compost is ready for
                                          harvest and transferred to the stocking or holding area for
                                          screening, drying and packing.
                                     q.   Harvesting will be easier by allowing the bed with completely
                                          digested compost material to dry up so the worms will move to
                                          the next compartment with moisture and fresh shredded
                                          vegetable food materials.
                                     r.   Screen the material with ¼ inch mesh before weighing and
                                          bagging for sale. A 50 kilo bag humus is sold for P150 to P300 to
                                          gardeners. If you use it in your own farm, there is no need of
                                          screening. (Note: Commercial imported chemical fertilizer today
                                          prices have gone over P600 per 50 kilo bag)




The worm’s feces are called vermin-casting or humus. Compost takes 2-3 months to decompose, while
shredded materials fed to worms takes only 15-21 days.

Advantages of Vermicomposting:

   1. Environment friendly. The use of organic fertilizer, vermin-casting of humus is one, revives the
        soil fertility level and brings back life to soil environment, improves soil texture and improves
        water holding capacity.
   2.   Economical. Investment on vermicomposting is only about P2.00 per kilo while commercial
        chemical fertilizer cost P8-15 per kilo.
   3.   Higher Crop Yield. Humus have shown its potency in inducing higher crop yield for a longer
        period. Vermi-casting humus is found to be more effective compared to ordinary compost and
        chemical fertilizers.
   4.   Market Potential is Very Big. Organically grown food crops are increasing in market demand.
        Organic fertilizer has likewise increase in use as imported commercial fertilizer have been
        increasing its prices.
   5.   No imported inputs required. Farmers can make their own organic fertilizer from farm waste
        materials. This means no dependence on imports and oil price fluctuations.
   6.   Healthful. Organic farming is considered as healthful way of growing food crops.
    7. Lesser risk. Producing your own fertilizer will make you unaffected by exchange rates and
          fluctuation changes in the prices of other commodities. There is less or no risk at all producing
          your own fertilizer and even selling excess requirement of your own farm.
    8.    Undemanding laborers. The worms themselves them selves are the workers converting farm
          waste materials into organic plant food nutrients.
    9.    Big savings. Producing your own fertilizer is a big savings and cost cutting for the farmers.
    10.   Income-earner. This technology can help farmers earn more from their farm waste




                                          MAGGOT COMPOSTING

          Instead of using earthworm, a simple natural process has been discovered in fast composting. A
          mixture of sawdust and chicken or quail droppings are placed in a compost pile covered with
          shed. The maggots eat up the cellulose in a few weeks instead of several months. To prevent the
          maggots to complete its cycle to adult flies, chickens are allowed to scratch and peak the growing
          maggots, a source of animal protein. Spraying or drenching the compost pile with pro-biotic
          microorganisms (beneficial bacteria and fungi) will help hasten decomposition and prevent foul
          odor.


                                             SLUDGE FERTILIZER




   Liquid sewage sludge being disposed as communal waste contain essential elements needed by
crops, making it a potential organic fertilizer and soil conditioner for sugarcane farms, corn fields, rice
lands and even fruit orchards and vegetable gardens.

   In a research conducted by Luzon Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LAREC) of the Sugar
Regulatory Administration (SRA) in cooperation with Manila Water Company, Inc., the use of liquid
sewage sludge for agricultural purposes was assessed to determine its effects on the growth and yield of
sugarcane. The study was conducted at LAREC R&D Farm at Floridablanca, Pampanga.

   It was confirmed the application of liquid sewage sludge in the barren sandy lahar deposits of
Floridablanca, Pampanga the soil became richer and sustain healthy and productive sugar cane,
compared with untreated field.




                              COMPOSTING CROP RESIDUE IN THE FIELD
   Rice and corn are among the traditional crops grown by Filipino farmers. As the usual practice is
removing the debris and burn them to clear the land and cultivate for next planting. Tones of organic
materials are wasted and lost.

   Organic farmers spread rice straw and corn cubs back to the field immediately after harvest. They are
sprayed with beneficial microorganisms or pro-biotic or bacteria and plowed under. In 4 weeks, they are
decomposed and the field is ready for land preparation for new planting.

    This practice is also being started with big pineapple and banana plantations in Mindanao. Some
sugarcane planters found the benefit of composting cane residue in the field instead of the usual practice
of burning after harvest then cultivating and fertilizing. Field composting of crop residue help retain and
improve soil fertility, at the start reduces the use of chemical fertilizer to the time that no more synthetic
fertilizer is needed.

    Coconut trees and other fruit trees have lots of leaves, bracts, twigs, flowers and fruits that fall to the
grown. When these materials are allowed to decompose beneath the trees, they turn into humus and
fertilizer to the trees. Unfortunately, because of clean culture, they are removed and burned. Teaching the
farmers to return the crop residue to the soil from where they came from will both enrich the soil and
sustain productivity of the trees without relying solely on chemical or synthetic fertilizers.



                                            GREEN MANURING

    Green manuring is the is the planting of seasonal crops usually legumes like beans and plowing them
under at their tender age during flowering and early fruiting when they are rich in nutrients. Plowing under
weeds and grasses, allowing them to decompose is also green manuring. Spraying them with pro-biotic
will hasten their decomposition. These practices have long been done by farmers’ century back, until
commercial chemical fertilizers have been introduced to the market.



                                            COVER CROPPING

   Cover cropping is the growing of low crawling plants usually leguminous vines like centrocema
pubisence and kudsu to protect the soil surface from water erosion, prevent the growth of noxious weeds
and help increase soil fertility. These are grown beneath fruit trees and taller crops.




                                  INDIGENOUS POTTING MATERIALS

   Garden soils have been the usual potting materials for gardeners. However there are different Potting
mix and indigenous materials that gardeners and nursery operators may use. Here are some of the
suggestions offered to readers by Anthony Gaw of Aim Trading Corporation, Calihan, San Pedro City,
Laguna with Telex (049) 800-1572:

            o    A mixture of fertile garden or topsoil decomposed organic materials and fine river sand at
                 1:1:1 ratio.
            o    Rice hull charcoal is half burned rice hull. It contains a high level of carbon needed by
                 plants for normal growth. It makes the mixed medium looses and easier for root
                 development. It helps retain fertilizer and releases to plants in a longer time. Rice hull
                charcoal is mixed in 1:4 ratios with other potting materials. It is good for seedling trays,
                potted plants, vegetable pots and herbs in pots.
            o   Washed coco peat comes from the husk of coconut. The coconut hush is shredded and
                soaked in water for several days and washed with fresh clean water. It has a good water
                holding capacity. It is mixed with other materials at 1:1 ratio. Very good for seedling trays,
                vegetable plots, potted plants and fruit bearing trees.
            o   Fermented Bagasse and garden soil at 1:4 ratios Bagasse is sugarcane pulp.
                Decomposed bagasse is rich in humates providing plants with essential trace elements. It
                is suitable for fast growing vegetables like peachy, mustard and lettuce.
            o   Pumice Stones are small volcanic rocks with other materials at 1:5 ratios. Pumice
                stones prevent panning or the compacting of the medium due to strong watering. They
                are good for seedling trays, potted flowering plants, and orchid community pots.
            o   Granulated charcoal comes from coconut shell. It is a good material for drainage that
                prevents excessive moisture that damaged the roots. It is a source of carbon a plant
                nutrient needed in maturing. A layer or two is placed at the bottom of the pot before
                potting materials are place into the pot.
            o   Powdered charcoal. The coconut shell or wooden charcoal is pulverized into powder. It
                helps absorb foul odor of decomposing organic materials. It helps beneficial bacteria
                hasten decomposing process. Spread at leas an inch thick on compost pills or
                decomposing materials.
            o   Short coconut fiber from coconut husk is separated through decortications. It is a good
                mulching material for sensitive plants. 1 to 2 layers is place on top of soil or partly mixed
                with soil to prevent erosion.
            o   Granulated Zeolite are chipped from boulders and used as absorbent material.
                Fertilizers and plant nutrients absorbed by seolite are released to the plant roots slowly
                and continually for a longer period of time. It controls the growth of molds and fungus,
                especially in nitrogen rich medium.
            o   Cubed coconut husk The husks are sterilized and then chopped to produce uniform
                sized cubes, It has a good water holding capacity and ideal for aerial plants tike
                anthuriums, bromeliads, dendrobiums, and other high value aerial plants.




                                           SOIL CONDITIONERS

   There are many kinds of soil conditioners, depending on the different soil conditions and deficiencies.
Progressive farmers should know them and how to use them properly to make their soil rich and highly
productive as the years go by. Among them are:

            o   Agricultural lime, to correct very acid soils and brings the pH level to near pH-7, which
                is neutral and suitable to most plant growth and availability of plant nutrients for root
                absorption.
            o   Organic fertilizers, to both improve the soil texture and increase its fertility.
            o   Chemical fertilizers, to supply the nutrient deficiency of the soil and meet the nutrient
                requirement of the crops grown.
            o   Organic composts are decomposed or partly decompose or plain organic materials
                place or incorporated into the soil to improve its texture and later through the action of
                microorganisms are fully digested and converted into soil nutrients that are readily
                absorbed by the plant roots.
            o   Probiotics or Microbes are beneficial bacteria and microorganisms that helps digest
                and decompose organic materials and convert them into soil nutrients made available to
                root absorption. There are now a lot of available preparations of these microorganisms
                sold in the market. They are usually mixed in water and sprayed into the soil or organic
                compost to help hasten decomposition and fight the bad or undesirable microorganisms
                in the soil. Probiotics can help reduce the use of chemical fertilizer and help improve the
                texture of the soil.




                         MICROORGANISMS ENHANCES CROP PRODUCTIVITY

                            (As reported by Bengie P. Gibe, S&T Media Service)

   Microorganisms, also known as microbes, are microscopic organisms like bacteria, protozoa, algae,
fungus and virus. They are found in soil, water and atmosphere, and inextricably intermingled in the
environment. There are bad and good organisms. Some of them can enhance crop productivity.

   The National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (BIOTECH) of the University of the
Philippines Los Banos (UPLB) produced two, Biological Nitrogen Fixers (BNF): Bio-N and Nitro Plus.

    Bio-N is solid inoculants in powdered form that contains any of the two important strains of bacteria
isolated from the roots of talahib grass that can convert the nitrogen from the air into ammonia. It can
substitute 30-50% of the nitrogen requirement of rice and corn.

    Bio-N increases the yield of rice and corn by as much as 35% compared with unfertilized treatments,
maintains the natural soil properties and fertility, and makes plants healthy and green even in drought and
in the presence of pests.

   Nitro Plus is legume inoculants, which can substitute for nitrogen chemical fertilizer at a much
cheaper cost. This is a bacterium called rhizobia, which are specific for legumes such as soybeans,
peanut, mungbeans, cowpea and pole sitao.

   The bacteria reside inside the nodules of leguminous plants where they can fix nitrogen directly from
the air. Nitro Plus can replace 30-50% of the nitrogen requirement of the crop.

   Mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between the roots of plant and fungus. The association
provides many benefits to plants. It increases the absorption of nutrients like phosphorous and water,
serves as a biological control agent against infection, improves soil properties, increase the tolerance of
the crop to environmental stresses (drought, diseases, mineral imbalances).

   BIOTECH has come up with two Mycorrhiza products: Micogroe and Mycovam.

    Mycogroe is a soil based bio-fertilizers tablet form that promotes survival and growth of forest species
like eucalyptus, pines, agoho and dipterocarps. The tablet is inoculated into tree seedlings during their
nursery stage. Some 60-80% of the fertilizer requirements of the trees in the fields are replaced by using
this microb inoculant.

    Mycovam on the other hand, is in powdered form, soil inoculant effective for agricultural crops like
rice, corn potatoes, eggplant, fruit trees and forest trees.

   It is also added during the nursery phase of seedling or inoculating seeds just immediately before
planting. It can replace fertilizer requirement by as much as 60 to 80% nitrogen.

   Bioorganic microorganisms can decompose agricultural residues and convert into bioorganic fertilizer,
which enhances the growth of plants.
   BIOTECH has likewise produced an organic fertilizer technology that uses two microorganisms:

   Trichoderma harzianum or compost fungus activator (CFA), brand BIO-QUICK.

   The other is Azotobacter sp., free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria, brand BIO-FIX.

    BIO-QUICK enhances the process of decomposition by reducing the composting period from 5-6
months to only 3-4 weeks, after which the resulting compost is inoculated with BIO-FIX. Inoculation of
one week produces nitrogen-enriched compost that can be applied to field crops, vegetables and fruit
trees.

  These materials are available at BIOTECH, UP, Los Banos, Laguna at very reasonable price.
Reservations and orders have to be made at least one month before pickup or need.


                                                 MULCHING

   Mulching is the covering of the soil surface to slow down soil moisture evaporation or conserve soil
moisture, prevent growth of weeds and keep the soil soft and friable. In the process, beneficial
microorganisms digesting cellulose are protected from the sun and continue their work of converting
organic materials in the soil into organic fertilizer.

   There are different methods of mulching:

            o   Covering soil with cut grasses, weeds, straw, sawdust, rice hull or other vegetative
                materials that eventually decomposes and mix with the soil to add to its humus or organic
                content.
            o   Covering soil surface with plastic sheet, usually black with silver surface.
            o   Cultivating or breaking soil surface before summer to break moisture evaporation.
            o   New technology of mulching is the use of greenhouses or covering the plants with nets to
                both reduce sunlight intensity and break the force of raindrops. This is coupled with the
                use of ultra violet ray plastic transparent roofing. These practices are the emerging
                conventional technologies that help farmers grow high value commercial crops in
                compact and limited areas.




   The higher the organic content of the soil particles, the more moisture holding capacity it has. There
are jells from seaweed when incorporated with the soil improves its water holding capacity and releases
moisture slowly to the roots. This is one advantage in using humus and decomposed organic fertilizers.
                           ISSUES AND FACTS ON ORGANIC FERTILIZERS


        ISSUES                                              FACTS
        Organic materials after undergoing                  Inorganic chemical fertilizers are more pollutants
        decomposition, especially when applied in large     to groundwater even in smaller quantity than
        quantities, could cause groundwater pollution.      organic materials.
        Plant do not use directly the nutrient found in     This is true to all types of fertilizers and plant
        organic materials since this has to first undergo   food nutrients. Plants absorb them in the
        mineralization.                                     simplest mineral ion forms.
        The amount of essential plant nutrients in          This is true, that is why bigger volume of organic
        organic materials are very low compared with        materials is applied to the soil. However organic
        synthetic chemical fertilizers.                     fertilizers carrying the 17 nutrients needed by
                                                            plants while chemical fertilizer may only carry 2
                                                            to 5 nutrient elements.
        Organic fertilizer releases the plant food          Chemical fertilizers on the other hand may have
        nutrients within a few days slowly and last at a immediate and fast release of nutrients and is
        longer stretch of time that takes years             dissipated in only 3to 4 months.
        Organic materials are claimed to improve            This claim is not entirely true as irrigated lands
        physical properties of soil but this could only be where organic fertilizers have been incorporated
        true in aerobic soil condition,                     during land preparation show outstandingly
                                                            better crop growth and yield.
        Soil organic matter will not increase significantly This may be true if the quantity of organic
        in just one or two years of applying organic        fertilizer applied is minimal, however, periodic
        materials.                                          application will be improving soil capacity of
                                                            sustaining increasing crop productivity as the
                                                            years go by.
        Organic fertilizer is not the sole factor in        Yes there are mineral soil conditioners that will
        improving the quality of the food product such as help enhance your soil with organic fertilizer to
        increased anti-oxidant content.                     improve food crop quality.
        Using purely organic fertilizers/materials will not This is not true. Organically grown fruits and
        make your crop productive as when chemical          vegetables without chemical fertilizers have
        fertilizers are used solely.                        been producing commercially well.
        Organic fertilizers/materials incorporated in the This is one big benefit in using organic
        soil improves the soil texture, nutrient content    materials. The heavy use of chemical fertilizer
        and feeds microorganisms and keep the soil          have the tendency to make the soil acidic and
        alive.                                              kills microorganisms and life forms in the soil
                                                            making it barren.



     FARMERS’S EXPERIENCES, OBSERVATIONS AND PRACTICES WORTH SHARING AND
                                  EMULATING

    In the September 2003 issue of Agriculture Magazine, we read the experience of a mango grower who
turned to natural organic farming after experiencing big losses due to the high cost of chemical pesticides.
He is Col. Virgilio Ecarma of Batangas with 5,000 bearing trees.
   Here is what Col. Ecarma did. On his 2000 trees he stopped using chemical pesticides and replaced
them with his own concoction of organic preparations. His organic concoction did not only control pest
and diseases, but also invigorated the trees. The materials he used are neem tree leaves, garlic, vinegar,
coconut water, gin (alcohol), molasses, trash fish, rice brand and effective microorganism (Pro-biotic).

    He prepared his concoction in three 100 litters plastic drums. In the first drum he filled it 1/3 with
neem leaves, added 5 kilos of molasses, 10 kilos of crushed garlic, 24 bottles of gin (alcohol), 1 gallon of
vinegar and filled the drum with water, then covered. Allowed it to ferment for 15 days, opening the cover
to relish methane gas accumulating.

  The second drum was filled half with trash fish, 20 kilos of molasses and filled the drum with water.
Cover and allowed to ferment for 15 days.

    The third drum was filled wit 20 kilos of molasses and 2 litters of pro-biotic (Effective Microorganism),
5 kilos of rice brand and coconut water to fill the drum. Cover and allowed to stay for 15 days.

   After 15 days, ½ litter of liquid was taken from each drum and mixed to 100 litters of water and
sprayed on the mango trees on a weekly interval.

    The result, fruit flies and mango hoppers were driven away. The 2000 trees sprayed with the organic
preparation had a very striking contrast with the 3000 trees not treated. The prayed trees were very
fruitful, and the fruits were unblemished by fruit fly or anthracnose; while the 3000 trees untreated were
attacked by hoppers and fruit flies and were unproductive. Col. Ecarma also observed the treated trees
were much healthier. He surmised that the fish emulsion with Probiotics supplied nitrogen amino acid
essential for plant growth.




   The organic preparations can also be used to other plants like ampalaya, patola, guava, macopa,
papaya, caimito, banana, balimbing, siniguelas, pechay and other fruit bearing plants and vegetables.

                                                    -o-o-o-


    Organic vegetable growers, Jef and Lydia van Haute bought a 2000 sq. m. land in Balubad Dos,
Silang Cavite where they built a greenhouse and grew organic vegetables, free from toxic chemical
pesticides. They use organic fertilizer.

   When insect pest come into the greenhouse, they spray the plants with concoction of pepper. Overall,
they grow disease free and insect free healthy vegetables.

    They follow a system of crop rotation. They have classified their vegetables into the Cabbage group,
Foliage group, Fruit Vegetable group, Root Crop group and the Legumes group.

   The different groups have their own peculiar pests and diseases, explains Jet. To avoid pest and
disease problems, they rotate the different groups. For instance, legumes are planted where tomato and
eggplants were planted previously. Pechay and lettuce on the other hand may be grown where carrots
were planted before, and so on.

  Another technique in avoiding pest and diseases is to intercrop plants that repel insect pests such as
marigold. Besides repelling insects, its roots also secrets a substance that kills nematodes in the soil.
   In cases where the vegetables are still infested, the couple, spray them with organic pesticide like
Basilus thoringensis (Bt) commercially prepared in powdered form and mixed with water for application to
plants.

                                           ORGANIC MANGO

          There is now a growing market demand for organically grown fruits and food crops
        especially in Europe, and slowly influencing the world markets. PREDA (Peoples recovery,
        Empowerment and Development Assistance Foundation, Inc.) is working on the
        commercial production of Certified Organic dried mango. PREDA agriculturists are
        working with mango farmers all over Central Luzon on the first phase of “going organic´
        training. We have to take note however, with the chemical pollution of the soil, air and
        water worldwide, we cannot say that crops are grown 100% organic. What we can do is
        produce fruits and food crops without toxic chemical residue when harvested or
        consumed.

                                     BOTANICAL PESTICIDES for MANGO




          Studies on botanical plants with, pesticidal properties against mango leafhoppers were done by
        Dr. Hernani Golez and Nenita F. Zamora of Guimaras Island’s National Mango Research Center
        (NMRC). Field test of different crud extracts showed that tobacco plus detergent and combined
        extracts of kakawati, tubli and ripe sili plus detergent (KTRD) were effective against mango
        hoppers. Furthermore, KTRD as bio-spray was also effective in the control of mealybugs
        attacking the flowers of mango. Incidence of borer damage was also minimized by spray
        application of different extracts (tubli, tobacco, lagundi, atis and makabuhay).

          A comparative study is conducted by mango growers assisted by the Agricultural Training
        Institute (ATI), at Tukawal, Alabel, Sarangani Province. The study consist of comparing practices
        of

                            1.   Mango Grower Contractor practice
                            2.   Chemical Company Recommendations
                            3.   Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
                            4.   Natural Organic and Biological practice
                            5.   With Control trees

          Initial observation shows the Chemical Company recommendations and the Natural Organic
        and Biological practices are competing in excellence. The study shows that growing chemical free
        organic mango is commercially attainable.

                                     POST HARVEST TREATMENT

There are several post harvest treatment being employed:




    1. Plain warm water washing with 1% salt solution or detergent and chlorine. Dry fruits after
        washing as re-infection occur when fruits are moist.
    2. Hot Water Treatment (HWT) where fruits are dipped in 52-55 degrees water for 10 minutes. A
        new innovation dip in 59 to 60 degrees water for 30 seconds to one minute. The temperature
        range should be strictly maintained and monitored to avoid scalding if it rises, and if it drops, may
        not control the pest and diseases of the fruits. Air-dry immediately after dipping. Adding chlorine
        to the water helps control diseases




    The author designed and fabricated a simple HWT tank made out of one sheet stainless steel plate
heated by LPG. Dimension is 20 x 30 inches and 18 inches high. It has a capacity of 2 crates of 20 kilos
per crate per loading. The unit can easily be transported to the site of harvest. It cost P8,000 to P10,000
per complete unit with stand, gas stove burner, LPG tank with hose, regulator and thermometer. A bigger
stainless steel tank with 6 crates capacity cost P20,000.00 fabricated by a machine shop in Gen. Santos
City.

    3. Extended Hot Water Treatment (EHWT) – Dipping the fruit in 46 - 48 degrees Centigrade for 90
        minutes. This treatment is practiced in Mexico for mango exported to the USA.




    4. Vapor Heat Treatment (VHT) where fruits are subjected to heated vapor until the inner flesh of
        the fruit reaches 46 degrees for 10 minutes. This treatment is required for mangoes exported to
        Japan, and Korea. It is non toxic and non chemical disinfectant.




    5. Chemical Treatment – Using fungicide to control fruit rot. Fungicides are dissolved in water
        where the fruits are dipped. Benomyl (500-1000 ppm) and other suitable fungicides are used.
    6. Fumigation with Ethylene dibromide (EDB) at the rate of 16 grams per cubic meter for 2 hours at
        25oC is done for mangoes exported to Australia and New Zealand. This will control and destroy
        the insect eggs in the fruit. The Australian government has now banned the use of EDB. The
        Philippine government is negotiating to replace ir with VHT to control fruit fly. Irradiation seems to
        be more favored by Australia.




    7. Irradiation – This is a new introduction to access fruits and food preparation to USA and other
        countries requiring such quarantine procedure.




   These treatments tend to control fruit born diseases like Anthracnose and Stem End Rot as well as kill
insect eggs like Fruit Fly. Be sure to fully dry the fruits after treatment, before packing because wet and
moist fruits are easily re-infected by fungal rot diseases.

                                  STEPS IN HOT WATER TREATMENT




    1. Heat water up to 55*C and main the temperature range at 52-55*C during operations. A 59-60
        degrees for fast treatment.
    2. Place mango in perforated plastic crate or basket that fits into the hot water tank to maximize the
        number of fruits that can be treated in one dipping. In the absence of plastic crate, any other
        suitable containers that will not cause bruises on the fruits may be used. This will avoid direct
        contact of the fruits with the hot metal bottom of the tank that can cause heat injuries or scalding.




    3. Dip the mango into the hot water submerged for 5 to 10 minutes, checking the temperature is
        between 52-55*C. A faster procedure is 30 to 60 seconds dipping in 59 to 60 degrees water. It is
        advisable to move the crates now and then to equalize the heat and help remove the dirt from the
        fruits.




    4. Use electric fan to hasten drying. When fully dried, sort them and pack carefully in fruit boxes or
        crates for storage or shipment to the market.




    5. Some buyers do not want chemically treated fruits, so HWT or VHT are done without using
        fungicide of chemicals.




            The above operations should be done within 4 to 8 hours after harvest. It is even preferable
        for small quantity harvest to do the whole operation right in the field or farm. Treat fruits within 4
        hour of picking while latex are still wet.

            Harvested mangoes should never be exposed to direct sunlight, wind, rain and other
        contaminants, either in the farm or during transport to the processing plant and packaging site. If
        this cannot be avoided, thorough washing and hot water treatment should be done and
        completely dried and packed avoiding re-contamination.




                                           ORGANIC FARMERS

   Mr. Jose (Batchoy) and his life partner Mrs. Pamela (Pam) Henares of Sitio Balugo, Bry. Alangilan,
Bacolod City are practicing organic farming. They grow black pepper and lettuce organically. They do not
want to contaminate the drinking water of the city which comes from their farm area.

    Besides the vegetables and flowers, raise 50,000 heads of broiler from where they source their
organic fertilizer, chicken droppings, 3,000 sq. meters rice field, calamansi, pineapple, fruit trees and
different variety of vegetables.

   Mr. Ramon Uy, owner of RU Foundry & Machine Shop Corp. in Bacolod City is a new convert of
organic farming. He was requested by Mr. Jose ”Bachoy” Henares to repaid his imported shredder.
Because of the encounter, RU Foundry is now manufacturing his own version of shredders for groups of
farmers and local government units converting their organic waste in public markets into organic
fertilizers. Mr. Uy realized that agriculture and industry have to progress together to support one another.
He himself is now engage in vermi-composting and organic gardening. He also set up a model organic
farm at Bago City with a partner to showcase how integrated organic gardening. It can be adopted by
small farmers and earn more. Mr. Ramon Uy is willing to teach farmers and LGU sponsored groups and
learn how they can produce their own fertilizer without relying so much on imported chemical fertilizers
whose price is going up beyond the purchasing power of most Filipino farmers.

    Mr. Uy observed that using chemical fertilizers may be cost effective at first, in the long run the cost
increases because the soil gets depleted (as friendly microorganisms are eliminated) so more and more
fertilizer will be needed. On the other hand, the application of organic fertilizer may progress slowly, but
the cost of production will decrease and soil productivity increases as the years go by.

   Lina Adoracion, a retired teacher at Malungon, Sarangani Province grow organic rice, banana and
other crops. She produces superior quality rice seeds. Their organic rice sell more than rice grown
conventionally with chemical fertilizer and pesticide spray. She finds the farm environment healthy as she
makes more money selling organic crops.

    Rue R. Ramas, Manager and proprietress of SEED WORLD in Gen. Santos City grows organic
vegetable in here demo vegetable garden. She introduces the use of compost fertilizer and pro-biotic to
counter pathogens. Rue have been conducting trainings and seminars on organic farming in cooperation
with LGUs, NGOs and interested farmer groups.

   Mr. Pat Acosta, a Horticulturist and Businessman has been growing strawberry for the last 12 years.
He now grow different variety of lettuce in his 3,000 sq. meter greenhouse farm at Lamtang, La Trinidad,
Benguet. Pat is one of the pioneering organic farming practitioners. He has a shredder and compost pile,
designed to turn shredded plant residue into organic humus. He uses this material in growing his
vegetables. He uses probiotics and enzymes to speed up raw materials. Pat says, he work his land the
natural way as his Master, the Lord God wishes.

                                             ORGANIC BANANA GROWING




    Carlos Impang, a Latundan Banana farmer at Talaytay, Publacion Malungon, Sarangani Provice has this to
share. His farm is 3 hectares planted to Latundan Banana at a distance of 3 x 6 meters. He practices clean culture,
with the weeds and banana leaves left to decompose in between hills. He uses organic mulch and organic waste as
his fertilizer. He does not spray chemicals or bagging of bunches as done with Lacatan and Cavendish banana
growing. He prunes off diseased leaves and brack to prevent spread of fungal diseases.

  It takes 10 t0 12 months from planting to flowering. Fruit emergence takes 14 to 16 days, and 2.5
months from flower emergence to fruit maturity and harvest.

He maintains 2 to 3 suckers per hill at different stages of growth. Excess suckers are removed to
concentrate nutrient to fruit development. Provide good drainage and aeration to keep the plants dry with
maximum sunlight exposure. Soil moisture is maintained with the mulching. He does not plow to avoid
damaging roots that will serve as entry point of diseases.

   The average production is 10 to 35 kilos per bunch. He markets at the local Public Market of
Malungon at P10.00 per kilo whole sale to retailers. He has a weekly harvest of 100 to 130 kilos from ¾
hectare. He is expanding his area to 6 hectares. He observed that his yield increases during the rainy
season and drops during summer months.
   Replant after 3 to 5 years with 1 year rest or planted to legume crops. It is a good practice to rest the
land for one year and allow the growth of natural vegetation and microorganisms that help decompose
and turn plant residue and convert them to organic fertilizer and readily available plant nutrients.



                                           ORGANIC FISH CULTURE

   Inland fish culture has been originally practiced in lakes and ponds the natural way. They just building
the pond and allow fish to live, tribe and grow. As new technology are introduced, many fishpond
operators were feeding the fish with ready mixed and milled commercial fish feeds. They also use
chemical fertilizers to induce growth of algae fish food. Aerators are used to help introduce oxygen into
the waters as heavy pollution depletes the air in water.

    Loven Vilches of Sibunag, Guimaras started using 1 ton organic fertilizer per hectare of fishpond
instead of chemical fertilizer. They decompose the organic fertilizer (chicken droppings) with pro-biotic or
beneficial microorganism. It takes 3 weeks from treatment of bacteria before the organic fertilizer is
applied on the pond. After a few days the pond is filled with water and side dressed with liquid algal
booster. His harvest increased by 25%. He uses fingerlings caught from the wild and limits fry population
so as not to over stock the pond. The biological fish culture technology was introduced by Aidine Galvan
of Growbio Farming System of Bacolod City.

    Bangus is harvested in 2.5 months instead of the usual 3 months. The fish size are 4 pieces to a kilo. After
harvest, there is rich algae supply in the pond, that there was no need to add fish feed. There is no need for another
month pond preparation for the next cropping. 15 days is enough. They add more pro-biotic bacteria for enzymes to
continue the production of fish food. The dead algae, fish litter and other organic waste in the pond are converted
into nutrients by the enzymes and become fish food again. It is recycling waste.


                                                HERBAL PLANTS




            Plants were created for animals. While we also use them for plant nutrition and protection,
         they are more used as food and medication to keep man and animals healthy productive and
         have a long life. Here is one. (A bonus to our readers)

            HYDROCELLA ASISTICA or CENTELLA

         Common name – Gotu Kola, Payong-payong, Takip-kuhol

         It is referred to as Indian Ginseng. Another variety is Koto Kola.

         “Two leaves a day keeps sickness and old age away”

         Herbalist calls Gotu Kola as the finest herbal tunic.

         The leaves appear to act as brain food. 2-3 leaves a day eaten raw strengthen worn out body
         tissues and the brain to a remarkable degree.

             1. It prevents Brain fatigue and nervous breakdown. Two to three leaves a day will keep old
                  age away provided that the body is exposed to the sun for a time being for each day.
    2. It cures the nervous and mental problems, heart problems, age spots, and thyroid
        stimulant.




    3. It improves skin and relieves skin problems, leprosy, tuberculosis, and venereal diseases.



    4. It assists in healing depressions, impotence, and menopausal problems.



    5. It also serves as an aphrodisiac.



  The Indians use the plant as a diuretic to remove excess fluid from the body and stimulate
stimulants to the kidney and bladder as a blood purifier.

Gotu kola has also been used as cancer treatment, and herb used by Jason Winters as told in his
story in his inspiring book “KILLING CANCER” that is usually available in health and food shop.

   Because Gotu Kola (Hydrocella asistica) is an Asian herb, it is not mentioned in European
herbals, as they do not grow naturally there.

   It was renowned Chinese herbalist PROF. LI CHANG YUN, who lived to the age of 256 years
as a user of that herb that awoke the Western World as to its value. He was born on 1677 and in
1933 the New York Times announced the death of the remarkable oriental whose life span had
reach over two and a half-century. The Chinese government officially recorded his age. At 260
years of age Prof. Yun still gave courses of lectures (Its lecture lasting 3 hours) on longevity at
the Chinese University. Those who saw him declared that he did not appear older than a man of
72 did. He stood erect and strong and had his own natural hair and teeth.

   After Li Chung”s death, the French government has done extensive studies. They found out
that there is unknown vitamin that they called Vitamin Y for the youth vitamin because it was
found to have a beneficial effect on the brain and endocrine glands.

   Another French Bio-Chemist Jules Lepino who undertook extensive researches of the plant
and found out that it had a rare tonic properties that had marked energizing effect on the nerves
and brain cells to keep them functioning well.

   Many people who took Gotu Kola daily tell how they no longer feel brain fatigue. Their
memory is strengthened and a feeling of mental and physical well being and energy had been
experienced. It is considered as brain food.

   The lady who took the herbal for six weeks said that she did not feel fatigue despite heavy
schedule and she was more relax and her arthritic pain gone. For years she had not been able to
take the ring off her finger because of arthritis. But after taking the herb for several weeks, she
was able to remove her ring again.
           Recently a lady from Brisbane came to pick up her friend who has been sick and also troubled
       with high blood pressure. She started taking the herb. In her next checkup, the doctor took her
       pressure three times as he could not believe that her blood pressure for ten years normalized due
       to her taking Gotu Kola daily with in two weeks.

          Goto kola (Hydrocella asistica) can be eaten straight from the plant or added to salad or
       chopped as a last minute garnish or meal like parsley. It has a slight bitter flavor. The leaves can
       be used as fresh or died for iced fruit juice sweetened with honey.

          But do not over eat. It may result to headache, dizziness, or too much energy and
       sleeplessness at bedtime.

         Gotu kola is a rich source of chlorophyll, Vitamins A, B, C, D, K and particularly minerals and
       magnesium. The plant is easy to grow and adapts in most soils.

           A 95 years old lady in wheel chair at the General Santos City Home for the Aged has now left
       her wheel chair after eating Hydrocella asistica for two months. She was suffering from sever
       Arthritis with high blood and diabetes. Now she can walk and move around with a cane. Soon she
       says, even the cane may no longer be needed as she feels progressively getting stronger and
       active. Other old folks in the home for the aged also say their health and strength are improving
       as they daily eat fresh Hydrocella asistica leaves. They claim that three (3) leaves a day is
       enough. Too many intakes cause headaches to some. It tastes pleasantly bitter when chewed
       fine and juicy.

          The plant is a soft tender crawling vine with roots and a leaf at every node. Hydrocella asistica
       leaves are shaped like umbrella with al long pistil. They grow well on moist soil partly shaded
       areas. It is fast growing, ideal to replace noxious weeds between fruit trees in orchard farms. It
       appears to help enrich the soil as green manure plant.

           Planting materials are now available in tray pot.

           Contact Marietta H. Rivera at 30 Lapu Lapu St., General Santos City.

           Tel (083) 301-0117

================================================================================
==========

    There are more Natural and Organic and Biological Farming systems that have not yet been
included in this manuscript. This technology we have just presented are sufficient for beginners,
farmers and enthusiasts to start on the road on natural farming and producing safe and healthful
food crops. We suggest that our readers embark on your own research, study, trials and readings
to learn more and be a part of a new movement of environmental and ecology friendly farming.

    The new movement hopes to bring back the birds of the air, frogs and reptiles on the land, and
fishes of the waters and streams that disappear because of the unrestricted use of toxic
chemicals in agriculture. The lost bio ecological balance and diversity of nature will be back with
the rich fertile soils that can sustain crop production and renew the face of the earth nearer to its
primal origin.

Let us study and learn natural laws for they are God’s laws that will help us farm the natural ways.
In the process, we will be producing safe, healthful food while protecting the environment,
sustaining balance ecosystem and preserving bio-diversity in our farms. Good luck and happy
productive Natural Farming.


                                          ACKNOWLEGEMENT

    The lifetime works, research, and studies of Pedro D. Sangatanan, BSA, MSc. And Ronel L.
Sangatanan, BSA, MAgr. They have been an inspiration in promoting organic farming to the
Filipino farmers, and help produce safe and healthful organically grown food at lower cost and
self-sustaining natural farming system.

   Mr. Zac B. Sarian, Editor of Agriculture Monthly Magazine, who has a wide source of
information on agricultural technology, and has been unselfish in sharing them to help fast tract
the development of several Philippine agricultural industries and ventures.




    Miss Lina Adoracion a retired teacher now a full time farmers adopting the Masikap way of
natural and organic farming at her Malungon farms. She produces organically grown rice and
fruits.

   Ms. Rue R. Ramas, proprietor of Seed World and currently busy educating and conducting training’s
on organic farming with the use of pro-biotic. Her demo-vegetable crops are organically grown. SEED
WORLD, V.G. Rivera Farm, Nat. Hwy. Lagao. General Santos City. Telex. 083-302-0444, Tel. 083-302-
0456 Cell: 0917-951-5364)




   Mr. Antonio “Toto” Marin III, Pathologist and practicing farmer. He is an advocate of organic and
biotechnology who makes his own researches and studies which he shares with farmers in seminars and
training. Cell No. 0918-329-2033.

   To the farmers who encourage this writer to continue improving and promoting this manuscript to help
and guide them in returning to natural farming.

   The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) Region 12 Who facilitated the early printing and
reproduction of this manuscript, and conducted special forum to launch the handbook on Natural Farming
on October 21, 2004 at Koronadal City.

   Government and none government agencies and educational institution supporting this trust and
development of natural farming to include: DA-ATI, FPA, DTI, DOST, GENSAFCO, MINFRUIT, GEM,
MSU-GSC, USM-KABACAN, UDP.




{ParagraphsSidebar}

©2006
ORGANIC FARMING
                        ORGANIC FARMING

About Organic
Frequently asked questions about organic food
and farming
What is organic farming?
Organic farming refers to agricultural production systems used to produce
food and fiber. Organic farming management relies on developing biological
diversity in the field to disrupt habitat for pest organisms, and the
purposeful maintenance and replenishment of soil fertility. Organic farmers
are not allowed to use synthetic pesticides or fertilizers. All kinds of
agricultural products are produced organically, including produce, grains,
meat, dairy, eggs, fibers such as cotton, flowers, and processed food
products. Some of the essential characteristics of organic systems include:
design and implementation of an "organic system plan" that describes the
practices used in producing crops and livestock products; a detailed
recordkeeping system that tracks all products from the field to point of sale;
and maintenance of buffer zones to prevent inadvertent contamination by
synthetic farm chemicals from adjacent conventional fields.

What does "certified" organic mean?
Certified organic refers to agricultural products that have been grown and
processed according to uniform standards, verified by independent state or
private organizations accredited by the USDA. All products sold as "organic"
must be certified. Certification includes annual submission of an organic
system plan and inspection of farm fields and processing facilities.
Inspectors verify that organic practices such as long-term soil management,
buffering between organic farms and neighboring conventional farms, and
recordkeeping are being followed. Processing inspections include review of
the facility's cleaning and pest control methods, ingredient transportation
and storage, and recordkeeping and audit control. Organic foods are
minimally processed to maintain the integrity of food without artificial
ingredients or preservatives. Certified organic requires the rejection of
synthetic agrochemicals, irradiation and genetically engineered foods or
ingredients. Since 2002, organic certification in the U.S. has taken place
under the authroity of the USDA National Organic Program, which accredits
organic certifiying agencies, and oversees the regulatory process. To find out
more about the national organic certification requirements and organic
program, please go to the USDA National Organic Program website
www.ams.usda.gov/nop.

Is organic food more nutritious than conventional food?
The definitive study has not been done, mainly because of the multitude of
variables involved in making a fair comparison between organically grown
and conventionally grown food. These include crop variety, time after
harvest, post-harvest handling, and even soil type and climate, which can
have significant effects on nutritional quality. However, a 2002 report
indicates that organic food is far less likely to contain pesticide residues than
conventional food (13% of organic produce samples vs. 71% of conventional
produce samples contained a pesticide residue, when long-banned persistent
pesticides were excluded). For more information on this 2002 report (Baker,
B.P., C.M. Benbrook, E. Groth III, and K.L. Benbrook. 2002. Pesticide
residues in conventional, integrated pest management (IPM)-grown and
organic food: insights from three US data sets. Food Additives and
Contaminants 19:427-446.) go to the Organic Materials Review Institute
website www.omri.org.

Is organic food safe?
Yes. Organic food is as safe to consume as any other kind of food. Just as
with any kind of produce, consumers should wash before consuming to
ensure maximum cleanliness. As cited above, organic produce contains
significantly lower levels of pesticide residues than conventional produce. It
is a common misconception that organic food could be at greater risk of E.
coli contamination because of raw manure application although conventional
farmers commonly apply tons of raw manure as well with no regulation
whatsoever. Organic standards set strict guidelines on manure use in
organic farming: either it must be first composted, or it must be applied at
least 90 days before harvest, which allows ample time for microbial
breakdown of pathogens.

Is organic food really a significant industry?
Approximately 2% of the U.S. food supply is grown using organic methods.
Over the past decade, sales of organic products have shown an annual
increase of at least 20%, the fastest growing sector of agriculture. In 2005,
retail sales of organic food and beverages were approximately $12.8 billion
(Natural Marketing Institute, Health & Wellness Trends Database, March
2006). Organic foods can be found at natural food stores and major
supermarkets, as well as through grower direct marketing such as CSAs
(Community Supported Agriculture) and farmers' markets. Many restaurant
chefs across the country are using organic produce because they desire
superior quality and taste. Organic food is also gaining international
acceptance, with nations like Japan and Germany becoming important
international organic food markets.

Why does organic cost more?
The cost of organic food is higher than that of conventional food because the
organic price tag more closely reflects the true cost of growing the food:
substituting labor and intensive management for chemicals, the health and
environmental costs of which are borne by society. These costs include
cleanup of polluted water and remediation of pesticide contamination. Prices
for organic foods include costs of growing, harvesting, transportation and
storage. In the case of processed foods, processing and packaging costs are
also included. Organically produced foods must meet stricter regulations
governing all these steps than conventional foods. The intensive
management and labor used in organic production are frequently (though
not always) more expensive than the chemicals routinely used on
conventional farms. There is mounting evidence that if all the indirect costs
of conventional food production were factored into the price of food, organic
foods would cost the same, or, more likely, be cheaper than conventional
food. Cost, however, is very dependent upon market venue and consumer
product choice. It is possible to consume a moderately priced diet of organic
foods by purchasing directly from farmers at venues such as farmers
markets, and by choosing unprocessed organically grown foods at the
grocery store.

Are organic yields lower?
Based on 154 growing seasons' worth of data on various crops, organic
crops yielded 95% of crops grown under conventional, high-input conditions
(Liebhardt, B. "Get the facts straight: organic agriculture yields are good,"
OFRF Information Bulletin #10, Summer 2001.). This was by using organic
farming methods developed and refined by years of grower experience,
independent of the billions of dollars of support provided the agrichemical
industries through USDA and the land grant system. If USDA would increase
the small proportion of its research funds currently directed toward
optimizing organic farming practices, organic has the potential to produce
yields fully matching or surpassing those of conventional crops. Growers who
go through the 3-year transition period from conventional to organic
management usually experience an initial decrease in yields, until soil
microbes are re-established and nutrient cycling is in place, at which point
yields return to previous levels.

Is there a national standard for organic?
Yes. Since October 2002, organic regulations under the USDA National
Organic Program have been in effect. This means there are a uniform set of
organic production, processing, and labeling standards across the United
States. Anyone who sells a product as "organic" is required by law to be
certified (The National Organic Rule and other policies of USDA's National
Organic Program may be accessed on the web at
http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/index.htm). USDA oversees
implementation of the Rule through its National Organic Program but does
not certify organic operations itself; instead, it accredits independent
certifiers to certify growers and processors on USDA's behalf.

How do organic farmers fertilize crops and control pests, diseases,
and weeds?
Organic farmers build healthy soils by nourishing the living component of the
soil, the microbial inhabitants that release, transform, and transfer nutrients.
Soil organic matter contributes to good soil structure and water-holding
capacity. Organic farmers feed soil biota and build soil structure and water-
holding capacity. Organic farmers build soil organic matter with cover crops,
compost, and biologically based soil amendments. These produce healthy
plants that are better able to resist disease and insect predation. Organic
farmers' primary strategy in controlling pests and diseases is prevention
through good plant nutrition and management. Organic farmers use cover
crops and sophisticated crop rotations to manage the field ecology,
effectively disrupting habitat for weeds, insects, and disease organisms.
Weeds are controlled through crop rotation, mechanical tillage, and hand-
weeding, as well as through cover crops, mulches, flame weeding, and other
management methods. Organic farmers rely on a diverse population of soil
organisms, beneficial insects, and birds to keep pests in check. When pest
populations get out of balance, growers implement a variety of strategies
such as the use of insect predators, mating disruption, traps and barriers.
Under the National Organic Program Rule, growers are required to use
sanitation and cultural practices first before they can resort to applying a
material to control a weed, pest or disease problem. Use of these materials
in organic production is regulated, strictly monitored, and documented. As a
last resort, certain botanical or other non-synthetic pesticides may be
applied.

How are organic livestock and poultry raised?
Organic meat, dairy products, and eggs are produced from animals that are
fed organic feed and allowed access to the outdoors. They must be kept in
living conditions that accommodate the natural behavior of the animals.
Ruminants must have access to pasture. Organic livestock and poultry may
not be give antibiotics, hormones, or medications in the absence of illness;
however, they may be vaccinated against disease. Parasiticide use is strictly
regulated. Livestock diseases and parasites are controlled primarily through
preventative measures such as rotational grazing, balanced diet, sanitary
housing, and stress reduction.

How can I reach an organic certification agency that serves my
area?
Depending on where you live or farm in the U.S., there may be one or
several organic certifications agencies that serve your region. There are
many organic certifying agencies accredited through the USDA National
Organic Program, and these include non-profit organizations, state- or
county-affiliated agencies, and for-profit corporations. Some agencies work
solely within a particular county or state, while others conduct organic
certifications regionally or nationwide. Depending on the type of agency, an
organic certifier may also provide additional services to farmers and the
public, such as information about organic food and farming, sponsorship of
workshops and conferences, or organic marketing materials. Together with
The Rodale Institute/NewFarm, OFRF has developed a Guide to U.S.
Organic Certifiers or you can contact the USDA National Organic
Program.

Where can I find organically grown products?
Organically grown products are becoming more widely available throughout
the U.S. Many national food store chains such as Albertson's, Safeway and
Wal-Mart carry some organically grown selections. National natural food
store chains such as Whole Foods Market and Wild Oats Market carry a wide
array of organic products, as do regional and local independent natural food
stores. Farmers markets offer locally and regionally-grown organic products
available directly from the farmer. Organic products may also be mail-
ordered from many farms and retailers, and a web search will likely yield a
variety of options for consumers who have a difficult time finding organic
products in their area. The Local Harvest website is a useful resource for
finding locally produced, organic, and specialty farm products throughout the
U.S.

How many organic farmers are there in the United States?
As of 2006, there are approximately 10,000 certified organic producers in
the U.S. The growth in the number of organic farmers has increased
steadily, similar to the growth of the U.S. organic industry, which has
increased by rates of approximately 20% per year for more than 10 years.
When OFRF first began tracking certified organic producer numbers in 1994,
there were approximately 2,500 -3,000 certified organic growers in the U.S.
at that time. Consumer awareness of the value of organic farming and food
products continues to grow, making organic a viable and attractive economic
option for a growing number of producers.




Lessons Learned in a Mature Organic Sector
       Case Study: Transitioning to organic: Pine Creek Orchards
        By Don Lotter
        The New Farm, October 18, 2007
        Straight to the Source

     To some extent, organic apple growers in the Pacific Northwest are suffering from their own
success. But the rewards of organic orchard management go beyond price premiums, say the
owners and managers of Pine Creek Orchards.
 The great Columbia plateau, between Washington's Cascade Mountains and the Rockies, defies the
"rainy forests, rainy Seattle" image that many people have of Washington state. In the rain shadow of the
Cascades, the plateau is a vast, semi-arid, glaciated expanse underlain by deep volcanic deposits.
 The town of Tonasket, in the northern reaches of the plateau, sits on the Okanogan River, a tributary of
the great Columbia River. Tonasket was named after the Okanogan chief whose people originally
inhabited the area, but today this is orchard country-and increasingly, organic orchard country.
Washington leads the U.S. in the production of apples, sweet cherries and pears, and it accounts for
nearly 40 percent of the roughly 20,000 acres of organic apples in the U.S. Fully five percent of
Washington's apple acreage is organic.
 Eric Strandberg comes from an apple-growing family. His grandfather originally homesteaded land near
Okanogan, Washington, in 1915, and the Strandbergs have been growing apples ever since. They
bought the 400 acres of Tonasket land in 1998.
 Eric became interested in farming organically after talking to organic farmers made him realize that the
way he was farming conflicted with his family's interests and ideals. "Using toxic chemicals on the farm
was not consistent with our lifestyle-we like jogging and camping, and enjoy the environment," says Eric.
"I didn't like coming home to my kids after spraying Guthion and knowing I could put them at risk."
 Eric and his wife, Deanna, and their three kids also wanted to foster a more balanced farming system.
The conventional way of dealing with pest problems by spraying, they had noticed, often just created
other pest problems, which then necessitated more spraying. Finally, Eric preferred to think of himself as
a fruit grower rather than as a commodity producer, and to develop his business accordingly. "Farming
organically, you're more food-oriented, and less commodity-oriented," he says.
 Pine Creek's main crops are Honey Crisp, Golden Delicious, Red Delicious and Gala apples. They also
grow pears and cherries.

 There are two basic strategies for transitioning a medium- to large-sized farm to organic. The first is to
begin by transitioning part of the farm, staggering the changes over a period of years and conserving the
known production strategy in order to minimize risk. Organic standards require that in a mixed operation
(one with both organic and conventional crops), all equipment must be thoroughly washed each time it is
taken from a conventional area to be used in an organic area. Buffer areas must be established to protect
organic fields from drift from conventional fields. For practical reasons, equipment that is difficult to clean
thoroughly or is in simultaneous demand in both parts of the operation-like bins or even buildings-must be
dedicated to either organic or conventional use.
 The other strategy is to jump into organic with both feet, taking a greater risk but avoiding the expenses
of keeping two sets of equipment and enforcing practices to prevent contamination of the organic areas.
This is the way Strandberg went, and although it wasn't easy, he says he has no regrets.
 Successful transitioning to organic apple production requires:
 * Good information about effective organic management of insects, weeds, diseases and soil fertility.
Consultants, extension personnel and other organic farmers are generally most important, with some
wary dependence on agrichemical company reps. * Good site selection. Often the best defense against
diseases and insects is to grow the crop on a site where it does well and can "outgrow" the pests or
develop strong systemic resistance. * Adequate planning for the stronger biennial bearing habits of
organic trees in your yield and marketing projections. Because thinning is less accurate with allowed
organic materials, apples tend to under-produce flower buds in years in which fruit yield is heavy, leading
to biennial bearing. * Optimal varietal selection for fruit that grows well under organic management and is
in demand. * Thorough researching of the market prior to making the switch. The global organic apple
sector is changing fast, with high demand in the U.S. and Europe matched by rapidly increasing
production in countries with lower labor costs.

The transition
The three-year "no man's land" transition period-in which operating expenses can go up, yields often fall
or remain steady at best, and prices received are the same as for conventional fruit-was really difficult,
Strandberg says. "Operating expenses don't go that much higher than conventional-those conventional
growers pay an awful lot of money for chemicals," notes Gene Burns, Strandberg's partner and marketing
manager at Pine Creek Orchards. The real kicker is the lack of a price premium in the transition years.

 Back in the '90s there was some marketing of apples under the "transitional" label for a price somewhere
in between organic and conventional prices, but generally closer to organic. According to Burns, this can
still occur, but only if there is high demand for that particular apple-for instance, if a new apple variety
comes on the market and is well received, like Ambrosia or Honey Crisp, marketers may be interested in
pushing transitional apples of the new variety if they're faced with a shortage of organic apples of the new
variety.
 Transitioning has also gotten harder now that organic price premiums have fallen due to increased
supply. Five or ten years ago, organic premiums were so high they could compensate for the lost income
of the transition years within the first year or two of full certification. Now it takes longer.
 Washington has its own certification and inspection program-the Organic Foods Program of the
Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA). Strandberg says his experience with them has
been good. Pine Creek transitioned back in the pre-USDA National Organic Program days, when
inspectors were important sources of information for new organic growers. Under federal organic program
rules, implemented in 2002, inspectors are prohibited from giving advice to growers.
 For both Strandberg and Burns, building the orchard soil has been a major goal. This was the advice the
WSDA Organic Program staff gave them from the beginning, and they took it to heart. Eighty percent of
the problems of transitioning to organic are solved by building the soil, they say.
 "Conventional fruit trees are accustomed to being pumped up with fertilizers, and when you change over
to organic, they need to adjust to doing more work to get that fertility. The soil-root system needs to be
built up," Burns explains.
 "Our trees were nitrogen deficient for the first couple of years," says Strandberg, "because we didn't disk
in the compost. If I were to do it again, I would disk the compost in at least six inches." From a hill above
the orchards, he points out an area that is still showing yellow patches and unthrifty growth. "That is what
the whole farm looked like the first year of transition," he says soberly. "Actually, it was worse."
 "You also need to build up your populations of beneficials to bring pests under control. Farming
conventionally you kill all of the beneficials with pesticides, and that transition in which you build them up
again takes a couple of years," says Burns.
 "Because of the nutrition changeover and subsequent deficiencies, you can also expect to have your fruit
size drop one class," Burns adds. "But they generally recover back to your old size class after a couple of
years."
   "One thing we noticed right away in the transition to organic was the improvement in fruit quality. Fruit
keeps better, it's firmer and [it's] sweeter."

 A permanent improvement in quality can offset the temporary loss of size, however. "One thing we
noticed right away in the transition to organic was the improvement in fruit quality. Fruit keeps better, it's
firmer and [it's] sweeter," says Burns.
 Strandberg's information sources are mainly other organic farmers, a consultant now and then, and, of
course, the American farmer's old standby, agrichemical dealers. Many of the dealers in this area have
field reps who specialize in organics and carry lines of approved-for-organic products. "The problem is
that they always want to solve your problem with something from their warehouse," says Strandberg.
 "For example, an agrichemical guy and some farmers were in our organic pear orchard and the agri-
chemical guy grabs a bunch of pears and some earwigs fall out. Well, he maintained that the earwigs are
eating and damaging the pears and recommended a spray (an organic one). I knew full well though that
earwigs don't eat pears and that they were just sleeping there. They are actually beneficial, we depend on
them as predators of the pear psylla," says Strandberg. "The other farmers didn't know that."
 The agrichemical reps are good at keeping track of what's on the OMRI list (the Organic Materials
Review Institute's list of approved and prohibited substances, which the U.S. National Organic Program
follows). This is important, since the list is frequently revised and materials can change status from one
year to the next.
 "If you sprayed a compound that has recently fallen off the OMRI list, say an adjuvant from a certain
company, up until now the WSDA would consider it minor violation, note it, and keep you certified," says
Strandberg. However, "the USDA NOP is taking a zero-tolerance attitude on these things, and is forcing
WSDA to take much more drastic measures, like de-certification, if these things happen." Some kind of
national discussion of issues like this needs to take place, Strandberg argues, otherwise a lot of organic
farmers are going to get hurt.
 Strandberg makes sure the Materials Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for every product they use is accessible
to employees and goes on file with their Organic System Plan records.

Operations
 The annual cycle at Pine Creek farm starts with pruning and compost applications in January.
Strandberg uses no winter sprays. They make compost from purchased chicken manure and apply it at a
rate of four to five tons/acre while the snow is still on the ground. As the snow melts the compost is drawn
into the soil. The compost tests out at about four percent nitrogen.
 Strandberg doesn't plant cover crops. Instead, he allows a natural cover of native grasses, lupin and
dandelion to come up in the orchards. This is mown three or four times a year.

In the fall, Strandberg applies a foliar spray of zinc and boron, using petiole analysis as a guide. "The zinc
helps the trees go into winter better, [and] it helps them with the leaf shed," he says.
 Lime-sulfur and fish oil are also applied in the spring. This controls powdery mildew and helps to thin the
fruit.
 Strandberg rents bees for pollination. This requires a degree of judgment, he notes. "If bees are left in
too long, you can get too much fruit set. You need to take them out, even though you want to keep them
there because you've paid for them. Bees are really just insurance, in case the wild pollinators fail."
 Irrigation is via a drip system called a drop tube, with a deflector to splash the water out. The half-inch
plastic pipes are laid through the trees' lower branches, about four feet off the ground. This allows tillage
and mowing operations to pass directly under the tubes, so that nearly 100 percent of the orchard floor
can be covered by the equipment.
 Computer weather stations are a critical part of organic apple growing for Pine Creek. Strandberg uses
Spectrum dataloggers to collect microclimate data for predicting disease potential, mostly for apple scab
and fireblight. The dataloggers are shoebox-sized weatherproof boxes that collect temperature, humidity,
wind and leaf wetness data at different points in the orchard. The data are then uploaded to a
microcomputer and analyzed with special software. Strandberg uses one datalogger for about every 100
acres, although a 1:50 acre ratio is optimum, he says.
 Apple scab potential is based on leaf wetness and temperature data. Leaf wetness is particularly critical,
but it's also the most difficult condition to accurately measure. Spectrum offers several computer modeling
programs that calculate when environmental conditions are favorable enough to the growth of the scab
fungus to warrant spraying. Strandberg sprays lime-sulfur for scab.
 Doing your own weather monitoring is important because disease conditions in your orchard can be
different from those prevailing on a neighboring orchard or from those predicted by the local extension
agent's weather data. "The old way of doing things was to go down to the local agrichemical dealer and
look at his daily blackboard posting-spray or don't spray," says Strandberg. "But his conditions might be
correct for your orchards only half of the time, and besides, in borderline situations, he's always going to
err on the side of spraying."
 Fireblight, a serious disease of apples and pears caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is the
other disease monitored by Strandberg's dataloggers and computer. He uses a biological control agent
called BlightBan, containing the beneficial bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens, which competes with the
fireblight bacterium for nutrients on the apple blossoms.

 Careful sanitation practices and pruning of fireblight-caused cankers are the primary strategies against
this disease.
 Strandberg also brews and applies compost tea about once every 10 days. "It's not a panacea, but we
like to use it," he says. According to Pine Creek partner Gene Burns, the benefits of compost tea are
subtle. "I'm not sure how to measure its benefits, but I'm one of those who believes it has done some
good. It's like organics in general: the differences are often very subtle and take time-many years
sometimes-to really see."
 For codling moth control, Strandberg uses a multi-pronged approach including dormant oil, mating
disruption and the biological insecticide spinosad. The dormant oil (a lightweight oil that kills insect eggs)
must be applied at least two weeks after any application of lime-sulfur, otherwise it can burn and defoliate
the crop. In his first transition year Strandberg made the mistake of applying the oil too soon after lime-
sulfur and defoliated a lot of trees. "I was a little too eager to get it on," he recalls. "The leaves did grow
back that season."
 Strandberg also puts up 200 to 400 pheromone-dispensing "ties" or cards each year for mating
disruption. Commercially available formulations of the granulosis virus are also used against codling
moth, Strandberg says, "But you have to make sure it is viable and that the dealer has stored it well. It is
also very UV sensitive."
 In 2003 spinosad (brand-name Entrust) was approved for use in organic orchards to control codling
moth. Spinosad is an insect-specific toxin produced from the soil actinomycete Saccharopolyspora
spinosa, and is the first of a new class of natural insecticides known as naturalytes. Strandberg's
experience with Entrust has been good. "It's expensive, but it works." Strandberg doesn't use Surround,
the kaolin clay product used by many apple growers in the eastern United States.
 Apple farmers in nearby British Columbia have no codling moth problems and don't have to use any of
these expensive defenses due to a very successful sterile-release program run by the provincial
government. The program raises, irradiates (sterilizes) and releases codling moths in apple growing areas
in large enough numbers that the wild codling moths invariably mate with a sterile individual. The program
has been so successful that an apple farmer I talked to in the Similkameen Valley, just 50 miles north of
Tonasket, never has to apply anything for codling moth. "I don't know why we don't have a program here,"
Strandberg comments. "I know it's been talked about."
 Strandberg uses a surprisingly low-tech, down-home strategy against another serious pest, the pear
psylla. Pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola) is the worst pear pest worldwide and is largely responsible for the
decline of the pear industry in the eastern United States. However, earwigs prey on psylla eggs and are
an effective way of controlling the psylla. Strandberg uses crumpled up newspapers put in crotches of
trees to promote earwigs. Earwigs hide in the newspaper during the day and come out at night and feed
on pear psylla eggs.
 In the first transition year, Strandberg went around Tonasket asking householders with fruit trees if he
could put newspaper in their trees to catch earwigs. He built up his orchards' population of earwigs this
way.
 Strandberg also sprays Spinosad for the pear psylla. Pyrellin used to be a common organic spray for
pear psylla, but it was taken off the OMRI list in 2002. In that year there was no organic spray product
available for psylla. Then, in 2003, the spinosad products were approved.
 "You want to mix up your strategies and alternate things when managing a pest like the pear psylla,"
Strandberg advises.
 The pear slug (the larval stage of a sawfly, Caliroa cerasi) is also a problem. Strandberg hits it with
Ecotrol when the insect is flying.
 Cutworms can be a problem in some parts of the orchards. Several genera of moths of the Noctuidae
family are cutworms in their larval stage. The soil-borne larvae emerge, move into the trees and feed on
the foliage, eventually defoliating the tree. Strandberg is using chickens to combat the cutworms. He
targets problem areas, fences the birds in and they scratch up and eat the cutworms.
 "Chickens are very effective, but the problem is they are preyed on by coyotes," Standberg says. He
thinks turkeys may be better because they would be less susceptible to coyote predation. They've also
thought about getting the kind of dog that is raised with chickens and guards them. "But we're too big of
an operation to be able to do that-we would need several groups of chickens, each with its own guard
dog, for that to work."
 "Pest management in organic farming is all about paying attention to cycles," Strandberg says, in
summary-when the pest emerges, how much humidity or warmth it requires to hatch, where it feeds and
how quickly it reproduces. Once you understand the cycles you can try to figure out ways to disrupt
them.
 The only major new pieces of equipment Strandberg had to buy when Pine Creek went organic were a
manure spreader and the drip system. Everything else was washed with Nutrasol. The herbicide spray rig
now lies unused.

Markets
 Pine Creek markets its fruit under its own label and, less often, through CF Fresh, a Washington-based
company that has specialized in organic fruits since its founding by organic farmer Roger Wechsler in
1993. CF Fresh is now the largest marketer of organic apples and pears in North America as well as the
largest importer of organic fruits from South America.
 Growing the latest, best, most popular varieties is critically important, Burns emphasizes. "We try to
replace 30 acres of trees each year with new varieties." This translates into a complete turnover of the
orchard every 12 years.
 The effects of the global shift toward free trade are increasingly felt by apple growers in Washington
state. You can hear the tension in Strandberg's voice when he talks about competition from Chile in
organic apples and other fruits. "They don't have to pay seven dollars an hour for labor, they might pay a
dollar an hour, no benefits. It now costs four dollars a box to ship fruit from Chile. They can grow and ship
and come under the cost of producing in Washington." Strandberg's organic apples currently sell for
anywhere from more than $40 per box of Honeycrisp to between $20 and $25 per box of Red Delicious.
 Burns says he would like to see country-of-origin labeling on all fruit, arguing that it would help U.S.
growers compete with imports.
 When asked what advice he would give to tree fruit farmers about how to survive the difficult transition
years, Gene Burns recommends trying to sell directly to consumers-at a farmstand or farmers' market, for
instance-as "transitioning to certified organic."
 "Consumers appreciate that you are going organic, and they will pay close to organic prices even if you
are transitional. So farmers' markets and the like are good places to sell transitional fruit, since it is rare
nowadays for fruit to be sold on the organic distribution market as transitional. They just don't do that
anymore unless there is a real shortage of some variety."
 Burns also advises farmers to stay in close-even daily-touch with their marketing agents and distributors.
"It can really make a difference in the price you get."
 Farmers of organic apples and pears face many challenges- the shrinking organic price premium,
increased competition from Chile, and the National Organic Program's zero-tolerance approach to
materials regulation, to name a few. The only farmers who may be in an even more difficult situation are
conventional apple and pear growers-making it likely that despite the challenges, the transition to organic
by apple and pear farmers will continue.
 Don Lotter has a Ph.D. in agroecology and has worked in sustainable agricultural development in North
America, Latin America and Africa over the past 25 years. He recently served two years as Agriculture
Program coordinator at Imperial Valley College in El Centro, California.
 This material was developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Agriculture through the Risk
Management Agency, under Agreement No. 031E08310147.
Why Organic Food is Healthier for You and the Planet
Question: Are Organic foods healthier than processed foods?

Hypothesis: Organic foods are healthier for humans than processed foods.
 Evidence : Eighty percent of meat sold in America is from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations
(CAFOs), which are where animals are bred, fed, slaughtered, and then shipped out to the markets. Sixty
percent of the corn grown in America is used to feed the livestock bred in these CAFOs, which means the
majority of the meat that is on the market is from animals that were fed corn. Research has shown that
amongst populations that consume grass fed animals (organic), the risk of heart complications is
significantly lower (Pollan). Cows were once fed rendered cow parts [Web Note: Blood, manure &
slaughterhouse waste still are fed to U.S. farm animals on non-organic farms] to satisfy the cows need for
protein and up until it was banned by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1997 was spreading
bovine spongiform encephalopathy, more commonly known as mad cow disease. Though the FDA
banned feeding ruminant protein to ruminants, there was an exception for blood products and fat. Cows in
these CAFOs are still fed the beef tallow (fat) from other cows (Pollan). Plants do not always absorb
chemicals that are either used to help the plant grow or keep away bugs. Synthetic nitrogen that is not
absorbed by plants in the factories is either evaporated into the air where it acidifies the rain and
contributes to global warming, or it seeps down to the water table polluting streams and riverbeds
(Pollan). Ninety percent of money Americans spend on food is used to buy processed foods (Schlosser).
A recent evaluation of 100 present-day pesticides indicates that at least some of them are tumoregenic,
i.e., will produce benign tumors in animals (Processed foods and the consumer pg 170). Contamination in
the U.S. food supply has led to an increase in often deadly food-borne illnesses. Possible cause for the
growing risk include deadlier strains of bacteria such as E. Coli, broader distribution of contaminated
foods, and improper handling and preperation. These illnesses kill over nine thousand people each year
and sicken millions more. Although the government has worked to reduce food safety risks, fragmented
responsibilities among various federal agencies have stymied these efforts (food safety pg 17). All food it
can't be escaped contains minute amounts of mercury .An FDA survey of ten basic foods found fish to
oppose the only potential hazards (Processed foods and the consumer pg 139). Basically, There's a ton
of hazardous metals out there in the soil that gets into all foods
 Question: Which is better organic or industrial growing techniques?
 Answer: Organic growing techniques usually are healthier and cheaper than pesticides and other
industrial growing techniques.

 Evidence: As a whole organic growing techniques prove to be the safest choice when trying to decide
what type of growing technique is best. Organic methods remove the risk of harmful chemicals and
pesticides being used on crops. Also by growing organic people can avoid consuming harmful pathogens
that have become such a common threat among foods today. Overall organic is a safer choice on the
environment because nutrients are put back into the soil that would normally in an industrial state be
removed forever. Some organic growing techniques include things as first starting with the increasing the
life of the soil. To do this one must encourage microorganisms in the soil so they can convert minerals
and organic material into nutrients available for plant growth. The way to improve the soil is first through
adding well-rotted manure and compost that will retain fertility. Another technique is through the rotation
of crops in order to insure the retention of soil fertility. One can also obtain this fertility by adding mulches
of organic material, or by adding rock dusts, and lastly through mulching and keeping soil moist. Other
organic rowing techniques include making your own compost. This works best when there are varied
materials, which are well divided, moistened and mixed with plenty of air. Compost or well rotted manure
is best applied to growing crops in early spring to avoid leaching out of soil during winter months. A
balance of dry and fresh green material is necessary for successful compost. Adding water is an
essential part of composting. Another tip in order to speed things up is by adding urine or poultry manure
and covering up the compost with a tarp in order to trap heat. The next step is to avoid using chemicals.
Biological controls can be used such as aphids, caterpillars, mealy bugs, red spider-mites, scale insects,
sciarid flies, slugs, thrips, vine weevils, and white flies. Some practical preventative measures include
nets, carpet squares, bands made of cloth, earwig traps, sticky boards, fly papers, and wasp traps.
Finally, one when creating an organic garden will want to choose the right plants. In particular plants that
are disease resistant. This reduces the need for other pest preventative measures. Companion planting
is another technique that can be used in organic gardening. These are plants that grow well with each
other in the same environment and can be used together for different needs. Ultimately, organic
gardening provides a wide array of advantages both environmentally and physically. Through the use of
these methods people are continuing the natural cycle of recycling earths nutrients rather than exploiting
them in a detrimental way. These techniques are extremely profitable in many shapes and forms as well
as proving to be economically smart while helping the environment at the same time. By growing organic
people are able to be save money while also eating healthy.
 Question: Are organic pesticides the safest choice?
 Answer: Yes organic pesticides are safer than industrial pesticides
 Pesticides, substances that control or eliminate pests, are used around the world. They are used in
every form of agriculture. From industrial agriculture to small scale gardening, pests and pesticides can
be found. Although the use of chemical pesticides to prevent pests is a very common occurrence, it is not
necessarily the best or safest way to prevent or eliminate problems from ones' crops.
 Industrial pesticides, including some household pesticides, can have harmful effects on humans. Not to
mention the negative effects to the predators of the pests for which the pesticides are initially intended.
Because these pesticides are chemical substances and compounds, they are poisonous to humans.
They are also poisonous to animals. But how are humans and larger mammals and birds ingesting these
chemicals?
 It is something like a chain reaction, or a cycle. When these pesticides are put onto crops, they can seep
over into near by wild life. This contaminates the natural species. Also, any predator that eats any 'pest'
infected with a pesticide will then ingest that pesticide. This has caused many problems for mammals
and birds.
 For example, the pesticide DDT has had a major effect on bald eagle populations. Because this
pesticide was so prevalent, it contaminated the eagles' food sources. By eating contaminated prey, the
eagles then became contaminated. They began laying eggs with very thin shells. They were unable to
hatch young-these thin shells would break before the young had time to develop.
 In search of finding a safer method of controlling and eliminating pests, organic pesticides became more
widely used. Organic pesticides, however, are still toxic. They still have detrimental effects on birds and
mammals, and are also harmful to humans. Organic pesticides may seem like a safe alternative to use in
a garden at home (perhaps vs. an industrial strength pesticide), but there are still safer methods in
preventing ones' pest problems.
 Doug Oster and Jessica Wallister, authors of Grow Organic, give these tips on how to have a safe and
healthy garden with pesticides as a last resort. First, they advise designing your garden accordingly. For
example, plants that require full sun should be in full sun. If you have a deer problem, build a high fence.
Second, "examine your actions." For example, be wary of watering your garden too late in the day, as the
water may not dry leaving good ground for pests. Ask yourself to examine your gardening routines. Are
you causing your pest problems? Third, what is your problem and how can you fix it? If you have
cutworms eating your crop, you may want to place plastic milk jugs around the roots of your plants. This
would not solve a groundhog problem, however. Fourth, which methods will be effective? Can you get
rid of the pest by hand, or do you need cages and fences? Fifth, you may consider using beneficial bugs
and plants. Bugs like lady bugs and praying mantises are very good to have in gardens as they will eat
the bugs that eat your crop. And plants like fennel attract predatory bugs that eat other pests. Finally, if
you find no cure in the above mentioned methods, a low-toxicity organic pesticide may be an option.



Eco-Homes: Green is the New Gold
                                        Ecologically friendly, economically smart - green is the new
                                         gold standard for outfitting a home
                                         Royal LePage Eco Home Survey finds 88 per cent of
                                         Canadians want green qualities in their home
                                         Canada NewsWire, October 30, 2007
                                         Straight to the Source

TORONTO - Green friendly home improvements will likely yield a solid return on investment come selling
time as almost three quarters of Canadians (72%) say they will look for a green-improved property in their
next home purchase, and 63 per cent will be willing to pay more for an environmentally friendly home,
according to the Royal LePage Eco Home Survey released today. The Royal LePage Eco Home Survey,
which examines the attitudes and opinions of Canadians with respect to green living, found that
Canadians are willing to pony up cash for greener home features. In fact, of the majority of Canadians
who are willing to pay more for an eco home, 62 per cent are willing to pay between $5,000 and under
$20,000, for green features, while eight per cent (8%) of respondents are willing to spend $20,000 or
more on a home deemed green. "The mood of Canadian homebuyers and sellers is changing with the
times - environmental concerns are impacting the decisions people are making about their dwellings.
From simple energy conservation efforts to the more elaborate use of organic building materials, the
environmentally conscious mindset that our agents are seeing in clients is not a passing trend," said Phil
Soper, president and CEO, Royal LePage Real Estate Services. "To service this growing segment of the
real estate market, we are pleased to launch our partnership with the National Association of Green
Agents and Brokers (NAGAB) as well as the green accreditation program. This program will educate and
empower our REALTORS(R) and brokers, as well as consumers on how to make eco-friendly decisions
when it comes to the home." Through various education courses funded in part by the Ministry of Energy,
Royal LePage real estate agents will be trained by the National Association of Green Agents and Brokers
to assess environmental elements within a home and identify properties that adhere to green standards.
Royal LePage members who take the National Association of Green Agents and Brokers training will be
easily identifiable though a special designation logo. "Few people realize that residential, commercial and
institutional buildings represent more than 33 per cent of our total greenhouse gas emissions," said Elden
Freeman, National Association of Green Agents and Brokers founder and executive director. "While it is
unreasonable to completely reduce carbon dioxide created by homes, there are various practices
homeowners can implement, such as installing high-energy efficient windows, doors and insulation, high
efficiency furnaces and appliances, and water-conserving fixtures such as showerheads and toilets that
will significantly reduce negative effects on the environment." While positive changes are occurring in the
general population there is much work to be done. More than half (51%) of all survey respondents say
they are very concerned about the environment and think we are in dire need of change some are not as
quick to implement changes. When asked, "What is preventing you from making your home more green?"
over half (54%) of respondents said it was too expensive to do, while 15 per cent said they have no idea
where to start. Added Soper: "Canadians need to know that going green can certainly be within their
means and within their reach. There are many simple and affordable measures that can lead to big gains
for the environment, and many of the practices can actually save homeowners money."

Small Steps for Big Change

When it comes to describing how green their current lifestyle is, 72 per cent of Canadians say they
engage in traditional recycling practices. Making a difference can be as simple as implementing small
environmentally friendly practices. The most popular green modifications that poll respondents already
implement in their homes include switching from regular light bulbs to CFL light bulbs (74%), adding
window and door sealers to prevent heat loss (61%) and switching to high efficiency washers and dryers
and using low flow water fixtures (54%). Some homeowners are taking bigger leaps. Caryn Thompson, a
Toronto-based health promoter and owner of an eco-friendly home, is among those Canadians that took
on green modifications when she and her husband decided to renovate their home. To create their eco
enclave they opted for highly energy efficient windows made with low-e glass that decreases heat gain in
the summer and keeps the house warm in the winter, installed central air that uses puron, and have
painted with low or no VOC (Volatile organic compounds) products. "When we decided to renovate our
home, we wanted to make choices that would have the least impact on the environment and create a
healthy indoor space for us," said Caryn Thompson.
Motivating Forces of Nature

When asked, "What is the most influential factor for making your home more or completely green?" 35 per
cent of respondents cited they are doing it for their children so they inherit a healthy planet; 32 per cent
are doing it for the cost savings; and one quarter (25%) are doing it for their health and to have peace of
mind they are living the best they can. Mature Canadians edge out the younger set when it comes to
recycling. Respondents aged 55+ (77%) are more likely than those aged 18 to 34 years (67%) to engage
in traditional recycling practices. More women (31%) than men (18%) are going green for their health.
Conversely, more men (41%) than women (23%) cite cost savings as the most influential factor for
making a change.

Poll Methodology

Angus Reid Strategies conducted poll portion of the Royal LePage Eco Home Survey, with fieldwork
completed on Tuesday, October 16, 2007. The poll was conducted on-line with a national representative
sample of 1,266 Canadians survey respondents aged 18 year and older. The results have a maximum
margin of error +/- 2.75% 19 times out of 20.

About Royal LePage

Royal LePage is Canada's leading provider of franchise services to residential real estate brokerages,
with a network of over 13,000 agents and sales representatives in 600 locations across Canada operating
under the Royal LePage, Johnston & Daniel, and Realty World brand names. Royal LePage manages the
Royal LePage Franchise Services Fund, a TSX listed income trust, trading under the symbol "RSF.UN."
For more information visit www.royallepage.ca.

About National Association of Green Agents and Brokers

The National Association of Green Agents and Brokers (NAGAB) is Canada's largest non-profit
association of real estate agents committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The association's
Greenrealestate(TM) curriculum provides an education and certification program for real estate agents.
Through the association's innovative offerings, real estate agents promote the benefits of energy
conservation to their buyers and sellers. The National Association of Green Agents and Brokers has over
15,000 affiliate members coast-to-coast and boasts support from major corporate and government
sponsors. For more information visit www.nagab.org.

For further information: Tiffany Fisher, Mansfield Communications Inc., Phone: (416) 599-0024, Or e-mail:
tiffany@mcipr.com




CONGRESS AGRICULTURE CHAIR COLLIN PETERSON: PAYING MORE FOR
ORGANIC OR LOCAL FOOD IS "DUMB"

From an MSNBC.com Financial Times Oct. 17, 2007

Collin Peterson, chairman of the House of Representatives agricultural committee, says
the farm sector that raises organic produce and grass-fed beef for local consumers
needs little federal help. "It is growing, and it has nothing to do with the government, and
that is good," he told the FT. "For whatever reason, people are willing to pay two or
three times as much for something that says 'organic' or 'local'. Far be it from me to
understand what that's about, but that's reality. And if people are dumb enough to pay
that much then hallelujah."

Send a message to Collin Peterson (Democrat, MN) congratulating him for getting the
Organic Consumers Association award for the dumbest quote of the week:

Pesticide Exposure Tied to Asthma in Farmers
                                       Pesticide Exposure Tied to Asthma in Farmers
                                        By Anthony J. Brown, MD
                                        Reuters, 9/18/2007
                                        Straight to the Source

 Pesticide Exposure Tied to Asthma in Farmers
 NEW YORK - Exposure to several commonly used pesticides appears to increase the risk of
asthma, US researchers report.
 This finding stems from a study of nearly 20,000 farmers, which was presented Sunday at the
European Respiratory Society Annual Congress in Stockholm.
 Pesticide exposure is a "potential risk factor for asthma and respiratory symptoms among
farmers," lead author Dr. Jane A. Hoppin, from the National Institute of Environmental Health
Sciences in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, told Reuters Health.
 "Because grains and animals are more common exposures in agricultural settings, pesticides
may be overlooked," Hoppin warned, adding: "Better education and training of farmers and
pesticide handlers may help to reduce asthma risk."
 Of the 19,704 farmers included in the study, 127 had self-reported (doctor diagnosed) allergic
asthma and 314 had non-allergic asthma.
 The main finding was that a history of high pesticide exposure was associated with a doubling
of asthma risk, Hoppin noted. The link remained statistically significant after adjusting for a
variety of potentially confounding factors including age, smoking, body weight, and state of
residence.
 Overall, 16 of the pesticides studied were associated with asthma: 12 with the allergic variety of
asthma and 4 with the non-allergic type. Coumaphos, EPTC, lindane, parathion, heptachlor, and
2,4,5-TP were most strongly linked to allergic asthma. For non-allergic asthma, DDT, malathion,
and phorate had the strongest effect.
 "This is the first study with sufficient power to evaluate individual pesticides and adult asthma
among individuals who routinely apply pesticides," Hoppin noted. Moreover, this is the only
study to date to do this for allergic and non-allergic asthma separately, the researcher said.

                New Study: Industrial Agriculture Crops
             Are Far Less Nutritious Than Organic Crops

September 11, 2007, BOULDER, Colorado - Today's farmers raise more bushels of corn, pecks of apples, and
pounds of broccoli from a given piece of land than they did decades ago. But those crops are often less
nutritious, according to a new report released today from The Organic Center, "Still No Free Lunch:
Nutrient levels in U.S. food supply eroded by pursuit of high yields."

"Our crops are more abundant [i.e., per acre yields are higher], but they are also generally less nutritious,"
said report author Brian Halweil, a senior researcher at the Worldwatch Institute and a member of the
Organic Center's scientific advisory board. Historical records from the U.S. Department of Agriculture show
that everyday fruits and vegetables-from collard greens to tomatoes to sweet corn-often have lower levels of
some vitamins and less iron, calcium, zinc, and other micronutrients than they did 50 years ago.

The most compelling data supporting the general decline in nutrient levels in crops comes from
contemporary studies where researchers have grown modern plant varieties side-by-side with historic,
generally lower-yielding cultivars, using similar production practices and levels of inputs, like nitrogen
fertilizer. Several such studies have found that the modern-era varieties produce 10 to 25 percent lower levels
of iron, zinc, protein, calcium, vitamin C, and other essential nutrients per pound of produce or grain.

For instance, looking at 63 spring wheat cultivars grown between 1842 and 2003, researchers at Washington
State University found declines in the concentrations for all eight minerals studied, with an 11 percent decline
for iron, 16 percent decline for copper, 25 percent decline for zinc, and 50 percent decline for selenium.

"To get our recommended daily allowance of nutrients, we have to eat many more slices of bread today than
people had to eat in the past," said Halweil. "Less nutrition per calorie consumed affects consumers in much
the same way as monetary inflation. That is, we have more food, but it's worth less in terms of nutritional
value."

Because of the impressive and ongoing increases in per acre yields, the decline in the nutrient content per
serving of food or bushel of grain has gone largely unnoticed by agricultural scientists, farmers, public health
officials, and policymakers. The decline in nutrients over the last few decades has unfolded alongside
significant changes in the composition of the average American diet.

Not only are consumers getting less nutrients per serving of food today, many people are also consuming a far
larger share of their daily caloric intake from highly processed junk foods high in added fat, sugars, and salt.
According to The Organic Center's Chief Scientist Dr. Charles Benbrook, "Less nutrient-dense foods,
coupled with poor food choices, go a long way toward explaining today's epidemics of obesity and diabetes."

Reversing Nutrient Decline

Plants bred to produce higher yields tend to devote less energy to other factors, like sinking deep roots and
generating health-promoting compounds known as phytochemicals. Farming practices have worked hand-in-
hand with plant breeding in setting the stage for nutrient decline. Modern conventional agriculture
production practices, such as close plant spacing, heavy use of chemical fertilizers, and reliance on pesticides,
tend to produce fast-growing, high-yielding crops, but also plants that do not absorb a comparable quantity
of many nutrients, and often have poorly developed and unhealthy root systems.

The good news is that recent research shows that existing varieties of a given crop often vary widely in terms
of their mineral and vitamin content, so it should be possible for crop breeders to draw on the genetic
diversity within plant species to make our food more nutritious.

Moreover, backing a bit back down the yield curve through strategic changes in farming systems should help
reverse the decline in nutrient content. For instance, although organic farming results in somewhat lower
yields in many cases, studies show that it also tends to produce crops with higher concentrations of
micronutrients, phytochemicals, and other health-promoting compounds.

Organic sources of soil nutrients, like manure or cover crops, offer more balanced mixtures of nutrients, and
tend to release nutrients more gradually. As a result, according to Benbrook, "Plants develop more robust
root systems that more aggressively absorb nutrients from the soil, and produce crops with higher
concentrations of valuable nutrients and phytochemicals."
"This intimate relationship between soil quality, crop yields, and food nutritional quality is farming's
equivalent of no free lunch," Benbrook continued. "This study highlights the benefits of building soil quality
in improving crop nutritional quality, whether on organic or conventional farms."

The nutritional advantage of organic food ranges from a few percent to sometimes 20 percent or more for
certain minerals, and on average, about 30 percent in the case of antioxidants. Some studies have reported
even more dramatic differences in concentrations of specific phytochemicals-for example, nearly twice as
much of two common antioxidants in organic tomatoes compared to conventional tomatoes.

"This advantage will vary depending on the crop, soil quality, and growing conditions," said Halweil. "And
there will be some cases where conventional crops have higher nutritional quality than nearby organic crops,
especially as organic farmers find ways to push yields to or above the levels on conventional farms."

Improving the nutritional quality of our crops on a per serving basis will be an important part of addressing
larger nutritional and health problems, particularly as the baby-boom generation ages. This report and
others from the Center have stressed the benefits of food that delivers more nutrition per calorie consumed.

According to Alan Greene, M.D., chair of the Center's Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee, "For
many of our most costly and common health problems in the years ahead, progress in reducing the frequency
and severity of disease will depend increasingly on improving food nutritional quality and patterns of dietary
choice, rather than simply an ever-widening dependence on drug-based therapies and surgery."

Editor's Note: The Center can provide photos and additional information, and arrange interviews with key
scientists. Contact Dr. Charles Benbrook at 541-828-7918, or via email cbenbrook@organic-center.org.

About The Organic Center: The Organic Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to understanding the
health and environmental benefits of organic food and farming systems. The Center's program of sponsored
research strives to better understand how organic farming can improve food safety and quality in order to:

· Document and quantify the current benefits associated with organic food and farming systems;

· Expand the scope and increase the frequency of existing benefits; and

· Create new benefits in the future.

The reports of the Center, including "Still No Free Lunch," are accessible free of charge on our website:
http://www.organic-center.org/ . For more information on the work of The Organic Center, contact 303-
499-1840.

Organic Farming Could Feed the World
                                          The Ram's Horn, July 2007
                                           Straight to the Source

Along with reporting on fertilizers, biotech, ethanol, corporate consolidation and the agrofuels vs food
debate comes an increased science reporting of the real world of organic-ecological-diversified
agriculture that actually feeds the world.

The biotech industry used to regard speed as one of the defining characteristics of genetic engineering.
To prove the point, it rushed new products to market with little regard for the consequences. Speed,
however, is a characteristic of neither good science nor sustain-able agriculture. Now the 'slow' reports of
scientific findings on nutritious food and sustainable agriculture are beginning to surface. It will be
interesting to see how the biotech bullies deal with these. The authors of a new study* claim that a switch
to organic farming would not reduce the world's food supply but could actually increase food security in
developing countries. They claim their findings lay to rest the debate over whether organic farming could
sustainably feed the world. The team of researchers has compiled research from 293 different
comparisons into a single study to assess the overall efficiency of the two agricultural systems.

They found that in 'developed' countries organic systems produce, on average, 92% of the yield produced
by conventional agriculture. In 'developing' countries, however, organic systems produce 80% more than
conventional farms. Then, using data from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, the team estimated
what would happen if farms world-wide were to switch to organic methods today.

The researchers found that under an organic-only regime, farms could produce between 2641 and 4381
calories per person per day com-pared to the current world equivalent of 2786 calories per person per
day. Members of the team believe the calculations they carried out to arrive at the upper number are the
most realistic. These took into account the higher yields that would be obtained in developing countries,
and the details of which crops are grown where. Nutritionists recommend that people consume between
2100 and 2500 calories a day.

The researchers found that small farms tend to produce more per hectare of land. They also note that
although organic production tends to require more labour, this labour is often spread out more evenly
over the growing season, making it easier to manage. They also point out that once you incorporate the
environ-mental costs, then organic agriculture is a much superior system.

In this era of climate change and unpredicted disasters (droughts, floods, heat waves, etc.) organic/
ecological agriculture has another important virtue. Relying on locally-sourced and adapted species and
varieties as well as labour, knowledge, and skills, it is much more resilient than a system which is
dependent on manufactured and imported inputs.

The issue of speed is also crucial. As George Monbiot has persuasively argued, air travel may be the
single most intractable cause of carbon emissions. But fast boats, trains, and cars are also problematic.
The fact is that when you take the whole system into ac-count, speed is simply not efficient. Slower
modes of transport would, of course, limit the perishable food and other products which are now shipped
around the globe, and make us all more dependent on what we can produce ourselves. Not a bad idea.

* Organic agriculture and the global food supply: Catherine Badgley, Jeremy Moghtader, Eileen Quintero,
Emily Zakem, M. Jahi Chappell, Katia Avilés-Vázquez, Andrea Samulon and Ivette Perfecto, Renewable
Agriculture and Food Systems, 2007, Cambridge University Press


Vital Signs




Nutrition: Another Benefit Is Seen in Buying
Organic Produce
People who choose organic fruits and vegetables to avoid pesticides and other chemicals may
have another reason to buy organic. A new study finds that organically grown tomatoes have
higher levels of flavonoids, which may protect against cardiovascular disease.
                                                                         Stuart Goldenberg

Related

More Vital Signs Columns »

Web Link

Ten-Year Comparison of the Influence of Organic and Conventional Crop
Management Practices on the Content of Flavonoids in Tomatoes (Journal
of Agriculture and Food Chemistry) Writing in The Journal of Agriculture and
Food Chemistry, researchers said the level of one flavonoid in the organic tomatoes was
almost twice as high as that in conventionally grown tomatoes.

Because of evidence that flavonoids may fight age-related diseases, the study said,
researchers have been trying to develop crops with higher levels of them. In the United
States, only potatoes are eaten more often than tomatoes.

The researchers, from the University of California, Davis, looked at tomatoes grown over
a 10-year period in organic fields and regular ones. Not only did the organic tomatoes
score better, they said, but over time their flavonoid levels kept increasing.

The lead author of the study, Alyson E. Mitchell, said she was surprised at the extent of
the difference.

“We sort of went into this expecting higher levels,” Dr. Mitchell said. “We did not expect
to find the levels that we found.”

The study offered several possible explanations, most having to do with the fertility of
the soil. Organic farms, the researchers said, gradually improve the soil by letting
organic matter accumulate through the use of cover crops, compost and manure.

The study also said flavonoids were among a group of metabolites produced by plants in
part to ward off pests. So it is possible, the researchers said, that the increased pressure
on organic crops from pests may result in more flavonoids.
More Articles in Health »

Scientists Find More Proof That Organic Foods Are Healthier

                                  Vital Signs
                                   Nutrition: Another Benefit Is Seen in Buying
                                   Organic Produce
                                   By Eric Nagourney
                                   The New York Times, July 17, 2007
                                   Straight to the Source

People who choose organic fruits and vegetables to avoid pesticides and other
chemicals may have another reason to buy organic. A new study finds that organically
grown tomatoes have higher levels of flavonoids, which may protect against
cardiovascular disease.

Writing in The Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, researchers said the level of
one flavonoid in the organic tomatoes was almost twice as high as that in conventionally
grown tomatoes.

Because of evidence that flavonoids may fight age-related diseases, the study said,
researchers have been trying to develop crops with higher levels of them. In the United
States, only potatoes are eaten more often than tomatoes.

The researchers, from the University of California, Davis, looked at tomatoes grown
over a 10-year period in organic fields and regular ones. Not only did the organic
tomatoes score better, they said, but over time their flavonoid levels kept increasing.

The lead author of the study, Alyson E. Mitchell, said she was surprised at the extent of
the difference...

What is Biodynamics?
Based on "An Introduction To Biodynamic Agriculture", originally published in Stella
Natura 1995.

     What is Biodynamic agriculture? In seeking an answer let us pose the further
question: Can the Earth heal itself, or has the waning of the Earths vitality gone too far
for this? No matter where our land is located, if we are observant we will see sure signs
of illness in trees, in our cultivated plants, in the water, even in the weather. Organic
agriculture rightly wants to halt the devastation caused by humans; however, organic
agriculture has no cure for the ailing Earth. From this the following question arises:
What was the original source of vitality, and is it available now?

Biodynamics is a science of life-forces, a recognition of the basic principles at work in
nature, and an approach to agriculture which takes these principles into account to bring
about balance and healing. In a very real way, then, Biodynamics is an ongoing path of
knowledge rather than an assemblage of methods and techniques.

Biodynamics is part of the work of Rudolf Steiner, known as anthroposophy - a new
approach to science which integrates precise observation of natural phenomena, clear
thinking, and knowledge of the spirit. It offers an account of the spiritual history of the
Earth as a living being, and describes the evolution of the constitution of humanity and
the kingdoms of nature. Some of the basic principles of Biodynamics are:

Broaden Our Perspective

Just as we need to look at the magnetic field of the whole earth to comprehend the
compass, to understand plant life we must expand our view to include all that affects
plant growth. No narrow microscopic view will suffice. Plants are utterly open to and
formed by influences from the depths of the earth to the heights of the heavens.
Therefore our considerations in agriculture must range more broadly than is generally
assumed to be relevant.

Reading the Book of Nature

Everything in nature reveals something of its essential character in its form and gesture.
Careful observations of nature - in shade and full sun, in wet and dry areas, on different
soils, will yield a more fluid grasp of the elements. So eventually one learns to read the
language of nature. And then one can be creative, bringing new emphasis and balance
through specific actions.

Practitioners and experimenters over the last seventy years have added tremendously
to the body of knowledge known as Biodynamics.

Cosmic Rhythms

The light of the sun, moon, planets and stars reaches the plants in regular rhythms.
Each contributes to the life, growth and form of the plant. By understanding the gesture
and effect of each rhythm, we can time our ground preparation, sowing, cultivating and
harvesting to the advantage of the crops we are raising. The Stella Natura calendar
which is featured in this catalog offers an introduction to this new study.

Plant Life Is Intimately Bound Up with the Life of the Soil

Biodynamics recognizes that soil itself can be alive, and this vitality supports and affects
the quality and health of the plants that grow in it. Therefore, one of Biodynamics
fundamental efforts is to build up stable humus in our soil through composting.

A New View of Nutrition
We gain our physical strength from the process of breaking down the food we eat. The
more vital our food, the more it stimulates our own activity. Thus, Biodynamic farmers
and gardeners aim for quality, and not only quantity.

Chemical agriculture has developed short-cuts to quantity by adding soluble minerals to
the soil. The plants take these up via water, thus by-passing their natural ability to seek
from the soil what is needed for health, vitality and growth. The result is a deadened soil
and artificially stimulated growth.

Biodynamics grows food with a strong connection to a healthy, living soil.

Medicine for the Earth: Biodynamic Preparations

Rudolf Steiner pointed out that a new science of cosmic influences would have to
replace old, instinctive wisdom and superstition. Out of his own insight, he introduced
what are known as biodynamic preparations.

Naturally occurring plant and animal materials are combined in specific recipes in
certain seasons of the year and then placed in compost piles. These preparations bear
concentrated forces within them and are used to organize the chaotic elements within
the compost piles. When the process is complete, the resulting preparations are
medicines for the Earth which draw new life forces from the cosmos.

Two of the preparations are used directly in the field, one on the earth before planting,
to stimulate soil life, and one on the leaves of growing plants to enhance their capacity
to receive the light. Effects of the preparations have been verified scientifically.

The Farm as the Basic Unit of Agriculture

In his Agriculture course, Rudolf Steiner posed the ideal of the self-contained farm -
that there should be just the right number of animals to provide manure for fertility, and
these animals should, in turn, be fed from the farm.

We can seek the essential gesture of such a farm also under other circumstances. It
has to do with the preservation and recycling of the life-forces with which we are
working. Vegetable waste, manure, leaves, food scraps, all contain precious vitality
which can be held and put to use for building up the soil if they are handled wisely.
Thus, composting is a key activity in Biodynamic work. The farm is also a teacher, and
provides the educational opportunity to imitate natures wise self-sufficiency within a
limited area. Some have also successfully created farms through the association of
several parcels of non-contiguous land.

Economics Based on Knowledge of the Job

Steiner emphasized the absurdity of agricultural economics determined by people who have
never actually raised crops or managed a farm. A new approach to this situation has been
developed which brings about the association of producers and consumers for their mutual
benefit. The Community Supported Agriculture movement was born in the Biodynamic
movement and is spreading rapidly. Gardens or farms gather around them a circle of supporters
who agree in advance to meet the financial needs of the enterprise and its workers, and these
supporters each receive a share of the produce as the season progresses. Thus consumers become
connected with the real needs of the Earth, the farm and the Community; they rejoice in rich
harvests, and remain faithful under adverse circumstances.

FYI on Organics
ORGANIC Q&A
Louise Druce of US Food Safety Magazine interviews Craig Minowa,
Environmental Scientist of the Organic Consumers Association
http://www.organicconsumers.org
6/29/2004

1) How has organic farming grown in the US over the last decade and what
do you believe has triggered this growth, for example, food health scares
such as BSE and GM foods?
Organic farming is now the fastest growing component of world agriculture,
with farmers in 110 nations now cultivating certified organic crops. In the
US, more than a million acres of certified organic cropland and pasture were
added over the last four years, bringing the total to more than 2.3 million
acres, according to USDA data cited, although this is less than 0.3% of total
U.S. farmland. The growth has been triggered by multiple factors. Many
family farmers are discovering organic farming provides more economic
stability than conventional farming. Consumers are buying more organic
products as they are witnessing an increasing number of scientific studies
revealing the dangers (to human health and the environment) of pesticides
and genetically engineered crops. Consumers also support organic farming,
because it's more likely to support family farmers (although in increasingly
fewer cases).

2) What have been the most significant developments to the way organic
farming is actually carried out compared to 10 years ago?
The corporate sector is increasingly taking over the organic market. The
USDA organic standards do not clearly dictate stipulations on treatment of
livestock. So, for example, where the organic dairy farmer of yesteryear was
likely raising free-range cattle, organic dairy today can actually be sourced
from factory farms where cattle are packed into cramped quarters. The only
major element that makes the output organic, in these situations, is the
cattle feed and avoidance of synthetic hormones and drugs.
3) How do predict the sector will grow in the next decade in terms of land
use and technologies. Also, how do you think this will impact non-organic
farmers?
Over the next decade, more conventional farmers will make the transition to
organics, both domestically and internationally. With the current growth
curve of the industry, by the end of the decade, the organic sector will be a
dominating force in global agriculture.

4) Why do you believe organic methods are so appealing to farmers? What is
being done to promote it more, for example, financial incentives for those
who convert land?
Market data clearly indicates that family farmers who have made the
transition to organic farming, on average, have a more stable and increased
annual income, verses their conventionally farming counterpart. There's also
the general feeling that they are doing their part to build a healthy future for
their children and the environment.

5) Which sectors within the organic market are producing the most (i.e. fruit
and vegetables, corn, livestock etc) and which still have major scope for
development?
The most dramatic gains in organic crops in the last four years were in dry
beans (225%), lettuce (180%), flax (157%), corn (119%), soybeans
(112%), hay (100%), millet (90%), buckwheat (88%), dry peas and lentils
(80%), and potatoes (74%). Among fruits, citrus experienced a 60%
increase, followed by apples (38%). The number of organic tree nuts planted
rose 20%, but the number of grapes fell 25%. The major areas of growth
are in the market product sectors that the USDA is currently not monitoring
or policing (i.e. body care products, pet food, fertilizers, etc.). If and when
the scope expands to include those products, there will be a direct impact on
the organic crops grown to supply those markets.

6) How have government regulations on organic farming been welcomed by
both the producers and consumers?
Both industry and consumers had a major role in sculpting the current
organic standards. Initially, the USDA's proposed standards included
allowing such things as chemical laden sewer sludge for organic compost.
Consumers petitioned against this by the thousands, and the final rule did
not include it.

7) Do you think the regulations go far enough? Where are regulations
lacking in clarity or effectiveness and what further rules would you like to
see implemented?
Regulations are not distinct enough in the area of animal welfare. For
example, cows, chickens and pigs can be raised in a factory farm setting, fed
organic grain, and then sold as organic. Consumers have no idea that when
they're buying organic, they may still be supporting factory farms. Also the
scope of the standards needs to be expanded to consumer goods such as
body care products, pet food, and fertilizers, which are currently not
regulated, in regards to organic labeling.

8) Do consumers find it easy to identify organic products or is there some
confusion over labeling and logos? Do you believe these should be
standardized into one nationally or globally recognized logo/label?
The International Foundation for Organic Agriculture is attempting to create
an international standard. IFOAM standards currently meet and surpass the
organic standards setup by the USDA (www.ifoam.org)

9) How have supermarkets affected the marketing and availability of organic
products and how has this consequently impacted on more traditional
methods such as farmers markets?
Supermarkets have been responding to consumer demand for organic goods
by supplying these products more frequently. The supermarket influx of
organic goods has not had a noticeable impact on farmers markets.
Consumers shopping at farmers markets are seeking fresh, locally grown
produce. Supermarkets are rarely able to provide these goods.

10) Is there a significant price difference between organic and non-organic
products in the supermarkets and, if so, how has this affected buying
patterns? How could products become more price competitive?
Organic goods currently cost roughly 15% more than conventionally
produced goods. This is due to lack of markets of scale. As organic sales
increase, prices are dropping. Purchasing organic goods in bulk or through a
buying club can make your organic grocery bill comparable to that of
conventional foods. It must also be noted that there are indirect costs that
are not taken into account when doing shelf price comparisons between
organic and conventionally grown foods. That would include costs of damage
to the environment and human health due to pesticides and synthetic
fertilizers. Also, in the US, conventional crops are heavily subsidized by the
government, thereby dropping prices seen by consumers, who are still
paying that excess via increased taxes. Organic crops enjoy little to no tax
payer funded subsidies, making them appear to be more expensive.

11) What are the barriers to a bigger growth in organic farming, such as lack
of awareness, difficulties converting farmland, financial penalties etc? What
more do you believe can be done to overcome these obstacles?
Subsidies to conventional farms need to be gradually shifted more fairly to
the organic sector. Right now, if a family farmer wants to shift to organic
farming, he/she must wait 3-5 years while the land is in its dormant
transition phase from conventional to organic (the regulated mandatory
length of time required for the soil to "clean" itself of pesticides and
synthetic fertilizers). That transition period could bankrupt a farmer, thereby
creating a serious obstacle. In the EU, organic farmers are given
government subsidies during that transition time, to help the farmers
successfully make that transition. A similar model is needed in the US.
Another barrier could come into play if genetically engineered crops continue
to contaminate neighboring organic crops. The GMO ban in Mendocino
County, CA protects organic farmers from this contamination. GE pollen drift
contamination can ultimately force an "organic" crop to be re-categorized as
a GE crop, thereby being sold for much less.

12) Critics have said that there is no scientific proof that organic food is
healthier or safer for consumers than non-organic products. How far do you
agree with this statement and what would you say are the top five health
benefits to consumers who buy organic products?
There is an abundance of studies showing that organic food is healthier and
safer for consumers than nonorganic products, and the new studies continue
to verify this. In addition to the mountains of scientific evidence that validate
this fact, there's the common sense concept that we, as a species, have
been eating organic foods since the very beginning of our time on this planet
and have thrived for thousands of years on that food source. In contrast,
synthetic pesticides, simply put, are designed to kill and have been in use
for less than a century. Applying hundreds of millions of gallons of such
chemicals to the human food supply is clearly having its impacts on the
populous, from increased cancer rates, to neurological disorders to endocrine
disruption. I would consider the top five health benefits of organics to be:

   1. Organic foods were not treated and do not contain residues of toxic
      pesticides, thereby reducing the level of these harmful chemicals in the
      human body.
   2. Organic foods do not require the application of pesticides or synthetic
      fertilizers, which runoff into waterways and leach into the soil,
      ultimately damaging wildlife and the natural environment. Human
      health is reliant on the health of the surrounding natural environment.
      The organic food production process is built around principles of
      ecological sustainability.
   3. In multiple studies, organic foods have been shown to have higher
      nutrient values than their conventional counterparts. The precise level
      of increased value varies from plant to plant, but can include
      everything from vitamins to antioxidants. The explanation of this
      higher content is similar to why organic foods have a richer, more
      robust flavor than conventional foods and is connected to the slower,
      more concentrated growing process. Conventional crops are fed
      synthetic fertilizers, which force the plant to grow bigger in mass, in a
      shorter period of time, thereby not allowing the plant the time to take
      up the same full amount of nutrients as organic crops.
   4. By purchasing organics, consumers can know their foods are free of
      genetically engineered (GE) ingredients. In the US, conventional foods
      do not require labeling that indicates whether the product contains GE
      ingredients. Organics, by definition are GE free.
   5. Multiple ingredient organic products, on average, contain fewer food
      dyes, hydrogenated oils, preservatives and additives

ORGANIC FERTILIZERS




Contact: Diane Relf, Extension Specialist, Environmental Horticulture
Posted April 1997

When used in reference to fertilizers, the word organic generally means that the nutrients
contained in the product are derived solely from the remains or a by-product of an organism.
Cottonseed meal, blood meal, fish emulsion, manure and sewage sludge are examples of organic
fertilizers. Urea is a synthetic organic fertilizer, an organic substance manufactured from
inorganic materials.

When packaged as fertilizers, organic products have the fertilizer ratio stated on the package
label. Some organic materials, particularly composted manures and sludges, are sold as soil
conditioners and do not have a nutrient guarantee stated on the package, although small amounts
of nutrients are present.

Some organic fertilizers are high in one of the three major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, or
potash,) but low or zero in the other two. Some are low in all three macronutrients. A few
organic products can be purchased "fortified" for a higher nutrient analysis. The ingredients used
to fortify organic fertilizers are organic materials; for example, rock phosphate to increase
phosphorus, or greensand to increase potash.

Organic fertilizers depend on soil organisms to break them down to release nutrients; therefore,
most are effective only when soil is moist and warm enough for the microorganisms to be active.
Nutrient release by microbial activity, in general, occurs over a fairly long time period. One
potential drawback is that the organic fertilizer may not release enough of their principal nutrient
when the plant needs it for growth.

Cottonseed meal is a by-product of cotton manufacturing. As a fertilizer, it produces a somewhat
acidic reaction; consequently, it is frequently used for fertilizing acid-loving plants such as
azaleas, camellias, and rhododendrons. Formulas vary slightly, but generally, cottonseed meal
contains 7 percent nitrogen, 3 percent phosphorus, and 2 percent potash. Nutrients are most
readily available to plants in warm soils, but there is little danger of burn.
Blood meal is dried, powdered blood collected from cattle slaughterhouses. It is a rich source of
nitrogen, so rich, in fact, that it may burn plants if used in excess. Gardeners must be careful not
to exceed the recommended amount suggested on the label. In addition to nitrogen, blood meal
supplies some essential trace elements, including iron.

Fish emulsion, a balanced, organic fertilizer, is a partially decomposed blend of finely pulverized
fish. A strong odor is associated with most brands of fish emulsion fertilizer, but the smell
dissipates within a day or two. Recently, deodorized brands have been developed.

Fish emulsion is high in nitrogen and is a source of several trace elements. Contrary to popular
belief, too strong a solution can burn plants, particularly those growing in containers. In the late
spring, when garden plants have sprouted, an application of fish emulsion followed by a deep
watering will boost the plants' early growth spurt.

Manure is a complete fertilizer, but low in the amount of nutrients it supplies. Manures vary in
nutrient content according to the animal source and what the animal has been eating. A fertilizer
ratio of 1-1-1 is typical. Commonly available manures include horse, cow, pig, chicken and
sheep.

The highest nutritional concentration is found in manure when it is fresh. As it is aged, exposed
to weather, or composted, nutrient content is reduced. However, most gardeners prefer to use
composted forms of manure to ensure lesser amounts of salts, thereby reducing the chance of
burning plant roots. Because of its low concentration of plant nutrients, manure is best used as a
soil conditioner instead of a fertilizer. Typical rates of manure applications vary from a moderate
70 pounds per 1000 square feet to as much as one ton per 1000 square feet.

Sewer sludge is a recycled product of municipal sewage treatment plants. Two forms are
commonly available: activated and composted. Activated sludge has higher concentrations of
nutrients (approximately 6-3-0) than composted sludge. It is usually sold in a dry, granular form
for use as a general purpose, longlasting, nonburning fertilizer. Composted sludge is used
primarily as a soil amendment and has a lower nutrient content (approximately 1-2-0).

There is some question about the long term effects of using sewage sludge products in the
garden, particularly around edible crops. Heavy metals such as cadmium, sometimes present in
the sludge, may build up in the soil. Possible negative effects vary with the origin of the sludge
and with the characteristics of the soil where it is used.

Compared to synthetic fertilizer formulations, organic fertilizers contain relatively low
concentrations of actual nutrients, but they perform important functions which the synthetic
formulations do not. They increase the organic content and consequently the water-holding
capacity of the soil. They improve the physical structure of the soil which allows more air to get
to plant roots. Where organic sources are used for fertilizer, bacterial and fungal activity
increases in the soil. Mycorrhizal fungi which make other nutrients more available to plants
thrive in soil where the organic matter content is high. Organically derived plant nutrients are
slow to leach from the soil making them less likely to contribute to water pollution than synthetic
fertilizers.
ORGANIC FOODS ARE BETTER

Guess What? Scientific Research Shows That Organic Food Really is
Better
       GM WATCH, October 28, 2007
        Straight to the Source

GM WATCH daily list
1.Official: organic really is better
2.Eat your words, all who scoff at organic food

Comment from Claire Robinson: Note the Food Standards Agency [which - since its inception
under John Krebs - has been vigorously pro-GM and anti-organic] is still trying its damnedest not
to admit that organic is better.

Note especially the FSA's letter to the journalist who reported this story. They are refusing to
release details on how they arrive at their policy on organic food: "the balance of the public
interest test favours non-disclosure"!
http://extras.timesonline.co.uk/organicfood1.pdf

EXTRACTS: ...[the new] research has shown up to 40% more beneficial compounds in [organic]
vegetable crops and up to 90% more in [organic] milk. It has also found high levels of minerals such as
iron and zinc in organic produce.

...the evidence of the nutritional differences has been mounting. Last summer a 10-year study by the
University of California comparing organic tomatoes with those grown conventionally found double the
level of flavonoids - a type of antioxidant thought to reduce the risk of heart disease. Other studies show
milk having higher levels of omega3 fatty acids, thought to boost health. ---

1.Official: Organic Really is Better
Jon Ungoed-Thomas
The Sunday Times, October 28 2007 http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/health/article27...

THE biggest study into organic food has found that it is more nutritious than ordinary produce and may
help to lengthen people's lives.

The evidence from the GBP12m four-year project will end years of debate and is likely to overturn
government advice that eating organic food is no more than a lifestyle choice.

The study found that organic fruit and vegetables contained as much as 40% more antioxidants, which
scientists believe can cut the risk of cancer and heart disease, Britain's biggest killers. They also had
higher levels of beneficial minerals such as iron and zinc.

Professor Carlo Leifert, the co-ordinator of the European Union-funded project, said the differences were
so marked that organic produce would help to increase the nutrient intake of people not eating the
recommended five portions a day of fruit and vegetables. "If you have just 20% more antioxidants and
you can't get your kids to do five a day, then you might just be okay with four a day," he said.
This weekend the Food Standards Agency confirmed that it was reviewing the evidence before deciding
whether to change its advice. Ministers and the agency have said there are no significant differences
between organic and ordinary produce.

Researchers grew fruit and vegetables and reared cattle on adjacent organic and nonorganic sites on a
725-acre farm attached to Newcastle University, and at other sites in Europe. They found that levels of
antioxidants in milk from organic herds were up to 90% higher than in milk from conventional herds.

As well as finding up to 40% more antioxidants in organic vegetables, they also found that organic
tomatoes from Greece had significantly higher levels of antioxidants, including flavo-noids thought to
reduce coronary heart disease.
Leifert said the government was wrong about there being no difference between organic and conventional
produce. "There is enough evidence now that the level of good things is higher in organics," he said. ---

2. Eat Your Words, All Who Scoff at Organic Food
Jon Ungoed-Thomas
The Sunday Times, October 28 2007 http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/health/article27...
ITS unassuming location belies its importance. Sandwiched between Hadrian's Wall and the busy A69
road to Newcastle upon Tyne is a 725-acre farm that will help to determine the nation's future eating
habits.

In a unique experiment, its rolling pastures and ploughed fields have been split into two so that
conventional and organic produce can be grown side by side. It has enabled scientists to test the
alternative foods rigorously and answer a question that most shoppers ask themselves on a regular basis:
is buying organic better for you?

Findings from the GBP12m European Union-funded project, the biggest of its kind and the first to
investigate systematically the physiology of produce from the different farming techniques, will be peer
reviewed and published over the next 12 months.

But already one conclusion is clear: organically produced crops and dairy milk usually contain more
"beneficial compounds" - such as vitamins and antioxidants believed to help to combat disease.

"We have a general trend in the data that says there are more good things in organic food," said
Professor Carlo Leifert, leader of the QualityLowInput-Food (QLIF) project. "We are now trying to identify
the agricultural practices that are responsible for this."

The research has shown up to 40% more beneficial compounds in vegetable crops and up to 90% more
in milk. It has also found high levels of minerals such as iron and zinc in organic produce.

The findings from the farm, which is part of Newcastle University, appear to conflict with the official
government advice that buying organic food is a lifestyle choice and there is no clear evidence that it is
"more nutritious than other food".

The new research comes after a seven-year stand-off between the Food Standards Agency (FSA) and
the organic sector over the nutritional benefits of organic food. Lord Krebs, the FSA's first chairman, even
said that organic food may not be good value for consumers.

The organic market has boomed in recent years, growing by 25% annually on average, and is now worth
nearly GBP2 billion a year. Organic produce is typically about 30% more expensive, although for products
such as cherry tomatoes and carrots it is almost double the price. Supermarket organic milk is 18% more
expensive.

The FSA has recently offered a more conciliatory approach to organic groups such as the Soil
Association. One internal e-mail, sent on August 1, 2006 and obtained under freedom of information laws,
states: "[There is] a perception among a range of stakeholders that the agency is antiorganic. Part of the
action to address this is to change the tone of our statements."

However, the agency has not changed its scientific advice. As David Miliband, then the environment
secretary, told The Sunday Times last January: "It's a lifestyle choice that people can make. There isn't
any conclusive evidence either way."

However, the evidence of the nutritional differences has been mounting. Last summer a 10-year study by
the University of California comparing organic tomatoes with those grown conventionally found double the
level of flavonoids - a type of antioxidant thought to reduce the risk of heart disease. Other studies show
milk having higher levels of omega3 fatty acids, thought to boost health.

Over the past four years, the QLIF project, involving 33 academic centres across Europe and led by
Newcastle University, has analysed the 725-acre farm's produce for compounds believed to boost health
and combat disease.

Like other studies, the results show significant variations, with some conventional crops having larger
quantities of some vitamins than organic crops. But researchers confirm that the overall trend is that
organic fruit, vegetables and milk are more likely to have beneficial compounds. According to Leifert, the
compounds which have been found in greater quantities in organic produce include vitamin C, trace
elements such as iron, copper and zinc, and secondary metabolites which are thought to help to combat
cancer and heart disease.

Patrick Holden, director of the Soil Association, said the research could help to contribute to a "seismic"
change in the food industry: "If you know there are significant nutritional differences in these foods, any
sensible citizen would conclude it must have health implications."
Andrew Wadge, the FSA's chief scientist, said the agency had ordered a review of evidence on the
nutritional content of organic and conventional produce. He said that even if the review found significant
differences, the government would still need to assess any possible impact on health.
He added that the debate over the relative benefits of organic food should not blur the key message on
diet and health. "The organic brand has been hugely successful," he said. "But the most important issue
is not whether people are eating organic or not, but whether they are eating a healthy balanced diet."

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©2006
ORGANIC FARMING
HERBAL ORGANIC CONCENTRATE (HOC)


                                Herbal Organic Concentrate
                              Pride product of Mindanao, Philippines
                                 For Natural Organic Farming
HERBAL ORGANIC SPRAY has been formulated by chemist for easy use of farmers practicing organic
farming without using synthetic toxic chemicals that pose danger to man and environment. HOC, is
environment friendly, safe to use and not harmful to man and animals.

HOC (Herbal Organic Concentrate) is prepared from 100% herbal organic extracts and marine
products for Total Plant Care. It is use for Natural Organic and Biological Farming and improves crop
production. We have several formulations to meet specific requirements and need of plants. These are:
(HOC – GO, - ST, - 3n1 and 4n1)

The solution contains the essential plant food nutrients both macro and micro elements.
HOC is basically a foliar fertilizer with added properties as pest repellent, insecticide and fungicide.
It can also be applied as drench on soil at the base of plants and root zone. It helps control nematodes
and other soil borne pests and diseases.

Another added feature of HOC is it also contains amino acid that enhances plant growth and beneficial
microorganism that helps enrich the soil and fight pests and diseases.
HOC - can replace many toxic chemicals used in conventional farming. It is environment friendly.

CROPS: Plants found to respond well with HOC are rice, corn, vegetables, banana, papaya, fruit trees,
mango, durian, orchids, ornamental flowering plants and seedlings.

DOSAGE: Mix 1-2 tablespoon per gallon of clean water or 4-8 tablespoon per 16 liters knapsack sprayer,
or 1 liter per 200 liter dram. One liter is enough to cover one hectare of rice, corn, vegetables and short
row crops.

SPRAY FREQUENCY: Intervals of 3-7 days during critical stage of growth (flushing, flowering, fruiting),
15-30 days for maintenance, vegetative growth and rejuvenation.

BEST SPRAYING: Shake well HOC before mixing with water. Adjust your spray nuzzle to fine mist for
leaves, flower and fruits and fine for trunk, branches and the soil surrounding the base or root zone.. It is
advisable to spray the soil, trunk, branches and foliage of the crop for total coverage and maximum
efficacy.

STORAGE AND HANDLING: HOC is an organic compound with live beneficial microorganism. It is best
to store it in clean, dry, dark and cool place away form exposure to heat and light. Keep cap loose in
storage and tighten in handling and transport. Keep away from reach of children.
Contact:

REX A. RIVERA
AGRONOMIST                      Stocks available upon order
11 Magsaysay Avenue, General Santos City
Email: rarivera8@yahoo.com
Tel. No. 083-301-0117   Mobile: 0905-242-2691

SCHEDULE OF HOC SPRAYING

RICE
   1. Seedling stage in seedbed                 FRUIT TREES
   2. 15-30-60 days after planting or             1. Spray at 15 days after planting
      broadcasting.                               2. 15-30 days interval for maintenance
   3. During booting (flowering) stage            3. During flowering and fruit dev.
   4. During grain formation period.              4. Drench trunk and soil every 60 days

CORN                                            BANANA
  1. Soak seeds in HOC (1% solution)              1. Spray 15 days after planting
  2. 15-30 days after planting                    2. 15-30 days interval for maintenance
  3. During tussling (flowering) stage            3. Flower bud injection
  4. During grain formation period.               4. Drench stem and soil every 60 days

VEGETABLES                                      DURIAN – MANGOSTEEN –
  1. 5-7 days after planting                    LANZONES - RAMBUTAN
  2. Weekly spray during growth,                  1. Spray 15 days after planting
     flowering and fruit development.             2. 15-30 days interval for maintenance
  3. Drench the soil once a month.                3. During flowering and fruit dev.
                                                  4. Drench stem and soil every 60 days
ASPARAGUS
  1. Spray at 7-15 days interval                MANGO
  2. Drench whole plant and soil after            1. Spray at 15 days after planting
     pruning and every 30 days.                   2. 30 days interval.for maintenance
                                                  3. During Flower induction
ORNAMENTAL GARDEN PLANTS                          4. Spray at 7-14-20-DAFI - Flowering
  1. Spray once a week                            5. 40-60-90 DAFI.- Fruit development
  2. Drench plant and soil once a month.
                                                PAPAYA
ROOT CROPS – PEANUTES,                            1. At seedling stage
POTATO                                            2. 15-30 days interval during growth
  1. Spray at 15-30 days interval                    and fruiting period.
  2. Drench soil every 60 days.                   3. Drench stem and soil every 60 days

COFFEE - CACAO                                  POMELO – CALAMANSI
  1. Spray 15 -30 days interval during            1. Spray at seedling stage
     maintenance (vegetative growth).             2. 15 days after planting
  2. During flowering and fruit dev.              3. 30 days interval at maintenance period
  3. Drench plant and soil every 60 days          4. During Flowering and fruit dev.
                                                  5. Drench trees and soil every 60 days
       ===================================================
                 Herbal Organic Concentrate (HOC) Users
        The following have tried and used HOC as spray to their plants and found it good and enhance total plant
care, protection against a wide range of pest and diseases and gave general vigor, health and productivity of their
crops.

    1. Mr. George Lim, a farmer businessman in Glan, Sarangani Province. He used HOC on his banana, and
        found it enhance the growth and productivity of his crop, clean and free from pest infestation and disease.
        His comment is “Maganda ang HOC, payamanin ka niyan”. Mobile: 0921-790-3464

    2. FPA Coordinator of Sarangani Province. She used sample given her on her garden. Her comment
        “Maganda ang HOC, epektibo sa tanim. Puede natin iparegister yan sa FPA”.

    3. Mr. Daimler Flores of Makati City. Used HOC on their family farm in Pampanga. They used it on their rice
        field. They found it enhance the growth and productivity of the palay, with less infestation. When the
        migratory birds came to their town, the birds landed on adjoining rice fields but avoided the area sprayed
        with HOC. (Mobile: 0917-791-8058)

    4. Mr. Benjamin Roy, Executive Director of MINFRUIT. Brought HOC to Pomelo Farmers at Matalam,
        Cotabato Province. After a year, some pomelo growers are looking for HOC for their upcoming crop. They
        found it effective and enhance production of their trees. (Mobile: 0906-287-0093)

    5. Email received from Philip Ang of Davao City Sept. 24, 2007. Mobile: 0918-000-0230. “Report from our
        trial at Nazaire Farm, Davao, Harvested 3out of 10 bunches banana using HOC as bud injection. No insect
        damage seen so far.” (0920-961-5110)

    6. Mr. Rolly Tejada a Banana Specialist and Consultant have tested and use HOC on banana both as spray for
        foliar fertilizer, pest and disease control. It has also been used as bud injection to protect developing fruits
        from infestation. He is introducing HOC to lakatan banana growers in Kidapawan and Makilala, Cotabato

    7. Mr. Arman Aquino Agriculturist, researcher and consultant tested HOC on corn. Now LIMKETKAI is
        using HOC in their more than 100 hectares corn plantation at Malaybalay Bukidnon. This may expand to
        another 200 hectares. (Mobile: 0917-421-8570)

    8. Mr. Benjamin Figueroa, President of Malungon Mango Growers Association used HOC on his Mango
        plantation. He found it effective and good. (Mobile: 0918-426-9977)

    9. Mr. Bert Allaga, Municipal Agriculturist ot Malungon, Sarangani Province have tried HOC on his fruit
        trees and found it helped him make the plants healthier and more productive, He now is a repeated user.
        (Mobile: 0906-824-8508)

    10. Miss Lina Adoracion is a retired teacher and an organic growing farmer. She uses HOC on her organic rice,
        vegetables and fruit trees. Besides being effective, it is organic and much lower cost compared to toxic
        chemicals use to spray plants. (Mobile: 0928-732-7730)

          Many others have tested and used HOC in their gardens, vegetables, orchids, grains, fruit trees and
plantation crops. We find HOC a very good alternative and substitute to Chemical sprays used in conventional
farming introduced by multi-nationals supplying farmers with their synthetic products since 1950 to the present. But
EO-481 Promoting Organic Farming all over the Philippines will make HOC a partner in organic farming. LGUs are
now promoting Organic Farming.

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
     Our Research and Development (R&D) have developed several formulations of Herbal
     Organic Concentrate (HOC) for plant care and protection because of the different
     specific requirement of crops and plantation needs. We have some of our HOC
     formulations:

        1.   HOC-GO This formulation is an organic foliar fertilizer. It contains natural amino
           acid and trace plant nutrient elements essential for healthy plant growth and
           production. It is a combination of extracts from herbs and marine products. 1. 2.
           HOC-3n1 This formulation contains pest repellant property with BMO (Beneficial
           Microorganism). This formulation is intended for periodic monthly spray to reduce
           or prevent infestation.
        2. HOC-4n1 This formulation contain several herbal extracts and BMO. It has a
           broad spectrum field of action as foliar fertilizer, pest repellant, insecticide,
           fungicide and beneficial microorganism to counter pathogens and enhance the
           resistance and tolerance of plants against certain pests, diseases and
           environmental stresses.
        3. HOC-ST This formulation is specifically prepared for banana and papaya
           plantations. It is intended to protect and enhance the healthy development of
           fruits with or without bagging. It also help control nematodes as drench in soil.

        1.   Please take note that all the above formulations are under farmer’s field tests and
             confirmation of their performance. Scientific trials are also being conducted for
             FPA registration.
             =======================================================================
                            GENERAL RECOMMENDATION
1.    Adopt clean culture and proper planting distance. Prune plants to remove crowded
     branches, diseased and infested leaves.
      Adopt periodic weeding, cultivation and removal of debris and properly disposed burned, buried
     or composted. Gather and remove fallen fruits.
      Application of organic fertilizers on regular basis as 2 to 4 times a year.
      Irrigate or water plants when dry or before wilting of leaves occur.
      Drench or spray plant at regular interval with Herbal Organic Concentrates (HOC) such as
     weekly or monthly.
      Encourage and allow biodiversity in your farm to balance the ecosystem in the environment.
     Adopt multi cropping, crop rotation and following or resting.
      As much as possible, do not use toxic chemicals that will destroy the balance of bio-
     ecology in the environment and post hazard to the health of man & animals.
      Harvest with out delay fruits and crops when they reach right maturity. OK
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     ©2006
ORGANIC FARMING
HERBAL ORGANIC SPRAY


                                         HERBAL ORGANIC SPRAY

    A new product for Natural Farming. Grow organic fruits and vegetables with natural herbs, organic and
    biological safe materials.

HERBAL ORGANIC SPRAY has been formulated for the easy and convenient use. Farmers’ who
would like to produce organically grown food crops including fruits and vegetables without resorting to
synthetic toxic chemicals that post danger to man and environment can use Herbal Organic Spray instead.

HOC (Herbal Organic Concentrate) and HOP (Herbal Organic Powder) were specially prepared by
chemist and developed through research and efficacy test on farmer's field conditions. They were found to
be effective pest repellant, insecticide, fungicide and growth inducer and EM (Effective Microorganism)
or BMO (Beneficial Microorganisms) with a simultaneous and broad-spectrum effect.

The compound was developed using several tropical herbs with repellant, insecticide and fungicidal substances
gathered from cultured and wild plants. Added to the compound is fish/fruit amino acid (FAA) which provides plant
growth nutrients as a foliar fertilizer. It likewise contains trace mineral substances essential to normal and healthy
plant growth derived from seaweed and other herbal and organic components.

DOSAGE:
1-2 tbsp. per gallon of water, or 250-500 ml per 100 liters water and one half to one liter HOC per 200 liter drum of
water. Complete spray coverage from soil, stem branches and leaves for effective result. You may lower the dose
concentration for sensitive plants with young shoots to 1tbsp. per 10 litters of water. Watering and drenching small
plant may also be done once a week or once a moth for rejuvenating trees..

HOP TEA SPRAY (Herbal Organic Powder)
Soak 500 grams Herbal Organic Powder (HOP) in 20 liters water overnight and squeeze to extract more substance.
Mix the 20 liters tea to 200 liters water and spray to plants. Complete spray coverage from soil, stem, branches and
leaves for effective result. Watering and drenching small plants, vegetables and ornamentals may be done every 5-7
days interval.

SPRAY FREQUENCY:
Spray 3-7 days interval during critical stages of growth, flushing, flowering and fruit development. Weekly spraying
of vegetables to keep them healthy and free from pest and diseases. Every 15 – 30 days during rejuvenation or
juvenile growth. See schedule of spraying for specific crops and plants.

For more information, contact
REX A. RIVERA, Agronomist / Agricultural Consultant
11 Magsaysay Avenue, General Santos City, Philippines
Email: rarivera8@yahoo.com Telex 083-301-011          Mobile: 0905-242-2691


        =============================================
         Herbal Organic Concentrate (HOC) Schedule of Spraying


RICE:

   1. The critical stages of growth for rice for HOC treatments are:
   2. Soak germinated palay seed with 1% HOC-4n1 before broadcasting
   3. Seedling stage – drench the seedbed upon seeding, spray at 7 days and soak uprooted seedlings in
      1% HOC-4n1 solution before transplanting.
   4. Spray young plants at 7, 15 and 30 days after field planting.
   5. Spray at booting stage and grain formation.

CORN:

   1.   Recommended HOC treatment for corn:

   2.   Wet corn seed with 1% HOC before planting.
   3.   Spray entire plant from the soil, stalks and leaves
   4.   Spray at 7, 15 and 30 days from planting to flowering.
   5.   Spray at tassel and grain development.

VEGETABLES:

   1.   General recommendations for vegetables:

   2.   Seedlings – drench the seedbed with 1% HOC at planting and weekly up to transplanting.
   3.   Spray weekly during plant growth and fruit production.
   4.   For fruiting vegetables, spray at 7 to 14 days interval.




FRUIT TREES:

   1. General recommendation
   2. Drenching seedlings and small trees.
   3. Cultivate the soil around the base of the trunk every three months then fertilize with organic
      compost and drench with a 1% HOC-3n1 solution to control soil born pests and diseases
      including termites.
   4. Sanitize trees once a moth by spraying the whole tree from soil, trunk or stem branches and
      leaves and control termites, soil born pests

MANGO:
         1.   Recommended HOC treatment for mango:

         2.    Spray trees once a month up to one month before scheduled flower induction.
         3.   After flower induction, spray at 7, 15, 20, 45, 60, 70 and 90 DAFI.
         4.   Cultivate the soil around the base of the tree every 3 months and drench with a 1% HOC-4n1
              solution to control soil born pest and diseases including termites.

     PAPAYA & BANANA:

         1.   Papaya and banana are favored host of scales and sucking insects that are vectors of virus
              diseases. When spraying Banana and papaya, start with the surrounding soil at the base, then the
              trunk , leaves, flowers and fruits.

         2. Clean culture, cultivate the soil surrounding the trunk and drench/spray with HOC once a month
            to control most soil born pest and diseases.
         3. Soak seedlings and planting materials in 1% HOC before field planting.
         4. Spray HOC-4n1 every 15 days or once a month as the weather condition, disease and infestation
            level dictates.

     ORNAMENTAL GARDEN PLANTS

         1.   General recommendations:

         2.   Periodic spray at least once a week or twice a month.
         3.   However certain garden plants may need more or less frequent application.
         4.   Spraying or drenching the whole plant and soil or growth medium will give better result of
              protection and growth enhancement.

     POMELO ORANGES CALAMANSI

         1.   These trees are susceptible to a wide range of pest and diseases.

         2. Sanitize. Prune and remove diseased, infested branches, fruits and droppings and carry all debris
            to the composting area.
         3. Then drench the soil around the trunk with 1% HOC-4n1 solution to control soil born pests and
            diseases including termites.
         4. Spraying the whole tree from soil, trunk or stem branches and leaves once a month. However,
            more frequent spraying during critical stages of growth at weekly interval may be needed.

     PEANUTES, POTATO, YAM ANDOTHER ROOT CROPS:


1.    Root crops usually are harvested in 90 to 120 days. Spraying HOC will not only enhance their growth
     but will likewise protect them from sucking insects and rot. It iimportant that the soil is well drained
     and sanitized. Drenching the soil with HOC along the furrow immediately at the plant root zone will
     help control soil-born pest

         2.   Soak seeds and planting materials in 1% HOC-4n1 solution before planting.
         3.   Spray 0.5% HOC-4n1 at 15 days interval when the seed germinate up to harvest.
         4.   After a rainy day, the next dry day, spray HOC-4n1.

     LANZONES:
    1.   This tree is infested with maggots the bores and eat up the bark beneath the surface. Serious
         infestation greatly reduces yield or prevents fruiting. Sanitizing the tree by scraping the infested
         bark and drenching with HOC-3n1 with periodic follow-up with a weekly then monthly HOC-
         4n1 spraying will help control the pest and improve the health and production of the trees.

    2. Drench the trunk, branches and soil immediately at the base with 1% HOC-3n1 after scraping off
       the diseases and infested bark.
    3. Follow-up weekly spraying of HOC-4n1 for 4 consecutive weeks.
    4. Maintenance spraying once a month with HOC-4n1 during rejuvenation period.
    5. Spray during flowering period and fruit development every 15 days. This will protect the fruits
       from pest and grow bigger, juicy and sweeter.

CACAO:

    1. This is a special high value beverage and confectionery crop that is infested by fruit fly, sucking
       insects and rot. Periodic HOC spraying will not only protect the tree from pest and diseases, but
       will likewise increase its productivity with HOC.
    2. Clean and sanitize the tree and its environment. Remove all diseased and infested branches and
       fruits in the tree. Carry off all debris and fallen fruits to a composting area. Weed, cultivate and
       fertilize with organic compost. Then drench with 1% HOC-3n1.
    3. Spray 0.5% HOC-4n1 weekly for 5 consecutive weeks.
    4. Maintenance spraying once a month will help repel and prevent new infestation and infection.

DURIAN:
  1. This exotic fruit tree is a forest plant that needs companion trees and partly shaded. It is
     susceptible to Pytopthora disease. Fruit borers are also a big cause of losses. HOC applied at the
     right time will greatly help control and stop the damage cause by these diseases and pest. Practice
     clean culture, where fruit drops should immediately be removed from the field, buried or burned
     to prevent borers from making them breeding place.

    2.   Schedule of application:

    3. Cultivate and drench the soil around the trunk. Spray trunk and branches with 1% HOC. Spread
       HOP on the soil to control rot and insect pest in the soil and tree.
    4. Spray the whole tree with HOC-4n1 at the initiation of flowering and during fruit development at
       15 days interval
    5. Maintenance spraying trees and drench soil at base once a month with HOC-4n1 during
       rejuvenation period.



ASPARAGUS
    1. Growing Asparagus spears need a well drained soil with adequate moisture and rich in organic
       humus fertilizer.
    2. Asparagus is infested with mites and several insect pests and fungal rot where HOC can greatly
       help grow a healthy and productive crop with weekly spraying and drenching of HOC-4n1.
    3. Cultivate the soil and drench with HOC or HOP-3n1 at once a month.
    4. Spray the whole plants once a week with HOC-4n1. plus HOC-GO
ORGANIC FARMING
               Natural Organic and Biological Farming
                                             By: Rex A. Rivera
                                                     Agronomist


Organic farming is a form of agriculture which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic
fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, and livestock feed additives. As far as
possible, organic farmers rely on crop rotation, crop residues, animal manures and mechanical
cultivation to maintain soil productivity and tilth (soil texture) to supply plant nutrients, and to
control weeds, insects and other pests and diseases (pathogens).

  According to the International Organic Farming Organization IFOAM, "The role of organic
  agriculture, whether in farming, processing, distribution, or consumption, is to sustain and
enhance the health of ecosystems and organisms from the smallest in the soil to human beings."

IPM – Integrated Pest Management
        This is the use of many control strategies such as:

   1.    Cultural Control – Existing farm practices such as
            a. Proper cultivation
            b. Crop planting pattern (scheduled planting with specific period, so pest will be minimized
                as they will not have continues host after crop harvest.)
            c. Knowing the life cycle of specific insect pest (ex. Corn borer are prevalent in later part of
                May to July start of the rainy season)
            d. Crop rotation (pest of one crop does not necessarily infest the succeeding crops.
            e. Light trapping or attractants.
            f. Planting resistant and tolerant varieties.
            g. Zero Cultivation and Other practices.

   2.    Botanical Control – Any plant or herbs with insecticidal properties, repellant and attractants
         such as ginger, tubtuba (Jathropa), panyawan, siling labuyo, tubli, tobacco etc.

   3.    Biological Control – Using of parasite, predators, pathogens, bacteria, and viruses. Such as:

              a. Parasites – Trichogramma (egg parasite) extensively used for corn borers, rice stem
                 borer, durian borer, rind borer of pommelo, diamond back moth of cabbages and any un-
                 hairy soft eggs of Lepidophtera. Brachonids (a larval parasite).
              b. Predators – Voracious insect feeds who eat up other insect hosts like Pirate Bugs,
                 Ladybird beetles, Lacewings, Spiders, Dragonfly and others.
              c. Pathogens – These are fungus that control other pathogens that cause diseases like
                 Muscardus fungi.
              d. Bacteria – Beneficial bacteria that control bacterial diseases and other insect pests such as
                 Bacillus thorengensis (Bt).
              e. Viruses – Beneficial virus that control other desease causing virus and other insects such
                 as NPV _ Neoclopoly Hydrosis virus. (currently used by Marsman Drysdel at Polomolok,
                  South Cotabato to protect Asparagus against cutworm and beetles that also infest bulb
                  onions at San Jose, Gensan.

    4.    Chemical Control – The use of different chemical pesticide when there is an outbreak of any
          pest. (Note: avoid using chemical control when there is no outbreak with critical damage below
          etc – Economic Threshold level to prevent development of insect resistance to the chemicals).

Specific uses:
a. Insects                Insecticide
b. Fungus                  Fungicide
c. Weeds                  Herbicide
d. Virus                     Viruscide
e. Bacteria                Bactericide
f. Rats                      Rodenticide
h. Humans                  Homicide (Suicide)

Use correct control based on target pest. Avoid using broad spectrum chemicals.

Why use beneficial insects?

Although Chemical Pesticides are widely used in many Agricultural Systems, the complete reliance on Chemicals is
no longer a feasible approach to pest control for the following reasons:

Resistance
The major advantage which continue to errod the effectiveness of conventional insecticides is tha ability of the pests
to develop resistance. Approximately 500 insects and related pests (mites) have shown resistance. In fact some
cannot be controlled with today’s chemical arsenal.

Secondary Pest Problem
Even chemicals which are effective against pests often kill or interfere with the beneficial insects and
other organisms. The situation created then slows an insect (not the usual pest, but another insect taking
advantage of the available food) to rapidly increase in number since no problem are in the field to prevent
the population explosion. Sometimes the resulting (long term and economic) damage is greater by the
secondary pest than by the pest originally targeted. (This is now happening with the growing Mango
Industry in Mindanao where persistent chemical spraying against mango hoppers, created a new
infestation of capsid bugs and cecid fly which were not a treat before.)

Economics
The combination of resistance, secondary pests and limitations brought about brought about by safety and
environmental concern has increased the cost of insecticides. Also, a matter of economics to commercial producers
is the demand for pesticide-free food (large supermarket chains are advertising independent testing of their produce
in response to consumer pressure.)




The solution is to optimize, and maximize, insect control:

    1.    Identify the pest – not all insects are pest!
    2.    Establish a correct level of acceptable damage – not all pests are of economic importance.
    3.    Monitor the pest situation on a regular basis; sometimes no control is required.
     4. If the pest population is high enough to cause economic damage, use all available, acceptable
        means of control, including cultural, biological, mechanical, and natural botanical (Herbal)
        pesticides.
     5. Regular releases of commercially available beneficial insects (as a preventive and control
        measure) is now part of “conventional” farming IPM and should be considered and properly
        implemented.
     6. Record results to use in future strategy – preventive measures require planning ahead..

Controlling Pest without Chemicals:

Biological control of insects in agriculture is more effective than widely known and yields a return on investment
100-1000% in the first year – Brief Article – USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education, June, 1997.

A survey examining the success of biological control of insects in agriculture concludes that this natural approach to
pest containment is far more effective than often appreciated and should be more widely used. Several case studies
explored by researchers at Oregon State University, Corvallis, found that biological pest control can solve problems
effectively on a long-term basis and may yield a return on investment of 100-1000% in the first year alone, after
which the benefits go up in perpetuity.

“In these specific cases, we were surprised at the degree of success of bio-control, how widespread and quickly it
worked, how cost effective it was,” indicates M.T. Ali Niazee, professor of entomology. Based on this, there is no
doubt in my mind that bio-control should be more heavily exploited.”

In an agricultural world riddled with insect pests, biological control most often is the use of an insect parasitoid,
predator, or pathogen to eliminate the destructive plant pest and disease.

Summary:

With Natural farming using herbs, organic and biological components; farming can be self sustaining, lower
production cost, improve soil texture and fertility, increase land productivity, protect and enhances the healthful
environment and produce food crops safe and healthful to consumers.


WE INVITE YOU TO GROW NATURAL ORGANIC AND HEALTHFUL FOOD CROPS


TAKING CARE OF THE SOIL

                 TAKING CARE OF YOUR SOIL THE NATURAL WAYS
          Several researches have found that declining crop yield is related to the loss of soil quality. Soils are threatened by
water and wind erosion, Stalinization, and nutrient depletion, chemical interference that kills microbiological soil born organisms
and other things.

         Soil depletion is causing sever impact on agriculture like what is now happening in the Philippines. We are just now
waking up to the growing magnitude of soil depletion in most agricultural lands using conventional farming, heavily dependent
on chemical fertilization, herbal, pest and disease control. The Ecological Society of the Philippines headed by its president
Antonio M. Claparols is very much concerned on the deteriorating soil condition of the country.

          Global warming makes things worse. As the ground heat up, organic matter decomposes more rapidly,
reducing soil fertility, releasing carbon dioxide which increases the warming effects. High priority for soil
restoration through carbon sequestration or storing carbon in the soil securely so that it is not easily re-emitted
through soil conservation and incorporation of organic fertilizers.
          Composts are natural fertilizers that supply soils with vital plant nutrients helping to retain water and air. It
restores soil structure, soil carbon anti-biotic activity. Compost or organic fertilizers improves soil texture, helps to
control weeds, pest and diseases.

         The prices of commercial chemical fertilizers price are skyrocketing, beyond the purchasing power of the
marginal farmers. Attention is now focused on teaching and encouraging farmers and entrepreneurs to invest on the
production of organic fertilizers.

           Organic fertilizers can easily be made by farmers from readily available materials such as plant leaves and
residues, animal waste and other biodegradable substances. They do not have to buy or get credit to make their own
fertilizer and soil conditioners. Soil fertility and health can also be restored with resting the soil for a year or two,
green manure, incorporating crop residue with soil during land preparation or cultivation, and planting of trees along
farm boarders and banks of waterways.

           The Philippines is among the 17 most bio-diverse countries in the world. Part of the Philippines treasure is the large
forest trees which are rapidly vanishing. Trees are contributing to the ecological balance as they help clean the air and conserve
water. One hectare of forest is needed to supply the fresh nitrogen needed by 40 persons.

         Trees and wild vegetation are not only needed in the countryside and farming areas, but more so in
communities and urban areas where population density is high. Urban gardens and soils can be improved by
growing trees and using organic compost fertilizers.

                                USE OF ORGANIC COMPOST FERTILIZER
                                     AND BIO MICRO INOCULANTS
   Organic compost fertilizer is the closest we can return to natural farming. The emerging farming system is
towards the use of organic fertilizer in combination with chemical fertilizer.

   There are now available in the market several Pro-biotic like BYM and Tricograma that helps hasten the
breakdown and decomposition of organic cellulous materials to convert them into organic fertilizer.

   Simple way of preparing organic compost:
    The old practice is the sandwich type where different organic materials or waste are pilled layer after layer like
plant residue + animal waste + soil and repeat the process until reaching a meter high. Keep it moist and insert a
bamboo with ventilated holes to aerate until the material decomposes. Then mix the material and keep it moist until
totally decomposed. Aerate and expose to sunlight before applying as fertilizer.

    The new practice is chopping or hammer-milling the organic materials then spraying pro-biotic to the mass keep
it moist and cover with plastic sheet to avoid dehydration. Mix the mass at least once a week. With sufficient
digester (microorganism or pro-biotic) it will take less than a month to convert organic materials into ready to use
fertilizer.

   Mixing a combination of different organic materials both plant and animal source will insure a more complete
nutrient content of the organic fertilizer. Pro-biotic spray or inoculation of the compost will present destructive and
undesirable microorganisms to grow. The odor becomes pleasant.

                                                          COMPOST
    Composting, essentially a rapid self heating process by which organic material is decomposed and stabilized, was practiced
by ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans and is even mentioned in religious texts. During the past 20 years, this time honored
practice has developed into a robust waste-management technology that generates valuable organic soil amendments.

   Biological treatment technologies may be either aerobic or anaerobic. Aerobic systems use oxygen, but anaerobic ones
don’t. Both may use heat to fuel the reactions that break down organic matter in manure. In composting, heat is generated by
microbes that digest organic matter. After decomposition, it will be good to sanitize the organic compound by drying or exposing
      it          to           sunlight          for          a           day           or           two.
                                                                                                            &nbs
      p;
         “Nutrient stabilization in composted manure allows soil microbes and plants to use the nutrients in a slow-release and
      beneficial manner. Compost may even help reduce demand for nitrogen in certain crops.” Says Patricia Miller of the
      Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland
          Composting is one of several technologies used to treat animal manure, sewage sludge, and other organic
      residuals, which may contain pathogens or parasites of public health concern. In any manure slurry system, solid can
      be composted. Liquids can be further processed to stabilize nitrogen and phosphorus in soluble forms compatible
      with current nutrient-management requirements.


                                HOW TO PREPARE YOUR OWN LACTO BASILLAI
        LACTO BASILLAI is one of the beneficial microorganisms called pro-biotic. It helps in the breaking down of cellulose
    fibers and converts organic materials into humus and fertilizer. Producing your own stock of lacto bacilli can easily by do using
    the following procedure:
1.    Use rice wash or finely grounded grain preferably brown rice mix in water.
2.    Place in a wide plastic basin and cover loosely to allow ventilation.
3.    Allow it to ferment for 7 days. Bacteria including lacto bacilli in air will infect solution.
4.    Strain liquid and place in bigger plastic container.
5.    Add 10 parts milk (skim, powdered, condensed or fresh) Milk is best feed for lacto bacilli will multiply rapidly and overgrow
    other bacteria in solution. .
6.    Cover loosely to allow ventilation and ferment for another one week.
7.    The flotsam consisting of fats, carbohydrate and protein contain lacto bacilli.
8.    Scoop the flotsam and mix with food or feed materials. A yellow colored liquid will form containing a great concentration of
    lacto bacilli.
9.    Store in refrigeration or room temperature.
10. Mix liquid in equal quantity of rough brown sugar, moscovado or molasses.
11. Mix stock solution in 20 parts water. Use to be with compost materials.
12. Dosage: Use 2-4 tbs. per gallon water and spray to plants.

          Soil structure is easy to improve with compost. Organic matter is the most important source of plant nutrients
      contributing to the fertility of the soil. Compost material sustains healthy plant growth by providing food for both
      living microorganisms, speeding up their multiplication and absorption of the roots. Organic matter ha also dual role
      that helps water move through the soil and at the same time improve the soil’s water holding capacity. Unlike
      depleted soils of organic matter, soils rich in humus retain a good surface and do not crust or clod after heavy rains.
      Aeration is good in humus rich soils and this important factor means root growth is good. Organic matter also acts as
      storage for nutrients, increases cat ion exchange capacity and acts as a regulator for nutrients, so they are not all
      releases at one time.



                                                       HOW TO MAKE COMPOST
           The sandwich method:

 a.    Organic materials such as animal waste, plant waste and topsoil are placed in layers one on top of the other until they reach a
      high of 3 feet.
 b.    The material is watered moist and covered with coconut leaves or plastic sheet in order that moisture will be retained.
 c.    Mix the compost pill after two weeks, moist and cover again.
 d.    Repeat mixing once a week, until the compost materials are totally decompose with the appearance of soil.
 e.    Dry in direct sunlight to kill or eliminate unwanted microorganisms such as fungus and bacteria.
 f.    The material is now ready for use or placed in sacks for storage or shipment.

 Biological fast composting:

 a.    Gather the organic material, chop or hammer mill and mix thoroughly.
 b.    Water them moist with pro-biotic microorganism (lactobacilli or trichoderma) mixed in the water.
 b.    Cover the compost pile with plastic sheet.
 c.  Mix the material every week.
 d.  It will usually take only 4 weeks to totally decompose the material with the aid of the microorganisms that help digest the
    cellulose materials.
 e. Sundry the decomposed organic material (fertilizer) to kill unwanted microorganisms.
 f.  The material is now ready for use or bagging for storage or shipment.

 Field composting:

 a.    After harvest and just before plowing and land preparation, gather the organic materials, chop or hammer mill.
 b.    Spread the materials evenly in the field. In case the plant waste residues are in the field, then step a. will not be necessary.
 c.    Spray the organic material in the field with pro-biotic microorganism.
 d.    Plow and disk-harrow the field to mix the organic material with the soil.
 e.    If possible do the above operation just before an expected rain or irrigate the field after the plowing of cultivation. This will
      allow the microorganism to work fast, and multiply. In the process, digesting the organic material into organic fertilizer or soil
      amendment.

          Note that the pro-biotic organisms will continue working in the soil, as long as favorable conditions like adequate
      soil moisture and presence of organic materials.

      Steps in composting with wild sunflower:
 1.   Look for a suitable area, partly or fully shaded.
 2.   Gather compost materials such as rice straw, animal manure, and other farm waste.
 3.   Collect wild sunflower and chop the young stem and leaves into small pieces.
 4.   Stick a bamboo with holes to serve as ventilator of the compost pile.
 5.   Pile crops residue and farm waste in the following sequence: rice straw, sunflower, manure, soil and repeat the layering.
     Proportion: 2-3 parts fresh sunflower, 1 part rice straw, 2 parts manure and 1 part soil.
 6. Water the pile until thoroughly wet.
 7. Cover pile with leaves, sack or plastic sheet to minimize evaporation.
 8. Check the moisture every 2 days, and wet in case compost dry up.
 9. Check also the temperature. If it is warm, then decomposition is taking place.
 10. After 3 to 4 weeks, check the compose pile and if it has turn into soil humus physical form it is most likely ripe.
 11. In case the compose will not immediately be used, air dry before placing into sacks or in a shady dry place.

      Farmers are encouraged to implement simple and inexpensive ways of producing organic fertilizers through the use
      of indigenous technology. They may adopt other methods of composting by using other materials and plant waste
      available in their respective farms.




                                                          VEMICOMPOSTING
          VERMICOMPOSTING is composting plant materials with worms. The advantage of vermin-composting to that of the
      usual conventional compost pile is that the process is faster and the resulting organic soil is richer in certain nutrients provided by
      the earthworms themselves. It is rich in humic acid, which is a growth promoting.

          African Night Crawler (Eudrilis eugeniae) earthworm is incredible eaters and will eat and expel their own weight
      every day when conditions are right. It takes 60 days or less for fresh organic waste to be converted into compost
      fertilizer. Our native earthworm may also be employed.

         Steps in Vermi-composting:

1.     Have a shed for the composting site to protect the worms from direct sunlight and from torrential rains to be able to do their
      work undisturbed. The worms need a good living condition, dimly lit area to live in with enough moisture.

2.     Construct a storage area for digested compost before it is screened and bagged.
3.      Construct the compost bed for worms to digest with concrete hollow blocks three blocks high with a depth of 30-45 cm. 1
      meter wide by 2 meters long or longer. Be sure that the soil bed is well drained under the composting bed. The worms will not
      escape into the soil if there is available food to digest.

4.      Use a shredder or hammer mill to crush the organic materials into small particles easy to decompose and eaten by the
      earthworms. Good food: They need 25% nitrogen from legumes like Madre de cacao and ipil-ipil leaves, chicken droppings and
      cattle dung, etc. and 75% carbon source like grasses, rice and corn stalks, cogon and sugarcane tops.

5.      Mixing old animal manure and chicken droppings (2 months old) with shredded vegetable waste will improve the nutrient
      content of the finish product. Do not use fresh manure for the ammonia produced will give discomfort to the worms.

6.     Water the bed from time to time to keep them moist but not flooded so as not to drown the worms.

7.     Fence off or screen in the beds to keep out chickens, birds, rodents and other pest that will eat or bother the worms in the
      wormer.

8.     Mix a little ordinary soil to the fresh shredded vegetable materials before introducing the worms.

9.      Place one kilogram of worms per square meter for fast composting. 10-20 pieces may do to start with but it will take longer
      time to compost while the worms breed to increase their number. A kilo of worms are sold for P500 and they breed fast in two
      months.

10.    Inoculating and spraying the compost materials with pro-biotic bacteria will help fast tract decomposition and the worms to
      digest the compost in much shorter time.

11.    When the compost is digested, the worms become less active. It is time to herd them to another compartment with fresh food
      materials. As they leave, the digested compost is ready for harvest and transferred to the stocking or holding area for screening,
      drying and packing.

12.     Harvesting will be easier by allowing the bed with completely digested compost material to dry up so the worms will move to
      the next compartment with moisture and fresh shredded vegetable food materials.

13.    Screen the material with ¼ inch mesh before weighing and bagging for sale. 50 kilo bag humus is sold for P150 to P300 to
      gardeners. If you use it in your own farm, there is no need of screening. (Note: Commercial imported chemical fertilizer today
      prices have gone over P600 per 50 kilo bag)

      The worm’s feces are called vermin-casting or humus. Compost takes 2-3 months to decompose, while shredded
      materials fed to worms takes only 15-21 days.


         Advantages of Vermicomposting:
 1.   Environment friendly. The use of organic fertilizer, vermin-casting of humus is one, revives the soil fertility level and brings
     back life to soil environment, improves soil texture and improves water holding capacity.
 2. Economical. Investment on vermicomposting is only about P2.00 per kilo while commercial chemical fertilizer cost P8-15 per
     kilo.
 3. Higher Crop Yield. Humus has shown its potency in inducing higher crop yield for a longer period. Vermi-casting humus is
     found to be more effective compared to ordinary compost and chemical fertilizers.
 4. Market Potential is Very Big. Organically grown food crops are increasing in market demand. Organic fertilizer has likewise
    increased in use as imported commercial fertilizer have been increasing its prices.
 5. No imported inputs required. Farmers can make their own organic fertilizer from farm waste materials. This means no
    dependence on imports and oil price fluctuations.
 6. Healthful. Organic farming is considered as healthful way of growing food crops.
 7. Lesser risk. Producing your own fertilizer will make you unaffected by exchange rates and fluctuation changes in the prices of
    other commodities. There is less or no risk at all producing your own fertilizer and even selling excess requirement of your own
    farm.
 8. Undemanding laborers. The worms themselves them selves are the workers converting farm waste materials into organic plant
    food nutrients.
 9. Big savings. Producing your own fertilizer is a big savings and cost cutting for the farmers.
 10. Income-earner. This technology can help farmers earn more from their farm waste
                                               MAGGOT COMPOSTING
Instead of using earthworm, a simple natural process has been discovered in fast composting. A mixture of sawdust
and chicken or quail droppings are placed in a compost pile covered with shed. The maggots eat up the cellulose in a
few weeks instead of several months. To prevent the maggots to complete its cycle to adult flies, chickens are
allowed to scratch and peak the growing maggots, a source of animal protein. Spraying or drenching the compost
pile with pro-biotic microorganisms (beneficial bacteria and fungi) will help hasten decomposition and prevent foul
odor.

                                                 SLUDGE FERTILIZER
   Liquid sewage sludge being disposed as communal waste contain essential elements needed by crops, making it a potential
organic fertilizer and soil conditioner for sugarcane farms, corn fields, rice lands and even fruit orchards and vegetable gardens.

    In a research conducted by Luzon Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LAREC) of the Sugar
Regulatory Administration (SRA) in cooperation with Manila Water Company, Inc., the use of liquid sewage sludge
for agricultural purposes was assessed to determine its effects on the growth and yield of sugarcane. The study was
conducted at LAREC R&D Farm at Florida Blanca, Pampanga.

  It was confirmed the application of liquid sewage sludge in the barren sandy lahars deposits of Florida Blanca,
Pampanga the soil became richer and sustain healthy and productive sugar cane, compared with untreated field.

                            COMPOSTING CROP RESIDUE IN THE FIELD
   Rice and corn are among the traditional crops grown by Filipino farmers. As the usual practice is removing the
debris and burn them to clear the land and cultivate for next planting. Tones of organic materials are wasted and lost.

    Organic farmers spread rice straw and corn cubs back to the field immediately after harvest. They are sprayed
with beneficial microorganisms or pro-biotic or bacteria and plowed under. In 4 weeks, they are decomposed and the
field is ready for land preparation for new planting.

    This practice is also being started with big pineapple and banana plantations in Mindanao. Some sugarcane planters found the
benefit of composting cane residue in the field instead of the usual practice of burning after harvest then cultivating and
fertilizing. Field composting of crop residue help retain and improve soil fertility, at the start reduces the use of chemical
fertilizer to the time that no more synthetic fertilizer is needed.

    Coconut trees and other fruit trees have lots of leaves, bracts, twigs, flowers and fruits that fall to the grown.
When these materials are allowed to decompose beneath the trees, they turn into humus and fertilizer to the trees.
Unfortunately, because of clean culture, they are removed and burned. Teaching the farmers to return the crop
residue to the soil from where they came from will both enrich the soil and sustain productivity of the trees without
relying solely on chemical or synthetic fertilizers.

                                                   GREEN MANURING
   Green manuring is the is the planting of seasonal crops usually legumes like beans and plowing them under at
their tender age during flowering and early fruiting when they are rich in nutrients. Plowing under weeds and
grasses, allowing them to decompose is also green manuring. Spraying them with pro-biotic will hasten their
decomposition. These practices have long been done by farmers’ century back, until commercial chemical fertilizers
have been introduced to the market.
                                                   COVER CROPPING
    Cover cropping is the growing of low crawling plants usually leguminous vines like centrocema pubisence and
kudzu to protect the soil surface from water erosion, prevent the growth of noxious weeds and help increase soil
fertility. These are grown beneath fruit trees and taller crops.


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©2013 davidarafat@gmail.com




ORGANIC FARMING
HOW TO MAKE YOUR OWN SUGAR

Materials:

Sugar cane juice or fresh coconut juice (tuba)
Big cooking stainless steel basin
Wooden mixing ladle
Stove and fuel

Procedure:

Press fresh sugarcane to extract juice - 08.0% sucrose content
Or gather fresh coconut juice (tuba) - 16.8% sucrose content
Place in the cooking basin
Boil to dehydrate
Mix continuously until totally dry and dehydrated with wooden ladle.
Place the dehydrated brown sugar (moscovado) in clean dry containers.
Ready for storage and use.
Uses:

May be used for food, food preparation and processing
Feed additive for poultry and livestock
For bioorganic preparations and additive.

HOW TO MAKE VIRGIN COCONUT OIL

Processing virgin coconut oil right in your own home and kitchen is
very easy and simple.
Grit the meat of freshly opened mature coconut.
Pour a little water and mush the greeted coconut meat.
Press to extract the coconut milk.
Let the milk stay overnight or for 10 to 12 hours.
The water will settle down the container and the oil will float.
Drain out the water.
Heat the oil in stainless steel kettle in 45 to 70 degrees temperature for 15 to 30 minutes to remove and
evaporate remaining water in the oil. Better heat oil in double kettle where the first has water in direct
contact with fire and the other with oil inside the casserole with heated water.
Place the virgin coconut oil in bottle and seal.
Store in room temperature away from sunlight.
Another way of preserving virgin oil is by freezing instead of heating.
Virgin coconut oil is used for various purposes. It is used for medication, beauty and body skin ointment,
cooking oil, lubricant, fuel, etc. It does not get rancid when the right procedure is done.
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©2006

								
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